Mise-en-Scene: American Beauty Just to refresh everybody's memory, mise-en-scene literally means "setting up a scene." There are six elements that make up mise-en-scene: acting, costume and make-up, setting, lighting, composition or space and last but not least time. The film that I chose for this particular topic was American Beauty. In my opinion, American Beauty is like mise-en-scene candy. In each frame of this film, there is so much to say about each of the elements of mise-en-scene. I will start with discussing the acting. We often say that a good performance is "realistic" To me a good performance by an actor is making it seem as if they are not really "acting" per se, making us believe that they are the actual character. In American Beauty the actors played such convincing roles that you would think they were playing their actual day to day lives. The quality of their performances allow the viewer to identify what their character portrays right away. At the same time, the changes that the characters undergo within the story keep us guessing with anticipation. Costume and make-up aid in this portrayal as well. Which leads me to the next element. The costumes and make-up used in this film come off as simple and ordinary on the surface. But, when you look at who the characters represent, the costume and make-up make more than enough sense. For example, Janie is a self-conscious teenager who is unhappy with how she looks, who her family is and who she is in totality. She wears dark make-up that makes her look down and depressed. Her clothes that she wears are large and non-form fitting and they are always dark colors, mostly black. Her make-up and costume reveal more about her character. On the other hand, if Janie were to wear what her friend...
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In the film, American Beauty directed by Sam Mendes, two sequences that were of significance were the opening and closing scenes. The opening scene is important as it foreshadows how the main characters will develop throughout the film. In the closing scene, the full development of characters is seen, and this development is highlighted through important events in the closing scene. In the opening sequence the main characters foreshadow how they will develop throughout the film. One way in where this foreshadowing is seen is when the main character Ricky asks Jane if she wants her father (Lester) dead, "Do you want me to kill him for you" this then inevitably foreshadows the death of Lester. Another way in which foreshadowing is used is when Lester's voice-over is heard when he talks about Carolyn (his wife). Lester through the help of an establishing shot of his 'perfect' neighbourhood portrays his wife as an in control and demanding for per section, "Notice how her gardening gloves match the handles of her secateurs that's is not an accident". This helps in setting up the so-called allusion of suburban bliss and foreshadows that it is not all what it seems to be. During the opening scene the main character Lester is introduced. Lester is seen as bored and stuck in modern suburbia neurosis. One way this is shown is when the camera pans horizontally and we are shown Lester's daily routine of putting his slippers on to having a shower. This sets up the mundane nature of Lester's daily routine, and when he says, "It's all down hill from here" This highlights that Lester has hit a mid-life crisis and because of this he finds life utterly boring. Lester's crisis is formed by trying to keep up with society and consumerism, this caused Lester to...
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American beauty essay how does Sam Mendez establish the relationship between the members of the burnham family in the opening sequence and the first dinner table sequence?
Opening sequence: the film starts with a helicopter shot looking over "white suburbia" a nice neighborhood and in a nice suburb. Then we move to a shot of Lester played by Kevin Spacey in the shower masturbating describing this as the most exciting part of his day. This then highlights Lester's sexual frustration a married father who hasn't had sex in a while with his wife Carolyn played by Annette Bening who appears to be more concerned about her house as well as her appearance of marital bliss. "In order to be successful one must project a image of Success" a statement to which we later we learn is the basis to Carolyn's existence. Placing her value on status and could be best described as a "bloodless, money grubbing freak" who in her mission to achieve her so called success has shielded herself from intimacy. Lester's body language suggests that life has become a drag for him. Its almost as if it's a mission for him to get up in the morning as he later says "Both my wife and daughter think im a gigantic loser and there right I have lost something and I didn't always feel this sedated. This is supported by the high and low angle shots between Lester and Carolyn when Carolyn appears to be in control and Lester not. High angle shots to suggest that Carolyn is in control of this relationship and low angle at Lester suggesting he is far less superior to her. "Our marriage is just a show- a commercial for how normal we are, when we are when we are anything but. A thought expressed by Lester We also then see Lester slumped in the back of the car suggesting that his day is going to be a drag his body language enforces...
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INTRODUCTION/SYNOPSIS The purpose of the report is review the motion picture ¡§American Beauty¡¨ in the context of personal development and career and life planning. Using various characters from the film, the hypothesis stated below will be proven using Levinson¡¦s Life Development Model. HYPOTHESIS: the actions of individuals regarding career and life planning are influenced directly by the stage of the life development model they are currently in. The motion picture ¡§American Beauty¡¨, released in 1999, takes a thorough look at a typically American family who, from the exterior, seem to have it all. The adult members of the Burnham family, Lester and Carolyn, are the focus characters of the film and on closer observation prove to be quite dysfunctional and peculiar, despite outside perceptions of normality. Throughout the film, each member of the Burnham family is subjected to a number of significant events impacting their lives, leading to various changes in their perceptions and attitudes. In this report, the different circumstances in which the characters find themselves and their actions will be analysed using Levinsons¡¦s Life Development Model. This model will also be used to gain a deeper understanding of the reasoning behind their actions and the influence a particular stage in the development model has on each individual. The methods of data collection and the processes involved in the analysis will also be discussed and the report will conclude with implications for further personal and team learning and implications for helping others. METHOD The first step in collecting raw data for this report was to watch the film ¡§American beauty¡¨. The first viewing of the film was done purely to understand the story and become familiar with the characters. After understanding the task to be done and the level of understanding and analysis that was required, it was decided that using an amended version...
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The beauty of American society, as seen in the film American Beauty, is its dysfunctionality. The theme of the movie is to take control of your life, regardless of what the consequences may be. This is shown through the portrayal of the character Lester and his decision to change his life and "carpe diem", seize the day. Although his decision ultimately led to his death, his resolve to take charge of his life can be seen as the overall theme of the movie. Coupled with this theme is a hidden notion for a need to look closer at what is given. The significance of Lester's decision to change his life is that he didn't actually need to change things the way that he did. What he needed to do was to look closer at his life and his family to discover where the problems he was facing were stemming from and to fix those problems rather than turning to outside influences. This is a very important theme because it applies to everyone in the movie, not just Lester. Don't blame everything on someone else, look closer at yourself and fix yourself first. Putting the symbolic meaning of Lester's decision and the theme of the movie aside, there are many other objects and actions in the movie that have symbolic meaning : 1. the red rose petals – the red rose petals appear countless times throughout the film and can be seen to represent lust, innocence, desire, and false happiness. These rose petals could also stand for youthful freshness, red conveying the element of danger and sin inherent in the fantasies of Lester's in which they appear. 2. death – death is seen in many ways in the film. There is the scene where the hearse is driving down the street which is an...
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A lot of people try to "look closer" to analyse the movie, but they don't realise that they're facing the wrong direction. A great saying that holds a great deal of truth for this movie is: "Before you can help others, you have to help yourself." Now this may sound like a selfich attitude but it's not. It basically means that if you're not the best person you can possibly be, then how can you expect to mend the relationships you have with the people around you? Lester found himself in a rut at the age of 42 and he wasn't sure what went wrong or how to fix it. Meeting Angela was merely his inspiration to re-invent himself, to recapture his happiness and the meaning in his life. Of course most of his actions that follow are self-centred but that's because he tries to recapture his happiness by mentally going back to a time in his life when he was happy - his youth. If you imagine that Carolyn would have been very similar to Angela when she was a teenager (hence Lester's fascination with Angela) then you may see some reason behind his irresponsible actions. Even if we can't condone them at least we can understand them. Lester used to be "pals" with Jane many years ago but now they've grown apart. Who's fault is it - no one's really. It just kind of happened as most teenagers go through the angst of their adolescent years and feel distant to their parents. Lester acknowledges that he and Jane have lost something in their relationship and he tries to talk to her - he just doesn't quite know what to say. It's not Jane's fault either, it's just lack of communication. "I haven't been available" does not suggest "I don't want to...
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There are many themes in American Beauty, but one of the most important theme, is about appearances versus reality. Many of the characters in American Beauty project a false image of themselves and as a result, are not living a true life. The Burnhams have everything! They have a nice home, good jobs, they have children, and one could even say that they have the "American Dream!" But it's not all as great as it sounds... From the outside they appear like a happy family, but on the inside they are actually breaking up. American Beauty is about projecting false images. Carolyn, Buddy and Angela are all obsessed with their appearances and go to great lengths to accomplish what they want. Carolyn is a "Control freak" and when she does her gardening she even has matching clogs and secateurs. Even during an evening party she tries to make good impressions, and tells Lester to behave. Angela on the other hand, is a "slut". She is thin, blonde and sexy, and is just like a typical American Teenager. During the film she keeps braging on about how many guys she slept with and always seems like she's so confident and open. The ironic thing is that, in reality, she has low self esteem and is actually a virgin. Buddy, being a real estate person, cares only about appearing to be successful, and he states to Carolyn, "For one to be successful, one must project an image of success". When we first see Buddy in the posters, we see how artificial he is. He has artificial hair and bushy eyebrows and even his personality seems artificial. All Buddy cares about is his image, and when Lester finds out about their secret relationship, he breaks up with Carolyn. In conclusion, I believe that the main theme of American...
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American History X is a very great movie. It is about a young skinhead who is living a life he thinks is just. A life filled with hatred and crime. It all changes, though, when he is arrested for murder and sent to prison for three years. He comes out a changed man, and attempts to get his family out of that life permanently, but discovers his younger brother has taken up the cause. The movie is told in black and white, which shows great symbolism. The movie shows a great dominant American value. Tony Kaye, the director, lays the symbolism on pretty thick. The black and white is reserved for the flashbacks, which show the older brother in his pre-enlightenment days. The lack of color is supposed to indicate, I guess, that he's not really living like that. It's not until he realizes that racism is wrong, that the colors of the world open up to him. Either that, or it was just a tool to clarify for the audience what was a flashback and what was the present, but that is clearly not what it's for. The movie shows a lot of dominant American values. Mostly, the movie shows racism and group superiority. American History X is about racism. The movie shows a lot of group superiority. The movie depicts the "white" race as the "super" race. Later on in the movie, the older brother learns that there is no difference between white and black. he finally realizes that racism is wrong while he is in a prison....
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-Americas Animated Satire of The Simpson's- Before The Simpson's was introduced many sitcoms were quite bland and a perfect reflection of family life. Matt Groening decided to make a program that reacted against these middle class sitcoms. The purpose of The Simpson's is to entertain us; otherwise no one will watch it. However The Simpson's also expose stereotypes that satirize aspects of mainstream cultures and institutions that are wrong, as a way of ridiculing them. Along with my young sister, I find that the best show on TV is The Simpson's. We enjoy seeing Bart and Lisa getting into trouble, because we can relate to some of the situations, and because it has a lot of funny moments that even children will enjoy, such as the time Barney rolls into everyone during the soccer riot. My parents and I enjoy it as it has adult jokes and adult themes such as when Patty and Selma are seducing the repairman. Many other animated sitcoms like South Park have failed to equal The Simpson's wide age range and that is a reason why they don't match The Simpson's' accomplishments. In "The Cartridge Family", Homer buys a gun to protect his family after a citywide orgy of destruction. Homer abuses the gun though. For example he tries to turn the channels on the TV by shooting at it. Marge who feels guns will endanger the family makes Homer choose between his family or the gun. The Simpson's also satirizes some aspects of American mainstream culture. The main aspect in this episode is the gun culture. In this episode, The Simpson's are trying to persuade us that guns are dangerous, because in America many people own guns. To do this The Simpson's exaggerate that guns put your family at a lot of risk instead of protecting them....
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American History X is a movie about the significance of hate crimes and how to overcome racism. The movie starts in black and white representing a flash back. Derek, who is a neo-nazi, kills two black men after they break into his car. One of them he smashes his face against the curb. Derek gets thrown in jail for three years. Danny, his younger brother, is on the same path as Derek was. Once Derek gets out of jail all he tries to do is turn Danny away from the racism that consumes his life. Danny is given an alternative history assignment in his new history class, American History X, where he is supposed to write about how Derek's time in prison has changed and influenced his life. Derek goes to a party where all of his former skin-head friends are to be. He talks with the "ring leader" who schooled him on how to be a true skinhead. Derek informs him that he wants out and that he's changed. The two men get into a fight which causes aggression from the other skinheads against Derek. Derek manages to get away where he and Danny sit and talk. Derek tells Danny what happened to him in jail. He was a part of the skinheads in prison, but never realized that at the same time he was befriending one of his black co-workers. The skinheads notice this and rape Derek in the shower room. This causes Derek to slowly change his ways. He gets help from an outside source and stands his distance from the skinheads. Derek's story really affected Danny; so much in fact that Derek and Danny take down all of the Nazi paraphernalia in Danny's room. The next day Danny goes to school with his history assignment in...
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"American History X" is a movie that was made in the year of 1998. This film is starring Edward Norton who plays the lead role of Derek Vinyard. This movie takes place in Venice Beach, and Compton. It portrays the life Derek before during and after his involvement in a gang. The story is told through the narration of his younger brother Danny. The movie begins with the crime that Derek commits that puts him in jail. A car of black men come to his house and begins to vandalize his car. His little brother Danny runs into Derek's room and tells him and Derek runs outside and kills two of them with a gun, and from there the story begins. Derek is the leader of a white supremist nazi gang called the DOC. One of the top teachers at Danny's school hears that Danny had written a paper on Hitler and calls him into his office to talk, and asked him to write a paper about Derek. He does this in hopes that Danny won't follow in Derek's footsteps. He assigned this paper on the same day his brother Derek is being released from prison. The two groups of gangs in this movie are the Nazis vs. Crips (white vs. Black). This particular gang (DOC) is started by a man named Cameron Alexander. He recruits kids who are troubled and from this method is how he finds Derek. A black guy killed Derek and Danny's father on the job as a firefighter. This is where his motivation and hatred of black people was derived. His little brother Danny looked dup to him so much he just wanted to follow in his footsteps. The movie flashes from past to present and when it's in the past it is black and white, when it...
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What is intelligence? Scientists characterize intelligence as the capacity to learn or to understand. Intelligent people can attain information quickly and easily, and they can remember what they have learned. Do humans and animals have the same intelligence? Humans are very intelligent. They are intelligent because they built cities, written books, and even been to the moon. Human intelligence is within and it's in our nature. Intelligence is innate we are born with it, you either have intelligence or don't but you can have different levels of intelligence. Some may have a low intelligence while others can possess a high intelligence. Intelligence doesn't solely depend on marks at school but rather on the overall ability to decide for oneself solutions to common every day problems that life may bring. There are eight types of intelligence which, are called logical/mathematical, linguistic, visual/spatial, Kinaesthetic, musical, naturalist, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. Logical/mathematical intelligence is people who are good at math, are logical thinkers, and are rational thinkers. Linguistic intelligence is people who enjoy reading, writing, and listening. They also have a wide vocabulary, and enjoy listening to music. People who have visual/spatial intelligence enjoy doodling, drawing, and have good visual imagination. Kinaesthetic intelligence is that people are very active, enjoys sports activities, and dancing. Musical intelligence is people that listen to wide range of music, has good sense of rhythm, and sings along with songs. Naturalist intelligence is people who are interested in gardening, and may watch nature programs on television. Interpersonal intelligence is people, who are very people person, enjoys company, and notices people's moods and response to them. Intrapersonal intelligence is, people that are very quiet, prefers to be alone, and sends the vibe of being shy to others....
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Introduction To The Topic American History X is a great film that portrays prejudice, stereotyping and conformity. Prejudice is negative attitudes toward others based on their gender, religion, race, or membership in a particular group. Prejudice involves beliefs and emotions that can turn into hatred. Having an opinion or idea about a member of a group without really knowing that individual is a part of prejudice. Some people make judgments about a whole group of people without knowing very much about them. Sometimes people are afraid of those who seem different from them and unfortunately, they express that with name-calling and negative treatment. When people grow up with these ideas, sometimes it's hard to get rid of them. Like in the movie American History X, a father is sitting at the family dinner table and states his opinion of why he feels certain people of minority groups got their job. This influences how his children feel. Prejudice is a premature judgment, a positive or negative attitude towards a person or group of people, which is not based on objective facts. The prejudgments are usually based on stereotypes, which are shared beliefs about the characteristic traits, attitudes, and behaviors of members of various social groups including the assumption that the members of such groups are usually all alike. As the story line unfolds in American History X, the main character of the story will realize that not all people of a particular race are the same. A prejudgment may be based on an emotional experience we have had with a similar person, sort of our own personal stereotype. Stereotypes also provide us with role expectations. How we expect the other person or group to relate to us and to other people. Our culture has many of ready made stereotypes such as leaders...
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American History X is about two boys, Derek and Danny, that are skin heads. Derek, the older brother,brutally kills two black men at the beginning of the movie for trying to steal his car right outside his home. Danny, the younger brother, witnessed the whole thing. As a result of this Derek spends 3 years in prison where he learns that his previous lifestyle is wrong. While in jail he is beaten and raped for going agianst the other whites and skin heads. He befriends a black man with whom he works with in prision. He then realizes that maybe blacks aren't as bad as he thought they were. Derek's former principle, who is black, comes to visit him in jail adn tells him how his little brother, Danny, is heading in the same direction he went. Derek realizes he needs to make changes in his life adn he begs the principle for help. Meanwhile, Danny writes a paper in school on Mein Kempf. The princle and teacher are extremely disturbed by the paper so the principle tells Danny that they are going to have their own history class together called American History X. Danny's first assignment is to write a paper on his brother, everything that happened with him, adn how it affected Danny adn his family. That same day Derek is released from prision and goes to the head of the skin head group and tells him he doesn't want to be involved anymore and he doesn't want Danny involved either. The head of the skin heads doesn't take this news too well and Derek winds up running for his life. Derek then explains to Danny everything that went on while he was in prision and how all his hate stemed from their dead father. Danny then changes his mind and also wants out of the skin head group but finds that it is too late. The...
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American History X is a story about two brothers, Danny Vineyard and the oldest brother Derek Vineyard. The movie starts off with Danny getting in trouble at school. Danny, who just happens to be a young skin head, was sent to the principle's office for turning in a school paper about Hitler titled Mein Kampf. The principle decides that as his punishment, Danny would have to write a paper on his older brother Derek. Danny has to write about the events that took place, that lead to his brother's incarceration, included in this paper he has to include how those events effected who he is today. Derek Vineyard, was a straight A student in high school. Derek was a perfectly normal child, who developed to be one of the most notorious skinheads in his town. The death of his father was a hard time in Derek's life that seemed to have triggered, his hate for other races that were not white. Derek showed good leadership skills, and was easily able to round up more troubled kids to join the skinheads. One night two black kids came to Derek's home, to try to steal his car. Danny warns Derek, so of course Derek goes out to confront them. Derek ends up killing both of the young black males, thus resulting in his three year incarceration. In prison Derek becomes friends with a black inmate. Derek is raped and beaten by what seems to be former skinheads, just because he decides to become friends with a black inmate. When Derek is finally released from prison, he is shocked to see that his younger brother is headed right were he was. So Derek quits the skinhead gang, called the D.O.C., and he attempts to reform his brother. Derek was succeeding in reforming his...
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1. Danny Vinyard was influenced greatly by his brother. Derek Vinyard was basically the write hand man of Cameron Alexander, who was the leader of the D.O.C. Danny probably saw that Derek was in a high position and idolized him so therefore he took steps to someday hold the position Derek held. 2. Derek was greatly influenced by his father. In the movie they showed a flash back with Derek's father and they were sitting around eating dinner. Derek mentions Mr. Sweeney and how he was black and how Mr. Sweeney had 2 PhD's and that he had them reading black literature. Derek's dad says "Oh is it Black History Month". Soon there after his dad goes off and starts talking about how the force hired two black men over a white man who scored higher than them because of Affirmative Action. Then at the end of the scene his fathers said don't give in to Sweeney's trap. 3. Derek's father and his father's beliefs in Affirmative Action socialized Derek in a couple ways. In the dinner scene Derek explains that he is reading black literature in English class. His dad asks if its black history month, then asks if the school was making them read black literature because of Affirmative Blaction. Then he tells Derek because of Affirmative Action the police station hired a black man over a white person who scored higher than the black man. I though with his dad saying that it made it seem that all black people are dumb. 4. Derek's viewpoints changed between what his father tells him and how he responds to the media. In the movie when 5. Derek had some negative views towards the Rodney King beating. He said that Rodney King desreved to be beat because he was in danger of killing some...
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This movie begs to the viewer to think about the views of black and white. With the issues raised in this movie, one must write it down to get the full effect of all that is going on in this movie. One of the ideas in this movie is to show that a person, who can see both sides of an issue, can make better decisions based on that knowledge. That is the key to well rounded idea. What can be learned from American History X? In a conflict there are at least two points of view. If you don't know both sides how do you know you are right? To know both sides makes you better prepared to argue your case or to make a decent decision. Along those same lines you must do the research. Taking someone else's opinion is not the same as doing the research your self. The leading cause for Derek becoming a white supremacist was the fact that he was raised that way. His father was racist, and he instilled his beliefs in Derek and the rest of his family. This is an important foundation for the way he acted throughout the movie. When Derek's father was killed in a black neighborhood fighting a fire, the words he had for the reporters were his father's words. When Derek and "friends" attacked the grocery store, where two of his "friends" had lost their jobs, his father's words flowed again. Derek learned to be a white supremacist from his father. With the loss of his father, Danny turned to Derek as the father figure. Danny thought his brother was a hero. As the story goes he followed in Derek's footsteps; the only difference was that Danny was still thinking. This is evident in the fact that he questioned the...
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American History X begins in black and white with two black men trying to steal a truck and a white male with a swastika on his chest it running to the door with a gun in hand, ready to shoot. When the door opens he shoots the one standing guard and the one who broke the window of the car; soon the police come and with a smirk the white male is apprehended by the police and is incarcerated for three years on two count of involuntary manslaughter, he would have gotten life but the brother of the killer did not testify. Then there is a cut to a boy in color in his principal's office where he is being confronted for writing a civil rights paper on Mein Kampf by Adolf Hitler. The principal Dr. Sweeny, a black man who tries to help the boy from becoming like his brother, a skin head. Derek Vinyard is the man who shot the two black men who were trying to steal his truck. He is extremely well known and well respected amongst the other skin heads in the California area. His head is shaved but he has a goatee, he is dressed with swastikas on his clothes, and he has a large tattoo of a swastika on the right side of his chest; there is also one of an eagle with "White Power" underneath, and others that have something to do with white supremacy. He could persuade any lost teenager, young adult, or adult for that matter to listen to him and join them, but Cameron Alexander was the actual headman, he only used Derek to get them into the D.O.C. (Disciples of Christ). During the movie there are cuts between the past and present, the past shots are made in black and...
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How the West Was Won/Lost The two films we viewed showed the different views on how the white man views the history of our land and how the Indians view the land. Both films portrayed positives about their belief and implied negatives about the other side. I don't think I've ever gone through a history lesson until watching these films where I was exposed to a situation in which I was able to see and hear from both sides of the story. It is really a shame that more children and teachers don't get to learn the truth. Now that I think of it ever since elementary we've been taught and told that the U.S. is always the good guys and we never do the wrong thing. If I could go back and take a couple of classes in another country I would love to compare the facts or rather the stories that are told. I believe history in school works the same way as the government does, they allow the public to here what they want it to here. I support and believe that everyone should be open to here both sides and perspectives of the stories. I think more people would become interested in history if they were exposed to different views of different ethnic backgrounds. I've brought up this question before and the only kind of answer I got was it would cause confusion and controversy. History has and probably will always favor the country of its author. There's nothing really wrong with that except we need to let children know that there is another side to the story. They shouldn't be limited to what their teacher of book tells them. Furthermore if it wasn't for this film this topic would have never really crossed my mind....
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In the film "American Beauty," the director Sam Mendes focuses on the idea and concept of human enlightenment and awakening from the standardized "cave," that we humans are born into. The idea that humans are bread to become what our society prepares us to be is the main theme of "American Beauty." The character Carolyn Burnham, who plays a power driven ambitious business woman, who devotes her whole time to her work, and not her family. Carolyn is living in the cave and doesn't realize that the pressure she is putting on herself is driving her into mental anguish and disturbing the relationship she has with her husband and her daughter. Another character that finds her caught up in this cave is Angela. Angela presents herself and believes herself to be this person that she thinks society will socially accept more, gain more popularity and go further in life by being this completely phony person to everyone and hiding the true person she is behind her wall of lies. Plato's allegory of the cave depicts the idea that humans are born into a society that brainwashes and teaches its subjects, us humans, only what we need to know to survive inthis world. The idea that humans are like robots and only learn what they are taught, andthat their minds cannot expand beyond the knowledge they are taught by society, because hey don't know that there is more knowledge to be learned. "Education takes for granted that sight is there but that it isn't turned the right way or looking where it ought to look, and it tries to redirect it appropriately." (Plato p. 190) Plato's argument that humans if exposed to the same things over and over again, begin to think that this regularity andrepetitiveness is normal. Enlightenment meaning a radical...
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