(1) Mandalas, 2-D interpretations of Buddhist sutras have been part of Japanese tradition for thousands of years. In 1061 Phoenix Hall in Uji, Byodoin, Japan was consecrated as a veneration of “The Visualization Sutra” Buddha Amitabha. This 3-D offering, an architectural piece was financed by Fujiwara no Yorimichi, a politically influential aristocrat and lover of the arts who has been credited with the unique idea and design. It was known to have been compared to Sukhdvati (the pure land of Amitabha) by guests. Scholars have compared it to traditional temples Earlier temples were much simpler, square with pyramidal roof or rectangular with a hip-and-gable roof. Phoenix Hall has a bird-like appearance, hence the name, because the main hall can be seen as the body and the two symmetrical long galleries at either side as the bird’s wings. Added is the sensation of five roofs that seem ready to float up into the sky. The Temple was situated in an artificial lake in wetlands and on the bank of the Uji River. The lake surface perfectly reflects the temple. The sutra being “visual and visionary” mirrors the temple which is visually beautiful, symmetrical and constructed in a new, perhaps even visionary way. Some of the balance comes from design structures that have no other purpose but to provide harmony in the interior space (such as a partial upper story). Privacy and inaccessibility to strangers is provided by the grounds of the compound as well as the layers of hallways and galleries which the family knew well. Structural innovations have been studied thoroughly. Replicating other temples was not common yet two others men did so. Some speculate that it was a type of power play or grudging respect by an enemy. (2) The copies were built intentionally by an emperor and a warlord. Ms Yiengpruksawan has...
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Throughout the history of civilization man has often made monuments in many varied forms symbolic of the cultures they live in. These monuments are usually represented through arts of architecture, landscaping, painting, and sculpture. These diverse forms of art have their own unique qualities, all of which can be accented with sculpture in some way. As sculpture usually relates closely to the other arts in expression and style, it still relies on all of the social aspects of the society in which it resides for its meaning and purpose. The three-dimensional and long-lasting qualities contribute to the wide use of sculpture as a cultural expression of the beliefs and ideals of man. Mostly these beliefs are displayed in varied forms such as designs or decorative additions like religious symbols of idols or gods, civic leaders, beings of myth or legend and other figures historically or socially significant to the society in which these creations are found. These images are often fashioned as aesthetic carvings or figures adorning buildings, fountains, jewelry, memorials, housewares, and countless other items both public and private. Among the many functions of the art, sculptures in their many forms serve as artifacts of the societies they were formed in. These artifacts do a great deal to tell us of the culture of the people--what their government was like, the aspects of daily life, and the religious beliefs of the people. There exist three categories that define most any sculpture: relief's, linear, and full-round, which are classified by their appearance. These categories each have different limitations: full-round can be viewed from any angle, relief's are one sided sculptures projecting from a surface, whereas linear deals with materials such as pipe or wires, or other numerous other objects, resulting in a two-dimensional appearance. Sculptors often add texture to their work through the use...
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When one thinks of a portrait, perhaps one of the many paintings that flash by is that of Leonardo da Vinci: the Mona Lisa. But in fact, portraits do not have just one style. The subject does not have to be seated facing a certain way so that the artist can take advantage of the "curving" effect. It can be of a man, a woman, a god, or a child, religious or secular, idealized, or abstact. In Portrait of a Man and a Woman at a Casement, Fra Filippo Lippi portrays a man and his wife somewhat facing each other. Although they are man and wife, they do not look intimate, and in fact, do not appear to be looking at each other. Because the woman is bigger in scale compared to the man, she seems closer to us. Moreover, everything recedes from her: the background seen through the window gives us an illusion of depth. The artist's emphasis is on the wife: we see only part of the profile and hands of the husband. Why is more than half of the painting covered by only the woman? This painting was supposed to have been a commemoration of a wedding or the birth of a child. If this painting was about a birth of a child, it certainly makes sense that Fra Lippi gave more importance to the mother figure. He pays great attention to her dress and jewelry although we cannot see at all what her husband is wearing except for his "hat" (head-covering?). The female is idealized in that she has the characteristic Rennaissance smoothness and roundness. The man is looking inside, and the woman is looking outside through what we perceive to be a door. It is not drawn, but based on the light source, which is coming...
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If the impulse to create art is a defining sign of humanity, the body may well have been the first canvas. Alongside paintings on cave walls visited by early people over 30,000 years ago, we find handprints, ochre deposits, and ornaments. And because the dead were often buried with valuable possessions and provisions for the afterlife, ancient burials reveal that people have been tattooing, piercing, painting, and shaping their bodies for millennia. All of the major forms of body art known today appear in the ancient world, and there is no evidence indicating a single place of origin for particular techniques. Like people today, ancient peoples used body art to express identification with certain people and distinction from others. Through body art, members of a group could define the ideal person and highlight differences between individuals and groups. In the past, as today, body art may have been a way of communicating ideas about the afterlife and about the place of the individual in the universe. A variety of objects demonstrate the use of body art in ancient times including an Egyptian fish-shaped make-up palette from 3650 BC to 3300 BC; a painted Greek vase from the fifth century BC depicting tattooed Thracian women; a ceramic spout bottle depicting the pierced face of a Moche warrior of Peru from AD 100-700; and ceramics of painted Nayarit women from 300 BC to 300 AD. As people from one culture encounter people from another, the diversity of body art can be a source of inspiration, admiration, and imitation. Yet since body art can so clearly signal cultural differences, it can also be a way for people from one culture to ostracize others. Body art links the individual to a social group as an insider, by asserting a shared body art language. Or it distinguishes outsiders, by...
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Explain the Abstract Expressionism Movement. Introduction Abstract Expressionism was an American post-World War II art movement. The World War led many influential European artists to leave their war torn countries to travel to America. This led to a dramatic increase in the exposure American artists got to European Modernism and other art movements such as Surrealism and Dada, which where the main influences to the movement. The art movement received its name from the combination of the emotional intensity of the German Expressionists and the anti-figurative design of certain European Abstract art schools. The name was mainly applied to the artists working in New York in the 1940-50's, also sometimes called the 'New York School', and was first used to define American art in 1946 by the art critic Robert Coates. However, the name was applied to artists who had quite different styles, and was even applied to work which is not especially abstract nor expressionist. Despite the huge diversity of Abstract Expressionism, the movement can be split into two main catagories, Action painting and Colour Field painting. Action painting, sometimes called "gestural abstraction", is a style of non-representational painting in which paint is spontaneously dribbled, splashed or smeared onto the canvas, rather than being carefully applied. The resulting work often emphasizes the physical act of painting itself as an essential aspect of the finished work or concern of its artist. In contrast, Colour Field painting is characterized by canvases being covered entirely by large fields of solid colour. Abstract Expressionism was the first specifically American movement to achieve worldwide influence and also put New York City at the center of the art world, a role formerly filled by Paris. Jackson Pollock The youngest of five sons, Pollock was born in Cody, Wyoming in 1912, and grew up in Arizona and California, studying at Los Angeles'...
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Frank Lloyd Wright Architecture Analysis / Discussion These ideas proposed by Wright represent a half century of ingenuity and unrivaled creativity. Wright was unquestionably a architectural genius and was years ahead of his time. The biggest obstacle which held Wright back throughout his career was the lack of technogaly that was present during his time. As a architect, Wright accomplished more that any other in history, with the possible exception of DaVincci or Michangelo. His philosophy of Organic Architecture showed the world that form and function could both by achieved to create a house that was both true to nature and affordable. Wrights homes, have today become monuments of greatness and distictionn. Most of them serve as museums, displaying the his ideas and the achievements of a lifetime of innovation. It wasn't until Wright published "The Natural House" however, that he fully was able to illustrate all of his ideas relating toward housing. In the "Natural House" wright defines the meaning of Organic Architecture and how it can be applied to creating housing which provides a closeness to nature for the occupents. Wright was undoubtly a romantic and individualist. His feeling toward nature and self integrity can best be shown by comparing them to those shared by Emerson and Thoreau. Wrights deep love of nature and his individualism were formed from the events which influenced him as a child and up until his days working for Louis Sullivan. In order to fully understand the ideas which Wright proposed through his philosophy of Organic Architecture, one must first understand the events and influences which led to their creation. As a child, Wrights parents always encouraged him to be a free thinker and individualist. Both of his parents were intelligent and creative people by nature. They, of all people had the greatest influence on...
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On April 7, 2002, I visited the Menil Collection, the Cy Twombly Gallery, and Richmond Hall. I arrived at the Menil Collection at around 2:00pm and stayed until approximately 4:45pm visiting the three collections. As I drove to the museums, I was challenged with normal Houston traffic clutters, but nothing out of the ordinary. The weather was musty, full of humidity in the air with light sprinkling rain, and it seemed that it was about to start pouring outside but never did during my visit to the museum district. I was accompanied to the museum by a friend by the name of Jennifer, and I parked in the designated area for the Menil Collection behind the Menil Bookstore. The best part about the visit to the museums was that it gave me a chance to unwind. With a full time job and the tasks of a full time student on my back, it was enjoyable to be pulled away just to admire the beauty of the artworks free from everyday problems. I chose a piece entitled "L'onde" or otherwise known as "The Wave" by Gustave Dore. Gustave Dore was a French painter who lived from 1832 to 1883. The date of the oil on canvas painting was unknown. "The Wave" is a permanent part of the Menil Collection painted on a rectangular canvas 58 1/4 in. by 46 1/8 in. in height. I chose this piece because it was one of the pieces that stayed on my mind through the entire visit throughout the museums even after seeing all of the other pieces at the other museums. I really enjoyed the way the piece responded to my emotional side and I really liked the piece's aesthetic representation of the ocean. I love the ocean and this piece really seemed to sooth...
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Art Theory leading into the 18th Century The argument of color verses design originated in the Baroque, but extended much further into the eighteenth century in terms of theory. Roger de Piles was the father of this argument based on coloris versus disegno and the Poussinists versus the Rubenists and so on. He joined the Academy in 1699, right on the verge of the Rococo and basically formed the argument for color, rather than classical design in his Cours de Peinture par Principes in 1708. Up until Rubens artwork, the classical style of painting was preferred with a focus mainly on "straight lines, right angles, triangular arrangement of forms, balance, symmetry, and so on" (Minor 367). De Piles believed that color appealed more to human's emotions and that was what truly great art was meant to do. He therefore obviously chose Ruben's work as superior to Poussin's. This was known as the Quarrel between the Ancients and the Moderns, with the Moderns prevailing in the eighteenth century . Ruben's work was monumental in shaping the painting style during the next century. His paintings inspired artist's styles such as Watteau, Gainsborough, and Boucher. Through de Piles arguments within the academy and Ruben's rejection of the classical style the eighteenth century painting theory was born. This essay will attempt to follow this movement from the classical style that dominated the baroque with Poussin to the shift towards Rubens at the end of the century and end with its influence on art theory in the eighteenth century. Throughout most of the Baroque the classical was preferred in painting. Poussin's paintings are usually used as perfect examples of baroque classicism, but the idea of painting in the classic mode goes much further than this. "Literary theory on ideas of painting went back at least to Alberti"...
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Response Essay "Art, Culture, & Cuisine" Although another tough piece to digest, "Art, Culture, & Cuisine," by Phyllis Pray Bober; emitted intermittent flashbacks of Professor McAndrew - as she revealed to us her reasoning to base this class upon food. It had not occurred to me that there is an infinite number ways to use and observe food, in relation to art and literature. Personally I have continued to overlook the fact that a particular … banana, sandwich, pot-roast, etc. may be used by a writer or artist, for a specific - intended purpose. Moreover, the human necessity to require food has caused this relationship to transcend cultures. We all need food to survive, and it is intriguing how we humans have created thousands of flavors of food from differing ethnic areas. These tastes can be influenced by religion, environment, and many other factors that develop within a community. No where more aparent of this, Bober explores the contrast between the cultures of East and West. In particular she talks of Chinese and French cuisine in relation to art. Sometimes the value of a particular edible item may be profound within one population, however another group may lack knowledge of the very same item. For example; rice, a staple of Asian countries, might be more likely to be found on a Chinese painters canvas versus an artist from France who might use another form of strach that has become common in their area. She gives another example of the contrast by discussing the differences between the menus of these very same cultures; siting the French menu to have a "sense of structure, of classical order, in the presentation of a formal French meal. Whereas "a Chinese menu ... unlfold(s) melodically with an ebb and flow like landscape painting on a horizontal scroll."(p. 6)...
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Precisionists have been classified as a group of artist who began to depict the use of machinery using styles and techniques of the previous movements before them such as abstraction, cubism and abstract expressionism. This movement came around shortly after World War 1, when the use of machines began to boom within the United States. The precisionist movement was originally started in nineteen hundred and fifteen when a group of artists got together and decided to look forward to the art of the future. The movement was built around the idea of artists using the precision of their instruments to display these ideas of machinery throughout America. (Precisionism in America . . . 12-13). Construction and machinery were the two main influences of the precisionism movement which became big in the nineteen twenties around the time World War one was ending. With streamlining though mechanization becoming an ideal everyday thing for Americans, and things such as skylines going up in New York, anywhere from fifty to seventy story buildings in cities such as Cleveland and cities like Memphis and Syracuse were beginning to install twenty story buildings. Precisionism became an art movement more as a response to society and the production of new products like motion picture films, antifreeze and cigarette lighters (Lucic. . .16). Cubism, abstraction and abstract expressionism are the common art movements that come to mind when asked about artists. However, these movements all led up to and strongly influenced the movement of the precisionist artists. Precisionism is roughly a combination of these three movements together, using geometrical shapes and using them in abstract forms. These two ways are influenced by cubism and abstraction, while abstract expressionism comes from the expression of the artists' mind and feelings of the subject matter (Doezema, 74-75). American Artists always find it important to...
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The classical Greek period of art is between 480 – 323 B.C. This era is believed to be the most influential time in the history of western art. It was during this period that artists sculpted statues of perfectly proportioned and flawless bodies. The faces on these figures displayed a sense of serenity and human dignity. The meticulous attention to detail of the human anatomy set the standard for flawless beauty. In addition to sculpture, the Classic Greek artists were master painters. The majority of paintings told a story and was displayed on black and red figure vases. Painted murals adorned the walls of some buildings during this time and, like the painted vases, they too illustrated a story. Another influential period in art is that of the first half of the twentieth century. Many new styles of art emerged during this time, the ever-changing moral and social climate allowed sculptors and painters to abandon traditional artistic concepts for more unconventional methods. Art movements such as the surrealist, cubist, and Harlem renaissance produced works that were considered disturbing, expressive, and thought provoking. Although these two eras of art are separated by style, technique, and two thousand years, the study of art would be incomplete without emphasizing the importance of sculpture and painting produced in the periods of classical Greek and early twentieth century. The brief period of time between the close of the Archaic period and the height of Classical period brought a remarkable transformation of style and tone known as the Severe Style. Facial features that represented the dignity, self-control, and moral ideals of the time characterize sculpture created during this era. Unlike the pointed features of the Archaic period, the severe style is constructed with a broad nose, wide open eyes, full lips, and a rounded firm jaw and...
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Cross and Signac were experimenting with juxtaposing small strokes (often dots or "points") of pure pigment to create the strongest possible visual vibration of intense colour. Matisse adopted their technique and modified it repeatedly, using broader strokes. By 1905 he had produced some of the boldest colour images ever created, including Green Stripe (Madame Matisse) (1905, Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen), a striking picture of his wife. The title refers to a broad stroke of brilliant green that defines Madame Matisse's brow and nose. In the same year Matisse exhibited this and similar paintings along with works by his companions, including AndrÉ Derain and Maurice de Vlaminck. As the result of this exhibition, the group was dubbed les fauves (literally, "the wild beasts") because of their use of vivid colours, their distortion of shapes, and the extremes of emotionalism in which they seemed to have indulged. While he was regarded as a leader of radicalism in the arts, Matisse was beginning to gain the approval of a number of influential critics and collectors, including the American expatriate writer Gertrude Stein and her family. Among the many important commissions he received was that of a Russian collector who requested mural panels illustrating dance and music (both completed in 1911; now in the Hermitage, St Petersburg). Such broadly conceived themes suited Matisse ideally; they allowed him freedom of invention and play of form and expression. His images of dancers, and of human figures in general, convey expressive form first and the particular details of anatomy only secondarily. Matisse extended this principle to other fields; his bronze sculptures, like his drawings and works in several graphic media, reveal the same expressive feelings seen in his paintings. Although sophisticated, Matisse always emphasized the importance of instinct and intuition in the production of a work of art....
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David, who was destined to be the second king of Israel, destroyed the Philistine giant Goliath with stone and a sling. Donatello, Verrocchio, Michelangelo, and Bernini each designed a sculpture of David. However, the sculptures are drastically different from one another. Each one is unique in its own certain way. Donatello, whose David was the first life-size nude statue since Classical times, struck a balance between Classicism and the realism by presenting a very real image of an Italian peasant boy in the form of a Classical nude figure. Although Donatello was inspired by Classical figures, he did not choose a Greek youth in his prime as a model for his David. Instead, he chooses a barely developed adolescent boy whose arms appeared weak due to the lack of muscles. After defeating Goliath, whose head lies at David's feet, he rests his sword by his side, almost to heavy to handle. It seems almost impossible that a young boy like David could have accomplished such a task. David himself seems skeptical of his deed as he glances down towards his body. Apparently, David's intellect, faith and courage made up for his lack of build (Fichner-Rathus 331-332). Verrocchio, who also designed a sculpture of David, was the most important and imaginative sculptor of the mid-fifteenth century. This figure of the youthful David is one of the most beloved and famous works of its time. In Verrocchio's David, we see a strong contrast to Donatello's treatment of the same subject. Although both artists choose to portray David as an adolescent, Verrocchio's brave man "appears somewhat older and excludes pride and self-confidence rather than a dreamy gaze of disbelief" (Fichner-Rathus 334). Donatello balanced realistic elements with an idealized Classically inspired torso whereas Verrocchio's goal was absolutely realism in minute details. The sculptures also differ in...
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Vincent van Gogh was born on March 30, 1853 in Zundert, a village in the southern province of North Brabant. He was the eldest son of the Reverend Theodorus van Gogh and Anna Cornelia Carbentus. At the age of 16 he started work at the Hague gallery of the French art dealers, in which his uncle Vincent was a partner. Vincent was dismissed from the firm at the beginning of 1876. He then took a job as an assistant teacher in England, but disappointed by the lack of prospects he returned to Holland at the end of the year. He now decided to follow in his father's footsteps and become a clergyman. After a brief spell of training as an evangelist, Van Gogh went to the Borinage mining region in the south of Belgium. In 1879, however, his appointment was not renewed. After a long period of solitary soul-searching in the Borinage, Van Gogh set his sights on becoming an artist. His earlier desire to help his fellow-man as an evangelist gradually developed into an urge, as he later wrote, to leave mankind "some memento in the form of drawings or paintings - not made to please any particular movement, but to express a sincere human feeling." His parents could not go along with this latest change of course, and the financial responsibility for Vincent passed to his brother Theo, who was now working in the Paris gallery of Boussod the successors of Goupil & Co. It was because of Theo's loyal support that Van Gogh later came to regard his oeuvre as the fruits of his brother's efforts on his behalf. When Van Gogh decided to become an artist, no one, not even he himself, suspected that he had extraordinary artistic gifts. He evolved astonishingly rapidly from an inept but fervent...
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Michelangelo, the second of five brothers was born on March 6, 1475, at Caprese, in Tuscany, to Ludovico di Leonardo di Buonarotto Simoni and Francesca Neri. The same day, his father noted down: "Today March 6, 1475, a child of the male sex has been born to me and I have named him Michelangelo. He was born on Monday between 4 and 5 in the morning, at Caprese, where I am the Podestà." When Michelangelo was a child, he met a boy, Francesco Granacci six years older than him, who was learning the art of painting in Ghirlandaio's studio, and Michelangelo found his own artist vocation. Michelangelo's father placed his 13-year-old son in the workshop of the painter Domenico Ghirlandaio. After about two years, Michelangelo went on to study at the sculpture school in the Medici gardens and shortly thereafter was invited into the household of Lorenzo de' Medici, the Magnificent. Michelangelo's studies were: Painting, sculpture and Anatomy of the human body, (for this reason, the quality of his artwork, the perfection of the body in the sculpture and painting). Michelangelo was a very illustrated and intelligent boy, and his father always give him unconditional support. For these reasons, Michelangelo succeed. Michelangelo produced his first large-scale sculpture, the over-life-size Bacchus (1496-98, Bargello, Florence). Pietà at the same time, Michelangelo also did the marble Pietà (1498-1500), still in its original place in Saint Peter's Basilica. One of the most famous works of art, the Pieta was probably finished before Michelangelo was 25 years old. These two artworks of Michelangelo were the first ones and both are great works. While Michelangelo was occupied with the David (1501-1504) he receive a commission, paint a mural, the Battle of Cascina, destined for the Sala dei Cinquecento of the Palazzo Vecchio. With this work, he demonstrates his ability...
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Georgia O'Keeffe was born on November 15, 1887. She was the second of seven children. Georgia didn't grow up with just her mom and dad; her aunt mostly raised her. Georgia did not care much for her aunt though; she once referred to her as, "the headache of my life." She did although have some respect for her aunt and her strict and self disciplines way of life. Georgia grew up spoiled; she did very little around the house and always wanted things her way. At a young age Georgia began taking private art lessons out of her home. This is when she learned exactly what she wanted to do for the rest of her life. When Georgia was in the eighth grade she told people, "I am going to be an artist." Just after that she entered the Sacred Heart Academy, which was an art school in Madison, Wisconsin. After her family moved and Georgia had attended many different schools a teacher named Elizabeth Willis encouraged her to work from home, where she could express herself more. In 1905 Georgia received her diploma and moved to Chicago to live her aunt and attend the Art Institute of Chicago, for only one year though. In 1907 she enrolled at the Art Student League in New York City. In 1912, when she attended a class at the University of Virginia Summer School, where she was introduced to the cutting edge ideas of Arthur Wesley Dow by Alon Bement. Dow's teachings encouraged artists to express themselves through harmonious designs of line, color, and shape, and they strongly influenced O'Keeffe's thinking about the process of making art. In 1924, O'Keeffe and Stieglitz married. After Stieglitz's death in 1946, O'Keeffe spent the next three years mostly in New York settling his estate, and in...
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During the past week or so our group has been doing a research assignment on Gothic art and architecture. In the following paragraphs we will be discussing Gothic art and architecture, the Rayonnant Gothic period, and sculpture. From about 1140 to the end of the 16th century religious buildings, stained glass, and illuminated manuscripts and other decorative arts came to be known. Architecture was predominant in this period. At the beginning of the second half of the 12th century, the creation of large cathedrals in northern France, took full advantage of Gothic vaults. Vauts with intricate patterns are the main architectural ornamentation. With the Gothic vault, a ground plan could take on a variety of shapes. The general plan of the cathedrals, however, consisting of a long three-aisled nave intercepted by a transcript and followed by a shorter choir and sanctuary, differs little from that of Romanesque churches. A cathedral is a church of the Bishop. It must be the largest, finest and most richly adorned in the district. Mainly they are figures of people, animals, plants, scenes from the Bible, figures of saints, and representations of virtues. Next, during the long riegn of Louis IX, from 1226 to 1270 Gothic architecture entered a new phase, know as the Rayonnant. The word Rayonnant comes from that of a raidiating spokes, like those of a wheel, especially of the enormous rose windows that are one of the features of the style. Also, height was no longer the prime objective. The architects reduced the masonary frame of the churches, expanded the window areas, and replaced the external wall of the triforium with traceried glass. In most cases, all these features of the Rayonnant were incorporated in the first major undertaking in the new style, the rebuilding of the royal abbey church of Saint-Denis. However, of...
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Gustave Courbet's Reclining Nude In the Philadelphia Museum of Art are five paintings by Gustave Courbet; of all of these I found Reclining Nude (1868, Oil on canvas, The Louis & Stern Collection, 63-81-20) the most interesting. It depicts a nude woman lying on the beach beneath a billowing canopy. A dark, but tranquil sea is in the background. The sky is dark as if the final rays of the sun were disappearing over the horizon. There are a few clouds in the sky, they are dark but not threatening. The picture is very dark in general and there is no obvious light source. The edges of the painting are so dark it is impossible to tell what the nude reclines against. A very dim light falls on the woman, who lies on her right side. The upper half of her torso is twisted to her left and her hips and legs face the viewer. Her right leg is bent slightly so her calf is beneath her straightened left leg. The woman is not as thin as classical nudes, her hips are somewhat broad and her thighs are slightly heavy. Her arms are crossed languidly over her head. Because her arms are crossed over her head, her face is almost completely in the shadows; this shadowing covers the detail of her face in such a way that she could be almost anyone. She gazes wistfully at the ground to her left. The woman is rendered very softly and is in a very sensuous pose. This picture would have been found scandalous for its sexual overtones as was Courbet's La Demoiselles au bord de la Seine. A scarlet cloth lies in front of her; it has a very rumpled look which has sexual implications. The vacant, wistful look and the languid crossing of...
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Impressionism was the most important Art movement of the nineteenth century, having a great influence on the development of Modern Art. The name impressionism itself comes from a painting 'Impression sunrise' created by Claude Monet (a member of the group) being influenced by Japanese Art 1863 was considered to be the start of Impressionism. However the name of the group did not appear until 1874, when the first exhibition was held. Impressionism consisted of landscapes, seascapes, snow scenes, ballet dancers, horses, everyday life and still life but the most common themes were seascapes and landscapes. It consisted of a fairly loose group of painters who first got together because of their dissatisfaction of Academic Art and who opposed to the romantic idea that's main purpose was to create emotional excitement. These 'rebels' were Claude Monet – main artist of group- Edgar Degas, Pierre Auguste Renoir, Camille Pissarro, Henri Toulhouse Lautrec, Alfred Sisley and Edouard Manet – all exploring ways of showing color and light whilst painting outdoors in front of their chosen subject matter and trying to capture the constantly changing qualities and effects of natural light. Born in Paris on the 14th of November 1840, Claude Monet was the main artist of the impressionist group. His childhood was spent in Normandy where he met the artist Boudin who influenced Monet's paintings of landscapes and seascapes by encouraging him to paint outdoors. Pissarro, Jongkind and also influenced Monet in a subtle way. Then Monet moved back to Paris and met Bazille, Pissarro, Renoir, Sisley and the rest of the impressionist group. Then in 1870 Monet married Camille Doncieux. He then went to Le Havre and because of his fear of being called into the French army, he left for England and his wife was sent after him. There Monet painted several London scenes...
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The Renaissance was, essentially, a revival or rebirth of cultural awareness and learning that took place during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. It followed the Middle Ages, and was basically a time of the revival of learning after the Middle Ages, or Dark Ages, a time with little increase of ideas, inventions or developments. The Renaissance brought many changes to Europe, and the economy was greatly boosted by of all the new explorations. The flourishing economy helped to inspire new developments in art and literature, and from that many new beliefs were formed. With the arts the artists began to think on their own and those movements began to spread. It was not just what the church said anymore that was right. Humanism, one of the new beliefs which was formed during the Renaissance, said that people should read the works of the greats and focus on writing, and the arts. Another of the new beliefs was scholasticism, which was the opposite of humanism. Scholastics thought that people should spend more time the sciences, they also wanted the church and science to be brought together as one. As new scientific discoveries were made many of the churches theories were beginning to be questioned. Some of the new scientific discoveries consisted of theories which went against the churches beliefs. The renaissance period in art history corresponds to the beginning of the great western age of discovery and exploration, when a general desire developed to examine all aspects of nature and the world. Art, during this period, became valued -- not merely as a vehicle for religious and social identity, but even more as a mode of personal, aesthetic expression. During the Renaissance there were many drastic changes in the style of art. Early renaissance artist sought to create art forms consistent with...
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