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Business
If, despite all this good advice and your hard work, you are not asked back for a second interview or offered the job, you need to know if there is a problem you could solve. If you are getting interviews there is obviously little wrong with your application but failure at the interview stage can throw you into a flurry of self-doubt at a time when you need it least. It is quite acceptable to ask the interviewers for feedback (their view of your performance and how you came across). Write to, or preferably telephone, the organisation as soon as possible after you hear the result and ask for interview feedback. Sensible though this is, it may not always be possible to get constructive feedback. If the interviewer cannot or will not help, you can always do some careful post-interview analysis and perhaps talk to a careers adviser about how the interview went. ¡®I expected to be disadvantaged as a 37 year old new graduate, so I took job hunting seriously. I read books about job hunting, and how to write a winning CV and I practised wearing suitable interview outfits well in advance - having spent years going to work wearing dungarees I needed to practise! I spent a long time identifying skills and experience from my assortment of previous jobs that I could claim to be relevant or transferable. As it turned out, my age didn¡¯t seem to be a disadvantage at all. I think what was an advantage for me was that I¡¯d thought hard about what I wanted and what I could offer to an employer, so I could be fairly decisive and confident. Also, I found that I and other mature students had acquired a great deal of understanding of how things get done in real life...
pages: 2 (words: 332)
comments: 0
added: 12/25/2011
The biggest advantage of sales promotions are that, if they are done correctly, they can stimulate and increase consumer purchases and develop or improve retailer or middlemen efforts to stock and sell a product. A sales promotion can be coupons, gifts, samples, in-store promotions, contests or sponsorship of special events (sporting events, fairs, etc.) In markets where consumers may be hard to reach through regular advertising channels, a sales promotion is necessary and very effective. Sales promotions are generally seen as fun and can have long-lasting ifavorable mpressions on consumers. In addition, another advantage is that sales promotion activities may be narrowly targeted to consumers and/or offered for only a short time before being dropped or replaced with more permanent efforts. This flexible nature of sales promotions makes them ideal for a marketing campaign tailored to fit local customs and circumstances. For example, Philip Morris, British American Tobacco, & R.J. Reynolds competed in the Taiwanese market by handing out free cigarettes, a practice not utilized in the U.S. market. Both Philip Morris and R.J. Reynolds built market share by offering Korean consumers free cigarette lighters and desk diaries with the firms' logos in return for cigarette purchases. One of the disadvantages is that the success of a sales promotion may depend on local adaptation. Since cultures have an impact on any type of advertising/promotion, marketers must ensure that the type of sales promotion they have selected for a particular country is not a prohibited activity. Since some local laws do not permit free gifts, coupons, premiums or discounts, marketers must thoroughly research the countries before undertaking sales promotions. Another disadvantage may be the cost of sales promotions. The up-front costs may be high; however successful sales promotions can reap rewards many times over in the long run. Companies just need to be able to make the investment in the up-front costs....
pages: 2 (words: 311)
comments: 0
added: 02/19/2012
Nowadays, advertising plays a major role in everyday life. Companies are constantly searching for new ways to attract potential customers and to distance themselves from traditional and outdated marketing methods. One very effective form of advertising which is widely used is "shock advertising". It is usually used to highlight a problem and by exposing this problem in a stark and shocking manner so as to leave an imprint on the viewer. Good examples of these types of ads are the Oxfam ads showing extremely poorly and sick children starving in third world countries and the hard-hitting ads for the NSPCC in which abused children speak directly to the viewer, exposing the treatment they receive at the hands of their tormentors. Another very popular form of advertising is comical advertising. Various companies opt for the funny and sometimes outrageous approach when selling their product. They hope that by making him laugh, they will leave their mark with the viewer and the next time he visits the supermarket, their product will stick out by simple association to the ad. A few examples of this type of advert are the ones for various lagers such as "Stella Artois" and "Fosters". The only problem with funny advertising is that not everyone has the same sense of humour and so each advert will only attract certain people. With the advances in technology over the years, new forms of advertising and also new platforms for advertising are appearing. The most notable of these platforms is, of course, the internet. Internet sites have become a marketing haven for companies wishing to sell a product and one can seldom visit a website without stumbling upon and ad for something or another. From simple banners at the top of a webpage to hugely annoying "pop-up ads", the possibilities are endless. The main...
pages: 2 (words: 397)
comments: 0
added: 01/15/2012
Advertising 1) Introduction – Mount Saint Mary College in Newburg New York is a private 4 year college. In the past 25 years it has gone from near financial ruin, with a total enrollment of 750 students, to a respectable enrollment of 5500 students, thanks to the efforts of the schools newest president. MSMC turned around enrollment in the school by pioneering new concepts in education such as blended online learning and accelerated evening courses. Last year MSMC implemented a new adult education program. The problem is that very few potential adult education students are aware of the program and the accelerated blended online courses which make finding the time to attend college easier and more convenient. Additionally those who are aware of the program have misconceptions about the cost and time investment involved. Through print, broadcast and out-of-home ads we will target non-traditional students - adults age 25 to 44 - who may be unhappy in their current career positions, but believe they not have the time or the financial resources to return to college. In our campaign we will capitalize on MSMC's outstanding commitment to addressing the challenges that adult education students face, namely the lack of time and money. MSMCs' program is designed to remove as many of the obstacles adult students face as possible. Our campaign will raise awareness of MSMCs' program and the features that make it unique with-in the market. We will accomplish this by using humor to highlight MSMCs' commitment to the adult education student, flexible class schedules, childcare programs, and services MSMC has developed for adult education student. Our advertising campaign will feature a television ad, radio ads, as well as billboard ads to be placed in the two surrounding citys. The ads will feature a typical accelerated student and an Accelerated Program...
pages: 14 (words: 3742)
comments: 0
added: 12/23/2011
Argument of Evaluation Advertisements are involved in almost every part of our daily lives. They are involved when we watch television and listen to the radio. They are involved when we get up and use our name brand toothpaste, when we eat our breakfast and go to work. It is almost impossible not to be affected by all the advertisements. That is why private companies spend tremendous amounts of money for a slight glimpse in someone's life. There will always be one ad that can usually stick out when flipping through these magazines. I found a particular ad like this in Gentlemen's Quarterly (GQ). GQ is obviously primarily for men. The magazine "focuses on men's personal style and taste, from what he wears to the way he lives his life. GQ covers subjects ranging from finance, food, travel, entertainment, celebrities, sports, grooming and fashion" (Conte). The average man that reads this periodical is probably going to be a man ranging in his late twenties to his sixties. A man that is also middle to upper class, who is able to enjoy certain aspects of life that the ads portray, will read this magazine. Therefore, any advertisements that are in this magazine will have to appeal to this demographic to be successful. The advertisement being evaluated is for Tommy Hilfger clothing. This print ad is very effective in GQ because it appeals to the main audience the magazine is looking for. This ad will also stick in the audience's mind because of its association, vivid use of color, and its sex appeal. The ad takes place on a beach with a man and a woman. The models are wearing the Tommy's clothes while rolling around on the sand. Tommy's signature appears in the bottom right-hand corner with his emblem. The scene that is...
pages: 4 (words: 1012)
comments: 0
added: 11/12/2011
The purpose of advertising systems in this capitalistic society is for consumers to believe that goods have the power to create happiness. Since advertisers have long realized that the objects most important to a person are actually immaterial and represent personal and social values such as love, friendship and self-esteem, they have gone to great lengths to associate products with these themes. The result is a "magic system" in which goods are completely transformed from inanimate objects into things that embody values, desires, and goals. (Jhally) Major corporations are using advertising to govern behaviour, mould attitudes, and construct and define children's identities for the sole purpose of making them early consumers. "We are strip-mining our children's minds and doing it for commercial profit." (Al Gore) Most people agree that companies should not posses such power over children's minds, but nothing is being done about it. It is crucial to examine how advertising succeeds in transforming young people into consumers, and the negative effects that result from such an act. Advertising to children is effective because advertisements deal with illusions that appeal to the imagination of children. (Bajpai 162) The "magic" of advertising is more powerful when aimed at children, since they more readily believe and are enchanted by it. In a study performed, 75% of the children interviewed said that they loved watching ads on television, and many actually preferred them to programs. (Bajpai 147) Advertisements have succeeded in seducing children by their visually stimulating, "thrilling" (Bajpai 150) content. Moreover, very young children perceive advertisements to be true to real life; they believe that products actually accomplish the things they do in commercials. "Children as viewers have neither the ability to understand the persuasive intent of advertising nor the level of conceptual and experiential maturity needed to evaluate commercial messages rationally."...
pages: 5 (words: 1172)
comments: 0
added: 01/05/2012
1) Introduction to the brand and a brief description. Who makes the product? Why is it successful? What message is the manufacturer trying to communicate to the target audience? "Levi Strauss was a visionary businessman who believed in simple and enduring ideas, such as quality and integrity." In 1853 Levi Strauss arrived on the shores of booming San Francisco and founded a company which would later become one of the worlds leading branded organisations, marketing its products in more than one hundred companies world wide. Since its founding Levi Strauss has sold more than 3.5 billion pairs of jeans and was described by Times magazines millennium issue as the best fashion of the 20th Century beating out the mini skirt and the little black dress. The company's pivotal moment came when the idea of putting rivets at the points of strain on the pants, such as on the pocket corner and at the base of the button fly. Once the patent was in place the product was brought to life through mass production. Within time all working men were buying the innovative new pants and spreading the word of its unrivalled durability. Phil Marineau was the president and chief executive officer of Levi Strauss & Co was quoted as saying, "Levi Jeans have been virtually worn by everyone, from the cowboys who forged the American West to the young people who tore down the Berlin Wall. Generations of people have worn Levis as a symbol of freedom, individuality and fun. This is why the brand has stood the test of time and is so appealing to today to consumers of all ages in more that 100 countries world wide." Originality is at the core of Levi Strauss. A pioneering spirit that started with the invention of blue jeans and permeates through the business. This year...
pages: 15 (words: 3925)
comments: 0
added: 06/22/2011
Writing Direct has a team of highly educated graduates waiting to write and edit documents on the subject of your choice. Whether it be personal statements, custom draft essays or research documents, we invite you to put our team to work.Our writers can produce a high quality draft essay for you on a wide array of subjects at any level from GCSE to Degree. We are large enough to employ a critical mass of experts who can write specialised draft essays on any topic. Writing Direct has access to textbooks and mark schemes from many of the top exam boards. Your piece of work will be originally hand-crafted to your specification by an intelligent, highly educated Graduate. We can help produce high-standard draft coursework in all subjects including History, Sociology, Geography, English, French, German, Music, Spanish, Religious Studies or the Sciences.Alternatively, if you have written an essay and want a second opinion, we offer a cheap proof-reading service. One of our writers will proof-read, revise and hone your draft essay for you. Redundant language, fragmented sentences and grammatical errors will be removed. In order to keep our prices competitive, our proof-readers focus on syntax and style but they will also make suggestions about content and coherence. Writing Direct takes confidentiality seriously - we will not reveal your name or identity to third parties. The personal statement is amongst the most important documents that you will have to write : it plays a key role in determining whether or not one is accepted into one's university of choice. Our writers, having been successful in their university application, know exactly what they are doing, and can help you achieve as much as they have....
pages: 2 (words: 282)
comments: 0
added: 09/26/2011
"Affinity (Sexual Orientation) Discrimination: There are no federal laws that cover sexual orientation discrimination at this time. However, under the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978, employees may file a complaint with the Office of Special Counsel of the Merit System Protection Board if they are adversely affected by a prohibited personnel practice, such as discrimination based on political affiliation, marital status, sexual orientation, etc." (Dept. of Psychology, UOW). - "Affinity Orientation Act: A person attracted to those of his or her own gender. Affinity orientation is not a protected category under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act. Those who are terminated or not hired solely on the basis of affinity orientation have no claim for relief under that law. However, WI, CA, MA, HI, CT, NJ, MN, VT and over 125 municipalities have legislation extending employment protection and benefits to gays and lesbians." (Dept. of Psychology, UOW). - There are no real laws affecting gays and lesbians in the workplace. However, with Sexual Affinity Orientation, employees can file complaints when they feel discriminated against because of their sexual orientation. As stated, they can file their complaints because of the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978. Because there are no official laws set forth by the government, this act provides some security for homosexuals in the workplace. - The "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy affects military personnel. Under this policy, applicants are not asked about their sexual orientation and it prohibits the harassment of homosexual military personnel. However, "…homosexual conduct is grounds for discharge." (Dr. Osei Darkwa). - The Anti-Defamation League: "…is the world's leading organization fighting anti-Semitism through programs and services that counteract hatred, prejudice and bigotry" (ADL, 2001). They believe in the Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA) legislation. This would provide legal protection to homosexuals in the workplace. They also believe: "…that employment...
pages: 3 (words: 636)
comments: 0
added: 02/10/2012
Capital Punishment The goal of my paper is to point out the injustices in capital punishment. I will focus on the immoralities in legalized murder, the justices system in general, statistics, and comparisons. Thesis: Looking out for the state of the public's satisfaction in the scheme of capital sentencing does not constitute serving justice. "An evil deed is not redeemed by an evil deed of retaliation. Justice is never advanced in the taking of human life. Morality is never upheld by legalized murder." - Coretta Scott King Capital Punishment The goal of my paper is to point out the injustices in capital punishment. I will focus on the immoralities in legalized murder, the justices system in general, statistics, and comparisons. Words Count: 1363 Pages: 3 Outline Thesis: Handguns should be outlawed with the exception of law enforcement purposes. I. Why Not Real Gun Control? A. Handguns are too easily accessible to America's youth. II. Kids: A Deadly Force. A. Kids are killing each other all across America. III. A Look At The Brady Bill IV. The Economics of Crime. A. Americans are spending too much money each year to protect themselves. V. Charts and Figures. A. Where Americans are spending all their money on protection. Handgun Control in the United States Handguns should be outlawed in the United States with the exception of law enforcement purposes. Two weeks before Christmas Day, 1987, 17 year-old Kendall Merriweather was shot and killed a few blocks from his high school in southeast Washington, D.C. Police arrested two teenage students who they believe killed Merriweather while trying to steal his "boom box" radio. A few days earlier, in Pasadena, Texas, a 14-year-old eight grader at Deepwater Junior High School whipped a snub-nosed .38 out of his jacket and held the assistant principal hostage for two hours. Police said the boy was distraught over his parents' recent separation. (Stanza 19) These were not isolated incidents. All across America, the number of kids using- and being harmed...
pages: 3 (words: 628)
comments: 0
added: 12/03/2011
Essay Assignment 2 Mike Rose, 'Entering the Conversation' Cardinal Henry Newman, 'The Idea of a University' Mike Rose in "Entering the Conversation" starts of from the time where he had finished high school and was entering college. He lived in south L.A with his mother and the neighborhood he lived in was a very poor place and all around him were very poor uneducated people. Seeing all that made Rose try to go to college and finish higher education. He wanted to do better than these people around him and he wanted to do something special. He lived only with his mother because his father had passed away. After some time he moved out to a trailer in front of his house and made it his own home. His step dad helped him remodel the trailer. In the text rose writes 'It is an unfortunate fact of our psychic lives that the images that surround us as we grow up no matter how much we may scorn them later give shape to our deepest needs and longings'. He had gone thru very many pain full images in his childhood. One of these images was the death of his father which he was trying to forget, but these images came back when his step dad committed suicide which again represented the sadness and dad time he protected him self against. The smart thing he did to get away from this time was turning him self more toward education and knowledge. He realized that if wanted to be something better and he wanted to move out of that trailer he needed to finish his education. He could not let the anxiety and sadness get in the way and he had to escape these bad images and concentrate on good images. He could not let bad...
pages: 2 (words: 533)
comments: 0
added: 09/15/2011
Ryan Johnson Instructor: Rodney Carter MGT 434 (Business Law) 16 October, 2002 Age suits are now the fastest-growing category of discrimination complaints filed with the United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. In 1967 when congress passed the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA), the worry was that older workers were being discriminated against in hiring. One might say that the ADEA might, itself have a disparate impact on the older employees of the age forty and above. Because of the competitive job market, employers are not only looking at the qualifications of an applicant, they also may be looking to see if there is any gray in your hair. Times are changing for the work force above forty that require more specialized skills. Companies are leaning more towards computers, email, and the Internet to be more competitive. In the past it used to be you could not get ahead because of the "glass ceiling", now it is more like the "gray ceiling". The aged work force must take personal responsibility in job hunting, because looks can be an asset or detriment. Experience is no longer a prerequisite for an offer. The U.S. congress passed the ADEA, thinking it was going to protect workers of forty years old and above during the hiring phase. Yet only ten percent of the claims involve the hiring process, the other ninety-percent is wrongful discharge. People are quicker to sue an employer if they were fired rather than during the hiring process. Proving a case for wrongful discharge would be much easier than trying to read someone's state of mind during the interview. In an article by Ira Carnahan, she brings to light an interesting fact; the first decade after passage of ADEA, unemployment among workers fifty-five and above rose from 2.5% to 4.6%. A possible reason for the rise...
pages: 8 (words: 2057)
comments: 0
added: 02/10/2012
"Age discrimination cuts both ways: even as people live longer, healthier lives, you hear about men and women in their 50s who lose their jobs and have trouble finding work because they're considered too old." (Wilson-Smith, 2003) As baby boomers age, this issue is becoming a bigger and bigger problem. Consider this: the tough job market especially in white collar jobs as well as increasing worries about age discrimination lawsuit issues are tempting some older job candidates to change their appearances. "Sixty-three percent of job seekers would leave a date off their resume to hide their age, according to a survey by online job board HotJobs. Nearly 20% said they would consider plastic surgery to improve job prospects." (Aramor, 2000) Age discrimination cases filed with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission hit 19,921 in the year 2000 -- a more than 40% jump from 14,141 in 1999. (Aramor, 2000). My planned approach to this assignment is to list the facts and questions as presented in the module in a general fashion, and not specifically to an individual case or hypothetical scenario. In summary, The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 protects workers who are 40 years of age or older. This law specifies: "Sec 4a: It shall be unlawful for an employer to (1) fail or refuse to hire or to discharge any individual or otherwise discriminate against any individual with respect to his compensation, terms, conditions, or privilege of employment, because of such individuals age; (2) to limit, segregate or classify employees in any way which would deprive or tend to deprive any individual or employment opportunities or otherwise adversely affect his status as an employee, because of such individuals age; or (3) to reduce the wage rate of any employee in order to comply with this chapter." (20 U.S.C. 623). The...
pages: 2 (words: 395)
comments: 0
added: 11/04/2011
Employment Law Paper Age discrimination is an employment problem that is becoming more evident as economic conditions weaken. Employers who think they can eliminate older workers from their workforce and save costs of retirement programs, and higher salaries have been enlightened otherwise by the growing number of lawsuits that have been won over age discrimination. In 1994, Lockheed Martin agreed to a 13 million dollar settlement and to rehire about 246 employees who claimed age discrimination. In 1996, a Boston jury awarded $3.5 million to a former Airborne Express executive who was fired, despite documented outstanding performance. A 1998 survey conducted by the Society of Human Resource Management and the AARP found that one in five companies surveyed had been hit with age discrimination claims between 1993 and 1998. Between 1988 and 1995, individuals claiming age discrimination were awarded an average of $219,000 each according to Jury Verdict Research. (Internet article Age Discrimination: Overview of the Law). This paper will examine the Age Discrimination Employment Act, as well as explore a selection of age discrimination cases and provide recommendations for a potential employer on how to avoid an age discrimination suit. Try custom essay writing services at WriteMyPapers.org! Congress instated the Age Discrimination in Employment Act in 1967 to help encourage Employment of those over 40 years of age based on their ability rather than their age. The acts statutory basis is as follows: Statutory basis: Age discrimination in Employment act: Sec. 4 (a) It shall be unlawful for an employer – (1) to fail or refuse to hire or to discharge any individual or otherwise discriminate against any individual with respect to his compensation, terms, conditions, or privilege of employment, because of such individual's age. (2) to limit, segregate, or classify his employees in any way which would deprive or tend to deprive any individual of employment...
pages: 4 (words: 934)
comments: 0
added: 08/14/2011
The professional playing field of an organization is filled with a diverse community of players. Organizational age discrimination is commonly experienced in the corporate environment. As on a playing field, managers, like coaches, must always be aware of players' strengths and weaknesses. When opportunities within the organization become available, managers, prepared with sensitivity and wisdom, can guide their team into the best position to accomplish their task assigned and common goal. An effective manager will utilize the diversity of his team players in order to meet the goal of the organization. This may require stepping out of comfort zones in order to meet the criteria of the task at hand. It may require that each player works with someone from another ethnic background, culture, race, age, or gender to reach the common goal. Discrimination can cause an organization to fulminate from within, destroying the common vision. The corporate environment is a recycling bin with new players exiting and entering while creating variable organizational age diversity. The new, often young members arrive with fresh ideas, new abilities, educational enlightenment, and exciting technological knowledge. These vibrant players are often placed in leadership roles based solely on their educational accomplishments. Unless they have had training in cultural and ethnic diversity, their experience and knowledge base is limited. Management training of age diversity is almost non-existent. The corporate environment has become rich in cultural and ethnic diversity as it expands into a worldwide environment. It is with this new eagerness, openness, and willingness, that the corporate team frequently does not properly utilize the aged employee. Consider what the older, mature team member brings to the organization. When a team chooses to utilize the older team player to nourish, instruct, guide, and mentor, the younger team member, then the strength of the corporate network becomes...
pages: 3 (words: 670)
comments: 0
added: 01/20/2012
It is no secret that turbulent times lay ahead for the agriculture industry. Globally, the population is growing at an exponential rate, especially in third world countries. This is obviously being accompanied by huge increases in demand which are not being met in the supply side of the food equation. How will we solve this problem in the this century and beyond? Well, most researchers agree that something has to be done. Currently, teams all over the globe are assembling and addressing this very topic of food insecurity. The solution is being approached from all different angles, from genetically engineered plants, to improved infrastructure, to diversification of irrigation styles all aimed at the goal of higher crop yields. However, through this class and examining primary and secondary sources on the topic, it is quite apparent that all the energy is going to trying to solve the problems in mainly one of these ways. This is unfortunately, neglecting to realize another key aspect in the equation; mother nature. Global warming is a topic that is sometimes lost in the midst because so much focus is solving the problem with developing technologies to solves today's crop riddles. The problem is, with rising temperatures almost certain in coming decades, agriculture will be hit hard. Much research is going into this, its just that no clear cut solutions have been presented. Two sources addressed such a topic. The first was the article " Global Warming changes the forecast for Agriculture" from the book The Unfinished Agenda, written by ( ). The second was the article "Agriculture & Global Climate Change" from the website http://www.pewclimate.org/projects/env_agriculture.cfm . Both examined how this issue is being delt with and what lies in the future for the industry and the global community as a whole. The first article delt with...
pages: 6 (words: 1498)
comments: 0
added: 10/20/2011
AIB group is Ireland's leading banking and financial services organisation. It operates principally in Ireland, Britain, the USA, Poland and Asia. The group employs over 31,000 people worldwide in more than 1,000 offices. The group has four main divisions: · AIB BANK: This consists of the group's retail and commercial activities in the Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland, Britian, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man. It also includes Ark Life and other specialist business offering credit card, car finance and leasing, home mortgages and other services. More than 10,000 staff work for AIB Bank operating out of over 300 outlets. · AIB Capital markets divisions comprises the Treasury and International Investment Banking and Corporate Banking activities of the group. · USA division includes Allfirst and AIB's American outlets and employs around 6,500 people. · Poland division where AIB has a major shareholding in two Polish banks employing over 12,000 people and giving the bank access to one of Central Europe's largest economies. AIB is the republic's biggest bank, with record profits of almost €1.4 billion for 2002. The record sum was delivered against a backdrop of worsening domestic and international economic conditions. It also came after a €643 million fraud at its US subsidiary All First. According to the Consumers' Association of Ireland, the banking sector in the Republic is characterised by a lack of choice for consumers. The association's chief executive Dermott Jewell says AIB's massive profits are proof that none of the money generated by financial institutions is finding its way back into the pockets of customers. Clearly comfortable in a non-competitive environment, the Irish banks have also displayed an unwillingness to offer customers any choice when it comes to mortgage products. In the UK there are about 120 mortgage lenders offering 4,500 products. In the Republic there are 12 main players offering about 70...
pages: 4 (words: 993)
comments: 0
added: 01/06/2012
I. INTRODUCTION In December 2000, Airbus formally committed to develop and launch a super jumbo plane known as the A380 at a launch cost of $13 billion. Prior to and after Airbus' commitment, Boeing started and canceled several initiatives aimed at developing a "stretch jumbo" with capacity in between its existing jumbo (the 747) and Airbus' planned super jumbo. In addition to making the super jumbo one of the largest product launch decisions in corporate history, this figure represented 26% of total industry revenues in 2000 ($45.6 billion) and more than 70% of Airbus' total revenues in 2000. The inherent risk associated with this major strategic commitment is magnified by the fact that Airbus must spend the entire amount before it delivers the first plane. History has shown that many firms including General Dynamics, and, more recently, Lockheed, have failed as a result of attempting such bet-the-company product development efforts. If, however, the launch effort does succeed, Airbus is expected to dislodge Boeing as the market leader in commercial aircraft after more than 50 years of market dominance by the latter. This paper presents an analysis of this new product commitment and, more generally, of competition in very large aircraft (VLA is defined as planes capable of seating more than 400 passengers). II. CASE BACKGROUND In the early 1990s, Airbus and Boeing independently began to study the feasibility of launching a super jumbo. Both agreed there was a growing need for a super jumbo because of increasing congestion at major hubs. Alternative solutions were seen as either infeasible, in the case of greater flight frequency, or ineffective, in the case of flights to secondary airports. Fairly quickly they realized that there was room in the market for only one competitor. Finally, Boeing and Airbus agreed to collaborate on a joint feasibility study for a Very Large...
pages: 13 (words: 3344)
comments: 0
added: 12/04/2011
The Aker Kvaerner Group The fight against bankruptcy Executive summery During 1996, Kvaerner sought to strengthen its engineering base internationally through the acquisition of the UK- based conglomerate, Trafalgar House. The acquisition was completed in May 1996. Kvaerner became an international player in shipbuilding, oil and gas, pulp and paper and engineering and construction. It moved its international headquarters to London in the spring of 1996. In the following years, increasing financial and operational difficulties followed strong growth financed through debt. The acquisitions had resulted in a broad business portfolio, without a corresponding management capacity. The consequences were weak integration of the acquired units and no realization of synergies between the different business areas. In 1999 the company initiated a major sell-off, focusing on realizing capital through divestments. These efforts did not solve the mounting financial and operational challenges, which eventually brought the company into an acute liquidity crisis in August 2001. In July 2000, Aker Maritime ASA, a Norway-based offshore products, technology and services provider, had bought 26 per cent of the shares in Kvaerner ASA. The investment was made with the aim of creating a focused, profitable and forward-looking group based in Norway, with substantial international operations. It took 18 months to achieve the goal of integrating these businesses. In late November 2001 an agreement was reached between Aker Maritime ASA and Kvaerner ASA. Aker Maritime injected NOK 2.8 bn in net assets, raised another NOK 3.5 bn through two direct issues and renegotiated NOK 8.6 bn of Kvaerner's debt. The result was a financially stronger Kvaerner, with four focused business areas: Oil & Gas, Engineering & Construction, Pulp & Paper and Shipbuilding. The group decided to adopt the Aker Kvaerner brand for the entire group. But in 2002 Aker Kvaerner still had a huge liquidity problem, so the company kept selling asset to earn revenues. But in the end of 2002 came the message: Aker Kvaerner had again a liquidity...
pages: 9 (words: 2316)
comments: 0
added: 12/24/2011
The major reasons alcohol advertising should be outlawed are that they are targeted towards minors, especially in low class neighborhoods. Most of the companies are placing commercials on shows targeted towards people under 20. They are placing ads in magazines such as GQ, Jane, Maxim, and InStyle. This is why America has such a high rate of Alcoholism. The public is led to believe that alcohol will give you the things in life that you most want, such as money, beauty, and fun. To prohibit alcohol advertising the industries guidelines need strengthening, and must be strictly enforced. The industries codes required that more than 50% of the target audience must be over 21. According to the Federal Trade Commission only "half of the companies were able to show that nearly all their ads were shown to a majority legal age audience." This shows that the companies were able to get away with targeting to youth; the advertisement regulations are not being enforced properly. "Companies conducted research on 21 to 22 year olds who indicated that they now drink less of the companies brand than they did before they were of legal age to determine what campaign themes are likely to regain customer loyalty." The companies know that the ads that attracted them before they were 21 were most appealing. Therefore will continue to use this type of advertisement. African American and Latino neighborhoods have more alcohol billboards than White neighborhoods. In Chicago, communities of African Americans have five times as many billboards as White neighborhoods (Hackbarth, 1994.) In San Francisco, African American neighborhoods had more than 3 times as many, and Latino neighborhoods more than twice as many alcohol billboards per resident, as White neighborhoods (Altman, 1991.) Alcohol advertising targeting Latinos and African Americans often uses harmful or distorted images of these...
pages: 4 (words: 918)
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