Practice in art refers to the decisions and actions that affect choices, perceptions, ways of working and views of an artist or art historian. Tim Storrier sums up the practice of an artist by saying that "A painting is really a graphic illustration of where a particular artist is at that point in his life and the art encompasses what the artist has gone through in their life." On art historians and critics he says "Other people come along and interpret the painting with their own life experiences" The subjectivity involved in a critic or art historian's views are extremely high. The practice of Tim Storrier is informed by the theories of painting an idea with a poetic edge. This idea then goes searching for "totems" to portray itself upon. Storrier speaks about this theory: "My paintings don't start with visual stimulation, it's usually an intellectual idea with a poetic edge, then the idea goes searching for different totems to portray itself upon." Storrier elaborates further that "The bottom line of my paintings is that they are trying to come up with totemic images about Australia. We don't have many, for me the true totemic image of Australia is the horizon." A totem is a natural object that is usually the emblem of a clan in a tribal group. Storrier's totems are a natural object that he can apply his poetic idea to. We see from these quotes that the theory of Tim Storrier's art is concerned with the idea of painting "totemic images" and that the paintings are trying to come up with totemic images about Australia. Storrier believes that the totemic image of Australia is the horizon. Storrier is using both the Subjective and Cultural frames in his artwork. Storrier uses the cultural frame to emphasise the point that his...
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The greatest gifts are often seen, in the course of nature, rained by celestial influences on human creatures; and sometimes, in supernatural fashion, beauty, grace, and talent are united beyond measure in one single person, in a manner that to whatever such an one turns his attention, his every action is so divine, that, surpassing all other men, it makes itself clearly known as a thing bestowed by God (as it is), and not acquired by human art. This was seen by all mankind in Leonardo da Vinci, in whom, besides a beauty of body never sufficiently extolled, there was an infinite grace in all his actions; and so great was his genius, and such its growth, that to whatever difficulties he turned his mind, he solved them with ease. In him was great bodily strength, joined to dexterity, with a spirit and courage ever royal and magnanimous; and the fame of his name so increased, that not only in his lifetime was he held in esteem, but his reputation became even greater among posterity after his death. Truly marvelous and celestial was Leonardo, the son of Ser Piero da Vinci; and in learning and in the rudiments of letters he would have made great proficiency, if he had not been so variable and unstable, for he set himself to learn many things, and then, after having begun them, abandoned them. Thus, in arithmetic, during the few months that he studied it, he made so much progress, that, by continually suggesting doubts and difficulties to the master who was teaching him, he would very often bewilder him. He gave some little attention to music, and quickly resolved to learn to play the lyre, as one who had by nature a spirit most lofty and full of refinement: wherefore he sang divinely...
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Michelangelo (1475-1564), arguably one of the most inspired creators in the history of art. As a sculptor, architect, painter, and poet, he exerted a tremendous influence on his contemporaries and on subsequent Western art in general. A Florentine—although born March 6, 1475, in the small village of Caprese near Arezzo—Michelangelo continued to have a deep attachment to his city, its art, and its culture throughout his long life. He spent the greater part of his adulthood in Rome, employed by the popes; characteristically, however, he left instructions that he be buried in Florence, and his body was placed there in a fine monument in the church of Santa Croce. Michelangelo's father was a Florentine official named Ludovico Buonarrotiwith connections to the ruling Medici family, placed his 13-year-old son in the workshop of the painter Domenico Ghirlandaio. After about two years, Michelangelo studied at the sculpture school in the Medici gardens and shortly thereafter was invited into the household of Lorenzo de' Medici, the Magnificent. There he had an opportunity to converse with the younger Medici, two of whom later became popes (Leo X and Clement VII). Michelangelo produced at least two relief sculptures by the time he was 16 years old, the Battle of the Centaurs and the Madonna of the Stairs, which show that he had achieved a personal style at a very early age. Michelangelo then went to Rome, where he was able to examine many newly unearthed classical statues and ruins. He soon produced his first large-scale sculpture, the over-life-size Bacchus (1496-98, Bargello, Florence). One of the few works of pagan rather than Christian subject matter made by the master, it rivaled ancient statuary, the highest mark of admiration in Renaissance Rome. At about the same time, Michelangelo also did the marble Pietà (1498-1500), still in its original place in...
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A First Person Ringo Starr Biography From Birth Through The Beatles A Brief and Hopefully Accurate Summary of the Life and Times of Ringo Starr. I, Ringo Starr, was born on July seventh, 1940. I was named after my father. I was the only child of Richard Starkey and Elsie Gleave. The two had met while working together at a local bakery. They eventually married in 1936. My family resided at 9 Madryn Street, a six-room terrace house in a poor and rough working class section of Liverpool known as the Dingle. My father had left home when I was 3 years old. In 1944, My mother and I moved to 10 Admiral Grove, a smaller, less expensive terrace house around the corner. I called 10 Admiral Grove home until I moved to London with the Beatles. Determined to support herself and me, Elsie went to work as a barmaid, often leaving me in the care of neighbors or my paternal grandparents. At the age of five, I started school at St. Silas Infants School, but my school career hit the first of many snags when, at age six, I developed appendicitis. My appendix ruptured resulting in peritonitis and a ten week coma. My mother was told on several occasions that I would not live, but eventually, to the doctor's surprise, I came round and slowly began to mend. After six months, recovery was within sight, but then disaster struck. I fell out of the hospital bed necessitating an additional six month hospital stay. When I was finally released, I found that I was very behind in his school work. I couldn't read or write, so a neighbor child, Marie Maguire, was recruited to help teach me. I never cared much for school, and the fact that I was so far behind didn't...
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I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings is a coming of age story of a young black woman during a critical time of African American History. The story is an autobiography about Maya Angelou during the 1930's in rural segregated Stamps, Arkansas. Within this framework Maya jumps back and forth between triumphs and drama. However, this poses several questions: Why does she do this? And what effect does it have on the reader? Maya jumps back and forth between triumphs and drama in order to keep the reader interested, and this allows the reader to remain focused on the story and this also makes it more suspenseful and enjoyable to read. First off, it is important to understand that the story goes from triumph to drama quite quickly. A prime example of this is when Maya successfully drove the car from the Mexican bar to the border (guard's box) and said, "No matter what happened after that, I had won." However, just as quickly as Maya praised herself over this triumph, when she pulled away from the guard's box she slammed into another car. Suddenly her triumph became drama. Now, one might wonder how this keeps the reader interested. Well, the sudden change draws the reader's attention and thus it is more interesting. Not only this, but the fact that the story changes from triumph to drama so quickly affects the reader in the sense that it keeps him/her on their toes, or in other words makes it suspenseful. Secondly, the fact that Maya chooses opportune times to change from triumph to drama keeps the reader interested and affects the reader by making it more suspenseful. In other words during boring parts of the story where a reader would appear to be becoming less interested, Maya attracts the reader's attention by a...
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Paganini This benefit concert marks only the second time in history that the legendary violin, made by Joseph Guarneri del Gesu (pronounced "Jezu") (1705? - 1744) in 1743, which belonged to Nicolo Paganini (October 27, 1782 - May 27, 1840) will be played in a full recital on the American continent. Eugene Fodor will perform. The first time it was heard in the U.S. was in 1982, in New York, as part of Paganini's bicentennial celebration, when his 24 Caprices for unaccompanied violin were played on it. Paganini's genius extended the technical, emotional and artistic expression of performance art to such a degree that it could be argued it flung open the portals of the Romantic era. His influence extended to nearly every form of art and literature. All of Europe was galvanized by this "Modern Orpheus" -- as he was known -- in his works of masterful classical compositional precision, beautiful original themes and operatic flavor. These were performed with Paganini's electrifyingly faultless playing of whole passages of new innovations, which included ravishing multiple stopping at dazzling speed, astonishing bow technique, dozens of consecutive rapid plucked notes (left hand pizzicato), fiendishly difficult double harmonics, and expressive, dramatic variation of tonal colors in all registers. His concerts always included a full composition performed entirely on one string -- the fourth, with its mesmerizing silver-wound richness thus fully accomplishing his intent to present violin playing as an extension of the human voice, but with technical resources far beyond vocal imagining. His fame will never be equaled and his gift to creative imagination can hardly be fully appreciated. His compositions provided technical solutions which were utilized in nearly every great successive violin concerto. His presence changed the lives and destinies of countless artists, including Chopin, Berlioz and Schumann, and served as a starburst of wonder and...
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Picasso was born on October 25, 1881 in Malaga, Spain. As a young boy he attended Barcelona's School of Fine arts. By the age of 15 he was a well- rounded figurative painter. He was inspired early on by the capital of art, PARIS, which was where he soaked up the sketchy style of works by Manet, Gustave Courbet and Toulouse- Lautrec. He spent from 1899 to 1904 moving forth and back between France and Spain as France gave him so much inspiration during his time spent there. In his life he went through many phases and styles including realism, caricature, but more significantly the Blue period (1901-1904) and Rose period (1904-1906). At the age of 22 one of the most significant period of Picasso's life had begun, the Blue period. This period saw the diminish in his choice of colour and range of tones, to a single dark and oppressive blue. He painted everything in blue as a sign of sadness from when his best friend died. And instead of Picasso observing people ruthlessly and satirically as he had done previously before this period, he now treated his models with sympathy and dejected tenderness. He no longer painted café scenes but began to imagine mysterious, withered figures standing rigid and silent against a vague or empty background. 'Child with a Dove', painted at the end of 1901, is the first of the series of canvases that comprise Picasso's Blue period. Right after the Blue period came the Rose period, which was another significant period in Picasso's life from 1904- 1906. He started to paint in brighter colors such as pinks and beige, which dominated the paintings along with the less significant colours being light blues and roses. His subjects were saltimbanques, harlequins and clowns who are mute and inactive. Thus he drew...
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Maya Angelou is an amazing American author, poet, entertainer, actress, playwright, producer and director, historian and civil rights activist. She is best known for her portrayals of strong African American women. Born April 4, 1928 in St. Louis, Missouri. Maya Angelou's given name was Marguerite Johnson, Maya and her brother Bailey spent most of their childhood living with their grandmother in rural Arkansas. Maya grew up in Stamps and learned what it was like to be a black girl in a world whose boundaries were set by whites. After five years of living with her grandmother she moved back to her mother's home in Missouri. This was a bad turn for her, when her mothers' boyfriend raped her. This violent act sent Maya to become mute for nearly five years. She was sent back to live with her grandmother because no one could stand the state she was in. Angelou's whole childhood was moving back and forth from her mother's house to her grandmother's house. This caused her to struggle with maturity. She became determined to prove she was a woman and began to rush toward maturity. She soon found herself pregnant, and at the age of sixteen she delivered her son, Guy and began a series of jobs, including cooking and waiting tables. In the 1950s she became a nightclub performer and began careers as a singer, dancer, actor, playwright, magazine editor, civil rights activist, poet, and novelist. Much of Angelou's writing stresses the themes of courage, perseverance, self-acceptance, and realization of one's full potential. In her works she frequently presents strong female role models. Her most writings includes her autobiographical books, which starts with I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings (1970), which she describes African American life in, humorous, intelligent language rich in rhythm and texture. Her second book...
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Biography of Johann Sebastian Bach Johann Sebastian Bach was one of the greatest composers in Western musical history. More than 1,000 of his compositions survive. Some examples are the Art of Fugue, Brandenburg Concerti, the Goldberg Variations for Harpsichord, the Mass in B- Minor, the motets, the Easter and Christmas oratorios, Toccata in F Major, French Suite No 5, Fugue in G Major, Fugue in G Minor ("The Great"), St. Matthew Passion, and Jesu Der Du Meine Seele. He came from a family of musicians. There were over 53 musicians in his family over a period of 300 years. Johann Sebastian Bach was born in Eisenach, Germany on March 21, 1685. His father, Johann Ambrosius Bach, was a talented violinist, and taught his son the basic skills for string playing; another relation, the organist at Eisenach's most important church, instructed the young boy on the organ. In 1695 his parents died and he was only 10 years old. He went to go stay with his older brother, Johann Christoph, who was a professional organist at Ohrdruf. Johann Christoph was a professional organist, and continued his younger brother's education on that instrument, as well as on the harpsichord. After several years in this arrangement, Johann Sebastian won a scholarship to study in Luneberg, Northern Germany, and so left his brother's tutelage. A master of several instruments while still in his teens, Johann Sebastian first found employment at the age of 18 as a "lackey and violinist" in a court orchestra in Weimar; soon after, he took the job of organist at a church in Arnstadt. Here, as in later posts, his perfectionist tendencies and high expectations of other musicians - for example, the church choir - rubbed his colleagues the wrong way, and he was embroiled in a number of hot disputes during his...
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Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) Biography Johann Sebastian Bach is probally one of the greatest composers of his time, as well as our time. As a boy he had a fantastic soprano singing voice and always took the lead roles in the church and school choirs. He started composing fairly early on in his life and his first main works, including the Preludes and Variations for the organ, were composed between the ages of 17 and 20. Bach loved church music and was regarded as one of the finest organists of his day. Since he was raised up with strong ties to the church, he was always involved in church music both as a singer and an organist. He wrote many of his marvelous series of cantatas for the Sunday services at the Church of St Thomas in Leipzig, which were probably the best of it's kind. Bach was always was in high demand and held a continuation of excellent jobs throughout his lifetime which included posts at the courts of Duke Wilhelm Ernst of Weimar and Prince Leopold of Cöthen. Life, however, was not always that great though. In the early years Bach was heavily influenced by the composer Buxtehude (another great writer for the organ) and he left his first job as organist at Arnstadt to go and have lessons with him. This turned into a four-month leave, causing trouble with Bach's employers when he returned. Not only had his presence been missed for four consecutive months, but he had come back writing in an advanced and unusual style that wasn't exactly what was required. It was great music but it was just a little ahead of its time. So Bach moved on to the job in Weimar, which gave him greater musical freedom. His main duties were court organist and chamber musician to...
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Gustave Courbet was born on June 10, 1819 in Ornans, France and died on December 31, 1877. He once said, "I cannot paint an angel because I have never seen one," therefore, Courbet was a realist. In 1839, he entered the studio of Charles Steuben, where his artistic skills would be polished. Courbet met Virginia Binet and had a son by her in 1847. Two years later, in 1849, Gustave returned to Ornans from Holland where his father had prepared a studio for him. In 1850, Binet left Gustave and took their son with her. Courbet was born into a farming family and wanted to be successful in order to be recognized by the public. However, for the first ten years of his artistic career, Courbet did not profit from his artwork; he would have to depend on his family for financial support. Courbet's L'Atelier du Peintre was created in 1855. According to, Modern European Art, "Atelier is not a realist picture; it does not show what Courbet's studio was actually like while he was at work…" (p. 13). Through this painting, Courbet would be able to express himself; "the painting was to be an artistic testimony…it demonstrates that the artist can draw only from his own experiences, that all his acquaintances are subservient to his own creative drive" (p. 14). L'Atelier du Peintre later influenced two early works of the impressionist Edouard Manet; the first, The Old Musician and the second, La Musique aux Tuileries. In addition, in 1855, when The Artist's Studio: A Real Allegory Concerning Seven Years of My Artistic Life was refused by the Art Academy, Courbet decided to start his own exhibition, Salon des Refusés, in a tent and charged admission. At this time, the cities in Europe were growing and the industrial revolution was in...
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George Frideric Handel was born on Febuary 23, 1865 in Halle, Germany. Halle is a city in upper Saxon, on the Saale rive about 150 kilometers southwest of Berlin. He was very interested in music at an early age. Although his father discouaraged his interest in music, his mother provided alot of support for him, and he led a life of music. At the age of twelve George was the assistant organist at the cathedral of Halle. Although Handel was able to show that he could master multiple intruments, his father wanted him to become a lawyer. When he was 17, his father made him go to the University of Halle to study law. Within a year, Handel left the university in 1703 to go to Hamburg to study music. In Hamburg he played the violin in the opera orchestra. He also composed two operas for the Hamburg theatre. Later, in around 1706, George went to Italy, where he stayed until 1710. While he was there, he traveled alot. He went to places like Florence, Venice, Rome, and Naples. While in Italy Handel met some people that would become a big influence on his musical career. He played for several patrons in this time. Handel then returned to Germany to become the musical director of the elector of Hanover. Later that same year, he visited England, and he never resumed his position for Hanover. In 1714, Handel's former employer, became King George I of England began to bestow special favors on George, who was now living in his permanent home in England. His home was in London, and in 1727 he became an English citizen. While in England, Handel continued to compose in his Italian style, but he also began incorperating the style of English music, especially English coral music. Handel...
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Diego Rivera has to be one of the greatest artists of all of the early 1900s. I choose Diego Rivera because he is an old folk hero, and because his work has so much meaning behind it that normally you wouldn't know unless you understood the current events during that time. His wife who also is a painter, Frida Kahlo, also is remarkable as well. Rivera uses conventional painting methods with medium-oil based paints, and is most well known for his murals. Diego lived from 1886-1957; he led an amazing life dedicated to art and his political side of the communist party. After spending the 1910s in Europe, where he surrounded himself with other artists and was strong in the cubist movement, he returned to Mexico and began to paint the big murals for which he is most famous. In his murals, he blends hard issues relating to the working men and women, making his status among the poor and middle class very good. He was invited to create works everywhere, most well-known in the United States, where he stirred up controversy by drawing 'Lennon' in one of his murals. Rivera's most remarkable work sited is his 1932 Detroit Industry, a group of 27 frescos at the Detroit Institute of Art in Michigan. His expression that he uses is the most beautiful I've ever seen with his imagery and sense of true reality amongst the different shades and brush strokes. I can actually see the pain and anger in some of the more politcal and social paintings. Diego is noted with some of the greatest artists including Cezanne, Gauguin, Renoir, and Matisse. All who undoubtedly earned there title of true masters of the trade as well. Most of Diego's paintings are of slaves and the fight for change in Mexican...
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"I'm tired of people coming back from Europe and telling me how beautiful the churches are. We've forgotten what we've got here." mac1996 Between 1915 and 1973 the Italian-Canadian painter Guido Nincheri devoted his life to producing stained glass windows and frescoes for more than one hundred churches across North America. Although honoured in Montreal's three hundred and fiftieth anniversary as a builder of the city, few Canadians know of the identity of this craftsman. The purpose of this paper is to uncover the story of this unrecognized artist and evaluate the significance of his contributions to Canadian society. Born in Tuscan, in the small town of Prato, in Italy, on Sept. 29th ,1885, Guido Nincheri was born to a wealthy textile broker, Pretro, and his wife, Maria. Nincheri, inspired by his passion for the arts, decided not to maintain his father's textile company and left Prato when he was eighteen to study architectural design and art composition. After obtaining his Bachelor of Arts in Florence, he continued to do post-graduate work from 1908 to 1912. In his years of post-graduate work he was commissioned to do several murals in the Palazzo Nanni and in the salon of Marco Vecciho. He received recognition, by these commissions, and won numerous medals in competitions for architectural design and artistic compositions. On April 21st ,1913,Guido married his wife Giulia, in Florence. In December of that year, Guido and Giulia decided to take their honeymoon in Argentina, only to be stranded in Boston because of the outbreak of World War One. With no way to return home Guido turned to French Canadian Montreal. In Montreal he quickly landed a job as a stage prop painter in the renowned opera house Chateau Dufresne. The opera house still stands at the corner of Berbooke St. E and...
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There is no doubt that those in every city who by their merits obtain fame become a blessed light to those who are born after them. For there is nothing that arouses the minds of men, and makes them indifferent to the hardships of study, so much as the thought of the honour and advantage that the labour may bring them. This Lorenzo di Cione Ghiberti, otherwise Di Bartoluccio, knew well. He in his first years was put to the art of the goldsmith, but delighting more in the arts of sculpture and design, he studied colours and also cast little figures in bronze. About this time the Signory of Florence, with the Guild of the Merchants, seeing that there were at that time many excellent sculptors, both Florentines and strangers, determined that they would make the second pair of gates for S. Giovanni, the oldest and the chief church of that city. So they called upon all the best masters in Italy to come to Florence and make trial of their skill, requiring them to produce a subject picture worked in bronze, like one of those which Andrea Pisano had made in the first gate. Bartoluccio Ghiberti thereupon wrote to Lorenzo his son, who was then working in Pesaro, urging him to return to Florence, for this was an opportunity of making himself known and showing his skill. These words so moved Lorenzo that although Pandolfo Malatesti and all his court were heaping him with caresses, and would scarcely let him go, he took his leave of them, and neither promise nor reward would detain him, for it seemed to him to be a thousand years before he could get to Florence. So setting forth he came safely to his own city. Many strangers had already arrived and made...
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Pablo Piccaso Biographical Essay Pablo Picasso was probably the most famous artist of the twentieth century. During his artistic career, which lasted more than 75 years, he created thousands of works, not only paintings but also sculptures, prints, and ceramics, using all kinds of materials. He almost single-handedly created modern art. He changed art more profoundly than any other artist of this century because he was an inspiration. Picasso was born on October 25, 1881, in Malaga, Spain, son of an artist, Jose Ruiz, and Maria Picasso. Rather than adopt the common name Ruiz, the young Picasso took the rarer name of his mother. An artistic prodigy, Picasso, at the age of 14, completed the one-month qualifying examination of the Academy of Fine Arts in Barcelona in one day. From there he went to the Academy of San Fernando in Madrid, returning in 1900 to Barcelona, where he frequented the city's famous cabaret of intellectuals and artists, Els Quatre Gats. The years of 1901 to 1904, known, as the "blue period" because of the blue tonality of Picasso's paintings was a time of frequent changes of residence between Barcelona and Paris. During this period, he would spend his days in Paris studying the masterworks at the Louvre and his nights enjoying the company of fellow artists at cabarets like the Lapin Agile. 1905 and 1906 marked a radical change in colour and mood for Picasso. He became fascinated with the acrobats, clowns and wandering families of the circus world. He started to paint in subtle pinks and greys, often highlighted with brighter tones. This was known as his "rose period." For Picasso the 1920's were years of rich artistic exploration and great productivity. Picasso continued to design theatre sets and painted in Cubist, Classical and Surreal modes. From 1929 to 1931, he pioneered wrought iron...
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Bill Haley: Mr. Rockin' Rollin' When a person brings up the term rock and roll, many things could pass through one's mind. Someone's immediate thought could swing to Elvis Presley, ACDC, or even Britney Spear's version of "I Love Rock and Roll." It all depends on how much one knows about the subject and what era of time one grew up in. According to Dictionary.com, rock and roll is "a genre of popular music originating in the 1950s; a blend of Black rhythm-and-blues with White country-and-western; rock is a generic term for the range of styles that evolved out of rock' n 'roll." It is essentially a combination of different music that was put together and tested by many artists in the early to mid 1900's. Billy Haley was one of the artists that introduced that new sound of music into the world. Billy Haley, whose full name is William John Clifton Haley, was born on July 6th 1925 into a family that was musically inclined. His musical abilities were not a surprise to his mother Maude who was a classically trained pianist and to his father William who played the banjo. Throughout his life as a child, he was surrounded completely by music. BillHaley.com states that "his first performances date from about 1938, when as a child he sang and played guitar at variety shows put on by local children to raise money for local causes." Though Bill Haley did perform in front of people, he was a shy child due to the fact that he was blind in his left eye since infancy. As a child, a handicap like this tends to leave a mark of self consciousness and concern about outer appearances. Music was a gift to Bill Haley that allowed him to grow through his self-consciousness and focus not...
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Beethoven Beethoven, Ludwig van (1770-1827), German composer, generally considered one of the greatest composers in the Western tradition. Born in Bonn, Beethoven went to Vienna in 1792 to study under Austrian composer Joseph Haydn. In Vienna, he dazzled the aristocracy with his piano improvisations and became a successful freelance composer. In the first decade of the 19th century Beethoven expanded the musical language bequeathed by Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and revealed his complete assimilation of the Viennese classical style. Beethoven's fame reached its zenith during these years, but a hearing impairment he had first noted in 1798 steadily worsened. He performed in public only rarely, making his last appearance in 1814. By 1818 Beethoven was virtually deaf. Although he withdrew from all but a steadily shrinking circle of friends, his prestige was still so great that during his last illness he received huge outpourings of sympathy. Musical Development Beethoven's major output consists of 9 symphonies, 7 concertos, 17 string quartets, 32 piano sonatas, 10 sonatas for violin and piano, 5 sonatas for cello and piano, an opera, 2 masses, several overtures, and numerous sets of piano variations. His works of the decade from 1802 to 1812 represent an expansion of the tighter forms of Haydn and Mozart, as is apparent in the Eroica Symphony and the Piano Concerto no. 5 (Emperor, 1809), as well as in Symphony no. 5 (1808). The few works of the years after 1812 revived and expanded the more relaxed musical structures Beethoven had employed in the 1790s. In 1818 he returned to the tightly structured heroic style in his Piano Sonata in B-flat Major op. 106 (Hammerklavier), a work of unprecedented length and difficulty. The works of Beethoven's last period are marked by an individuality that later composers would admire but could scarcely emulate. In the Ninth Symphony and the Missa...
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Andy Warhol, the American painter, printmaker, illustrator, and film maker was born in Pittsburgh on August 6, 1928, shortly afterwards settling in New York. The only son of immigrant, Czech parents, Andy finished high school and went on to the Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh, graduating in 1949 with hopes of becoming an art teacher in the public schools. While in Pittsburgh, he worked for a department store arranging window displays, and often was asked to simply look for ideas in fashion magazines . While recognizing the job as a waste of time, he recalls later that the fashion magazines "gave me a sense of style and other career opportunities." Upon graduating, Warhol moved to New York and began his artistic career as a commercial artist and illustrator for magazines and newspapers. Although extremely shy and clad in old jeans and sneakers, Warhol attempted to intermingle with anyone at all who might be able to assist him in the art world. His portfolio secure in a brown paper bag, Warhol introduced himself and showed his work to anyone that could help him out. Eventually, he got a job with Glamour magazine, doing illustrations for an article called "Success is a Job in New York," along with doing a spread showing women's shoes. Proving his reliability and skills, he acquired other such jobs, illustrating adds for Harpers Bazaar, Millers Shoes, contributing to other large corporate image-building campaigns, doing designs for the Upjohn Company, the National Broadcasting Company and others. In these early drawings, Warhol used a device that would prove beneficial throughout his commercial art period of the 1950's-a tentative, blotted ink line produced by a simple monotype process. First he drew in black ink on glazed, nonabsorbent paper. Then he would press the design against an absorbent sheet. As...
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