Late at night, as a child snuggles up in his bed sheets, his father tells him a silly bedtime story of strange beliefs from the past. The boy giggles when he hears that the people of the 1400's believed the earth was "flat as a pancake" because, to him, it sounded so absurd. The story had been told to the father by his father, who heard it from his father, and so on. However, throughout the years, these generations have blindly been passing down a lie, without taking care to research in order to detect the validity of the folk tale. The father doesn't know that in reality, almost every educated person of that time knew that the earth was round. To deeply uncover the mystery of the "flat earth myth" we can travel back in time to discover what really happened, why it happened, and the consequence that has developed with time. Up until the 1830's, there were no rumors about the medieval people thinking that the earth was flat. The confusion of the entire matter occurred afterward because of two men: Antoine-Jean Letronne and Washington Irving. They both mixed fact with fiction to develop a story much like the father's bedtime story. Antoine-Jean Letronne was a Frenchman who was well-educated and held deep prejudice against religion. Washington Irving was an American author who distorted facts into fiction and sold them as true history. Irving played a major role in the development of the flat earth myth because it was he who slighted the story of Columbus's meeting at Salamanca in 1491. Irving stated that Columbus insisted the Earth was round, while the priests of the church that were present stuck to their belief that the earth was flat. In truth, there was a meeting, but, unlike Irving's claims, the...
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An attempt by Khmer Rouge leader Pol Pot to form a communist peasant farming society resulted in the deaths of 25 percent of the country's population from starvation, overwork, and executions. Ethnic groups were attacked including the three largest minorities; the Vietnamese, Chinese, and Cham Muslims, along with twenty other smaller groups. Fifty percent of the estimated 425, 000 Chinese living in Cambodia in 1975 perished. Khmer Rouge also forced Muslims to eat pork and shot those who refused. All foreigners were expelled from the country. Embassies were closed, and any foreign economic or medical assistance was refused. The use of foreign language was banned. Newspapers and television stations were shut down; radios and bicycles were confiscated; and mail and telephone usage was curtailed. Money was forbidden. All businesses were shuttered, religion was banned, education halted, health care eliminated, and parental authority revoked. Cambodia was sealed off from the rest of the world. On December 25, 1978, Vietnam launched a full-scale invasion of Cambodia seeking to end Khmer Rouge border attacks. On January 7, 1979, Phnom Penh fell and Pol Pot was deposed. The Vietnamese then installed a puppet government consisting of Khmer Rouge defectors. Pol Pot retreated into Thailand with the remnants of his Khmer Rouge army and began a guerrilla war against a succession of Cambodian governments lasting over the next 17 years. After a series of internal power struggles in the 1990s, he finally lost control of the Khmer Rouge. In April 1998, 73-year-old Pol Pot died of an apparent heart attack following his arrest, before he could be brought to trial by an international tribunal for the events of 1975-79....
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The difference between today's Western world and the Middle Ages is immeasurable. The workings of society and the ways of thinking are directly in contrast to one another, ranging from the role of religion, to the advancement of technology and art. It makes one wonder what a person from Medieval times would think if they could see how far the world has progressed and how different things are now. Religion was what the medieval life was based on and things were done for the purpose of fulfilling time on Earth to get passage into the afterlife. Today, religion plays a different role, one that is not as important. For most, it is optional to attend church and worship a god, and is only part of one's life, instead of the main focus. People are not governed by their religious conviction and may chose which faith they want to pursue. This most definitely would come as a shock to the medieval person, as religion was the principle of their life and they lived to satisfy the teachings of God. The political structure that exists today would be something very strange in The Middle Ages, a system completely unimaginable. The first point of amazement would be the separation from the church. The government leader and his party rules over a country instead of a religious head such as the Pope. The church today, has no say in how a secular, western country is run, and is viewed as a completely independent faculty from the government. People are used to democratic rule, where they have the right to vote and chose a leader for their country. This individual freedom and responsibility for one's self would be very hard for the medieval mind to comprehend. These people were not used to thinking for themselves, always being...
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Comparing and Contrasting the French and American Revolutions Compare and contrast the American and French revolutions. These should include the role of the bourgeoisie/capitalist middle class, the difference in geography, the role of the international community, religion (its view of democracy, and its relationship to the state), voting habits of the two nations and their political culture. The French Revolution was plotted by the person who helped the Americans in their own, Marquis de Lafayette, therefore both revolutions have many things in common. Nevertheless they were different countries, which means that they had different cultures and were different in every aspect. The Americans planned their revolution for many years and executed it with the help of the French (economically and military). Once the revolution was over, they were a republic and signed the treaty in Paris. When the French return to France they realize that they don't have the freedom America does and they helped them fight for. So, the French started planning their own revolution. The American Revolution was about the independence of a country. The people who planned it were the wealthy people among the Americans. They were the Capitalist Middle-Class. The high-class were the British and the lower classes the slaves and workers. The capitalist wanted a different government. They wanted a democracy. The capitalists are the founders of the United States. They believed in working hard to make money and do what they wanted with it. On the other hand the French revolution was about human rights. In the French Revolution the bourgeoisie had almost the same circumstances. They would work really hard and save money. Along the years they had almost more money than the nobility. The more money they had the more taxes would be raised. The bourgeoisie realized that they had no rights, they were more...
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The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights are both effective social contracts. Events and experience that caused some type of conflict, sparked the need for change; the realization that something had to be done in order to protect and benefit the people. These two documents allowed people to have rights, which at the time would have been a groundbreaking assertion as it set forth new laws and principles. The Declaration of the Rights of Man was an effect of the revolution. It seemed as a direct blow towards the king, as the National Assembly blamed him for the discrimination, inequality and disregard that people had faced well under his power. The intent of this declaration was to let people know that they had rights and that these rights were given by God, so could not be taken away. This contract seemed particularly aimed at taking away the privileges of the aristocracy and making everyone equal, as well as taking the power from the king and giving it to the state. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was proclaimed by the General Assembly, at a time when World War II was the conflict. It was a social contract that intended to set a common standard of achievement for all people and all nations. This achievement was to promote respect for these rights and freedoms, both nationally and internationally, among all people. The Declaration of the Rights of Man was a society level social contract. It was directly related to the French society. Many of the rights and laws introduced were as a result of the problems and issues being brought up because of the revolution. If you compare these rights to those of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, you will find that they are more specific...
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The Han Dynasty was far greater than the First Empire, since the Han dynasty destroyed all form of torture and violence towards the non-believers and introduced a good system of education that would stick to people. This was made possible by these three things: education, trade and Confucianism, which made China, grow into a strong nation that overruled the earth and destroyed what was known as legalism. From the chaos left over by the Qin Dynasty came the Han Dynasty. It built on the strengths of the earlier dynasties and removed the faults. Taxes were sharply reduced, and economic recovery was widely promoted. Examinations were used to identify potential candidates for official posts and gifted scholars, and the teachings of Confucius were promoted and encouraged. Being far more intelligent than Shi Huandi emperor Wudi was thinking of his people and not of himself. He wanted for a smart country that could evolve and strengthen under his power. The teachings of Confucius allowed the people of china to think for themselves and collaborate on an idea that could become something. Unlike Shi-Huandi, emperor Wudi allowed the people to express themselves without being n danger, and his schools taught people between the good and the bad. Wudi had a strong word in his population with the promise of a winning country. Since agriculture was the only real profession during the first empire, Wudi taught that with education the people could make something much more. And oh was he ever right, the Chinese people were the first ones to invent the paper, paper money, silk, gunpowder and many more invention that were from the roots of Confucius. Much of these customs are still practiced today in modern China and if it wasn't for the teachings of Confucius the China that we know today wouldn't...
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Comparison of Trade Rivalries The German-Great Britain trade rivalry like the U.S.-Japan trade rivalry involved a rising power cutting into the trade of an already dominant trading power. There were several causes of the German-Great Britain trade rivalry according to Hoffman. The first was German's industry's zeal in procuring new contracts and expanding markets. They did this by fulfilling contracts even if they were very small and constantly trying to stay up with market demand. Second, Germans had a knowledge of languages that the English firms lacked. Third, German industry was aided by their government. In contrast Great Britain did not even supply consular assistance in helping develop markets in British colonies. Fourth, British trade was hurt by the conservatism of British manufacturers who were unwilling to develop new markets or hold onto those it already possessed. These four factors are just some of the factors that helped German industry grow and rival that of Great Britain. These four factors are all very similar to the Japan-U.S. trade rivalry. Japan like Germany was able to catch up to the U.S. because the U.S. was large and arrogant and refused to believe it could face competition from Japan. Like Britain, U.S. industry believed that they could hold onto markets and would not face competition. British and U.S. industry were startled by the fast rate of growth and industrialization that allowed Germany and Japan to transform themselves quickly into trading rivals. This fast rate of growth also caused friction between both sets of countries. Relations between Germany and Great Britain were damaged as they bickered over markets in particular colonies in Africa . This is similar to the friction between the U.S. and Japan unfair trading practices and closed markets. Both the U.S. and Great Britain in response to losing markets toyed with...
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From 1994-1996 there was a war in Chechnya. War has erupted again recently between Chechnya and its neighboring republic of Ingushetia. The border has been closed since an air raid on a marketplace in the Chechen capital of Grozny triggered a serge of terrified civilians. The Russian goal is to keep the Chechnyans from going to Ingushetia which is the safer side of the war. And they also want to keep people thinking that they're winning this war. Caryl, Christian. "Reality is Virtuality Horrible". U.S. News Nov. 1999: 60. Since 1972 when Britain took control of Northern Ireland, the Catholics and the Protestants have been fighting for control over whether to stay united with Britain or break off to be just Ireland. A coalition government was formed by both sides, with Britain transferring broad powers to the new Ulster government. This is the first home-rule government in Ulster since the British took direct control in 1972. It's the long delayed final step of the Good Friday peace accord, which was ratified by more than 70% of Ulster's voters in May 1998. This issue is political, social and religious. Grose, Thomas K. "Irish Eyes are Smiling". U.S. News Dec. 1999: 40-41. Macao, a 9.2 mile area in China, has been under Portuguese rule for 442 years. However, since 1974, Portugal has been trying to hand over Macao back to China. They have experienced increasing problems in the interim, including gambling and crimes such as money laundering, loan sharking and drug smuggling. Since 1996, gang violence has spun out of control. The transfer of power appears to please most everyone. The goal is to have a smooth transfer of power. The main concern for Macao is its future under control of communist China. Fang, Bay. "China Embraces a Spec Called Macao". U.S. News Dec. 1999: 40. Russia and...
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The Cold War is the closest the world has ever come to complete destruction. In this period of time, two world super powers were in a stalemate economically and militarily and were constantly competing to be the superior. The Cold War started as result of World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union had some differences on their perspectives of the world. United States being the richest country in the world promoted democracy and capitalism in the world. The newly formed Soviet Union thought that communism was a better political system because it transformed their economy and status in the world from nothing but a declining empire to a super power once again. The Cold War was a long series of events in which the communist tried to spread their ideas of government and socialist economy, known as expansionism, and the United States and some of the other Western powers such as Great Britain tried to contain it. Containment, a term introduced by George F. Kennan, was the foreign policy the United States practiced from 1946 to 1991 when the Soviet Union collapsed. The United States saw the Soviet Union to be a direct threat to the free world. During president Truman and Eisenhower's administration the policy of containment evolved so drastically that American presidents would put anything on the line, including world peace. It started with the Truman Doctrine (1947) that stated the United States would help any country financially and militarily that was interested in keeping the world free for democracy. The Truman Doctrine came about as direct result of communist guerillas in Greece trying to take over the government. American advisers believed that the guerillas were taking orders from the Soviets after they launched a civil war against the government. The United States decided to assist...
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Battle Of Little Big Horn Five springs ago I, with many Sioux Indians, took down and packed up our tipis and moved from Cheyenne river to the Rosebud river, where we camped a few days; then took down and packed up our lodges and moved to the Little Bighorn river and pitched our lodges with the large camp of Sioux. The Sioux were camped on the Little Bighorn river as follows: The lodges of the Uncpapas were pitched highest up the river under a bluff. The Santee lodges were pitched next. The Oglala's lodges were pitched next. The Brule lodges were pitched next. The Minneconjou lodges were pitched next. The Sans Arcs' lodges were pitched next. The Blackfeet lodges were pitched next. The Cheyenne lodges were pitched next. A few Arikara Indians were among the Sioux (being without lodges of their own). Two-Kettles, among the other Sioux (without lodges). I was a Sioux chief in the council lodge. My lodge was pitched in the center of the camp. The day of the attack I and four women were a short distance from the camp digging wild turnips. Suddenly one of the women attracted my attention to a cloud of dust rising a short distance from camp. I soon saw that the soldiers were charging the camp. To the camp I and the women ran. When I arrived a person told me to hurry to the council lodge. The soldiers charged so quickly we could not talk (council). We came out of the council lodge and talked in all directions. The Sioux mount horses, take guns, and go fight the soldiers. Women and children mount horses and go, meaning to get out of the way. Among the soldiers was an officer who rode a horse with four white feet. [This officer was evidently Capt. French,...
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Cuban Missile Crisis The world's closest call with nuclear war was the Cuban Missile Crisis. Steaming this problem on was both Soviet insecurity and Cuba's fear of U.S. invasion. Tension and secrecy drove the three nations to the breaking point, and yet, miraculously, not a missile was launched. What caused such a virulent situation? Well, there were two main factors provided by Cuba and the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union was far behind in the arms production race with the U.S., and they feared a first strike from the U.S.'s base in Turkey which was only 150 miles away. Khrushchev noted that Cuba was only 90 miles off the coast of Florida, but the 60 mile difference was "nothing for a missile." Most of all, however, Khrushchev feared a first-strike by the U.S. If the Soviet Union lost the arms race so badly, he worried, it would invite a first-strike nuclear attack from the U.S. Consequently, Khrushchev began looking for a way to counter the United State's lead. Secondly, Cuban Premier Fidel Castro feared that Cuba was not safe from invasion. The Armed Forces conducted a mock invasion of a Caribbean island to overthrow a fictitious dictator whose name, Ortsac, was Castro spelled backwards. Additionally, the U.S. was drafting a plan to invade Cuba (Operation Mongoose). The mock invasion and invasion plan were devised to keep Castro nervous. Finally, the CIA had also been running covert operations throughout Cuba trying to damage the Castro government. Consequently, Castro was convinced the U.S. was serious about invading Cuba. The Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962 was a close call to nuclear war. The Soviets had installed nuclear missiles in Cuba, just 90 miles off the coast of the United States. U.S. armed forces were at their highest state of readiness. Soviet field commanders in Cuba...
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All empires constantly evolve, declining and rising in status. Many empires have collapsed, only to start again under a different name. Like all empires, the three Muslim Empires, the Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals have faced this inevitable state. Although each individual empire is different, they each have similarities in their reasons for decline. Whether it is social, religious, economic, or political reasons, the empires, like many others, have fallen. The Ottoman Empire, founded by Osman, had started in the northwestern corner of the Anatolian Peninsula. The empire expanded rapidly, only to weaken again. The first visible decline was the loss of territory at the Battle of Carlowitz in 1699. Many of their reasons of success have deteriorated over the years and actually caused the decline as well. The Ottoman's military was very strong, especially the members of the Janissaries corps. Boys were recruited from the local Christian population to serve as guards but only the best ones became Janissaries. Soon, though, the position became hereditary, so there was no longer a need to be excellent to occupy a position. Also, the training of officials declined, and the elite formed a privileged group seeking wealth and power. Although the Ottoman system was religiously tolerant, non-Muslims were forced to pay a head tax because of their exemption from military service and were divided by religious faith into a number of "nations" that had its own leader and laws. Also, before the decline, the position of the sultan was hereditary and a son always succeeded his father. The heir to the throne gained experience by being assigned as governors of provinces. Later, the oldest surviving male inherited the throne and others were kept secluded which provided them with no governmental experience in case they succeeded the throne. The sultans became less involved in the...
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By considering and studying Modernization and Dependency theories, development theorist are trying to conceptualize which of perspectives could more substantially describe Third World underdevelopment. In my preceding work I will critically evaluate tenets of both perspectives. The two spheres of dependency paradigm economical and cultural dependence are in my opinion the major contributors to the Third World, particularly Africa's underdevelopment. As Olayinka Sonaike has defined, "Economic dependence is a term that is widely used to portray the relationship of inequality between the underdeveloped countries and the advanced." Economic dependency experienced by many African nations totally contradicts to the neoclassical theory of a harmonic among components of the global economy. However, in reality there is no evidence of such a harmony, in contrary dependence and exploitation of the Third World economies by the World leaders. Since many Third World nations are lacking inter-country market place, their economies are heavily relying on the economies of more advanced societies. This in turn gives Western societies a lot of control over the less developed nations' economies. As the world capitalist expansion continues the robes of dependency are getting longer as well. What economic dependence does to the country is according to Offing "sucking of capital of the dependent countries", so needed for the further domestic expansion. And this is evident in many Third World societies. The most successful manipulators was Western international conglomerates, supported by the government, they applied a variety of methods and techniques with a primary purpose of wealth maximization. Western nations, realizing their tremendous advantage in technology, and controlling the market for the intermediate goods produced from the raw materials and assembled, probably domestically into the final product, are externally regulate the level of resource utilization in the dependent economies, which in turn affects income distribution, social cohesion, and political stability. On...
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Lenin was obviously influenced by Karl Marx's writing, The Communist Manifesto. To have revolutionized Russia, Lenin took these theories and shaped them to fit his needs at the time of the Russian Revolution. His close comrade, Leon Trotsky, agreed on some of the revisions yet disagreed on the others. The doctrine of the Bolsheviks was the mold of Marx filled with the steel of Lenin. The theories of Marx predicted a revolution that was supposed to happen in an industrialized and capitalistic nation. At the time of Lenin, Russia was neither of those two. Marx's dream was a dictatorship of the proletariat; Lenin turned it into the dictatorship over the proletariat. Unlike Marx Lenin believed the struggle of the proletariat against the oppressing capitalists would not bring forward a 'class consciousness' needed to a social revolution. Lenin knew that the workers of Russia, the simple muzhiks, needed to be pushed over edge and into revolution. From here comes the first revision of Lenin, an elite party is required to guide the proletariat. These elites must be professional revolutionists who can combat the antagonists. By suggesting the rule of the elite Lenin also dropped the idea of Marx's democratic rule. By incorporating the elite leaders into the revolution Lenin believed that the Russian people could accelerate their path to communism. When the Russian economy struggled Lenin created the NEP (New Economic Policy). By putting this into action in Russia they took a step back from communism to capitalism. Marx would be rolling over in his grave at the sound of such action, since he believed that passage to communism was a one-way road. Yet, Lenin, being a practical man, believed "a few steps back would lead to a giant leap forward". These are the key revisions of Marx made by Lenin. Leonid Trotsky...
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Outline Some Of The Ways The Dinstinction Between Productive And Unproductive Labour Have Been Drawn 'Debates about what is real work have been taking place since the birth of economics in the 18th Century'. (D103 p 33) The way work is organised … defines our economy and the meaning of economic activity'. (i.b.i.d. p 9) There are two definitions of work. Firstly, activities done in order to bring in money as payment for the person doing it, based on exchange in the public domain, which may be seen as productive work. Secondly, activities that contribute to the reproduction of society, usually unpaid and undertaken in the private domain, which may been seen as unproductive work. Many activities fall into both categories but it is the 'social context in which an activity is done which determines whether a particular activity is seen as work or not'. (i.b.i.d. p 10) This essay will outline some of the ways the distinction between productive and unproductive labour has been drawn and see if the theories based on these distinctions have been successful in explaining the poor growth of the British economy especially during the 1970's. Within the economy only paid work is recognised but a great deal of unpaid work, often carried out in the home, particularly domestic labour and caring for children, is vital to the reproduction of society. However, 'the identification of paid labour with work tends to make non-paid forms of work such as housework, charitable work and voluntary work slip from view and become invisible'. (i.b.i.d. p 134) As well as unpaid labour, the 'armed services, law enforcement officers, all public employees, domestic staff, servants and even the Sovereign are seen as unproductive labour because they do not produce a product for sale'. (i.b.i.d. p 36) These people are employed for the usefulness of the...
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Economics of 1492 - Discovering America by the Hellenes. The discovery of America, as every schoolboy knows, is credited to the Genoese navigator, Christopher Columbus in 1492. Actually CC discovered the Caribbean islands, and it was Englishman John Cabbot who "discovered" the mainland 5 years later, landing in Newfoundland - Ed. But many historians believe that adventurers from other countries visited the New World long before that date. Some say Japanese fishermen, blown off course, Others say it was the Vikings. But there is a possibility that it was Greeks who first discovered that mighty land. Did Columbus Really Discover America? For decades and decades, American history books and school teaching told us that Christopher Columbus discovered America. What those books and teachings did not give credit to was the fact that Native Americans were already here first and truly discovered America. Today, we celebrate Columbus day for what it accurately is. Columbus did discover the existence of the New World for Europeans who until then, believed the world was flat and ended somewhere in the Atlantic. And, the focus is more upon discovery of the "New World", and less upon Columbus himself. Text of Abstract : Cost analysis of Columbus' first trip to America. The total cost was about 2.000.000 maravedis (1 ounce of gold = 300 maravedis) and have been financed by the king and Quinn of Spain, Greeks, Colombus family, people from Spain, Portugal, Italy and England. 1 dinero = 1,5 maraveids and 1 ducat = 375 maravedis. You can find the drawings and the economic background of the first famous trip with the ships Santa Maria, Ninia and Pinta. The economic analysis includes the costs for the ships, crews (fees and payments), food etc. Also there are many in formations about the economics of this period, the financing procedures and the coinage (Mediaeval Economics). Also many information about the...
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Before the white man the story of Iroquois Indians began long before the white explorers, traders, and settlers reached the shores of the New World. The Iroquois originally lived in some unknown part of the North America. According to legend, these Indians were instructed by the Great Spirit to move into the Northeast. There they carved a territory for themselves in the middle of a rival group of Indians, the Algonquin's. The Iroquois settled in beautiful and rich lands of northern New York State. We know this territory today as the area surrounding Lake Ontario, the Five Finger Lakes, and the Saint Lawrence River. The lakes and rivers provided abundant fish, thick woods offered game of many kinds. It was an ideal location but the Iroquois had to fight their neighbors to maintain this new homeland. Fighting became a way of life for the Iroquois in those centuries before the arrival of the white man. In fact the word "Iroquois" is the Algonquin word meaning "rattlesnake". That name tells how the enemy viewed the Iroquois. The Iroquois called themselves "Hodenosaunee" (Ho-de-no-saw-ne), meaning " the people of the long house". The Iroquois Indians are not one tribe but several; the group includes the Mohawk, the Seneca, the Onondaga, the Oneida, and the Cayuga tribes. Today these names mark well-known areas of the New York and the northeast. The Iroquois became a Nation of the six tribes after 1715 when the Tuscarora Indians relocated from the south to join them. The Iroquois Indians were constantly fighting; they fought to defend themselves from their enemies. They fought to gain more land or more power. They also fought to avenge themselves in intertribal feuds; they fought as often with each other as they did with unrelated tribes. The Seneca and the Mohawk tribes were the fiercest among the...
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The Vietnam War By Shane Easton U.S. History Term 2 1/2/02 From the 1880s until World War II, France governed Vietnam as part of French Indochina. In 1940 during part of World War II Japan invaded this French Indochina. In December of that year, Vietnamese nationalists established the League for the Independence of Vietnam, or Viet Minh, seeing the turmoil of the war as an opportunity for resistance to French colonial rule. In an action against the Japanese invasion the United States demanded Japan leave or military action would take place. In guerrilla warfare against Japan the Viet Minh Quickly became a valuable ally to the United States. Viet Minh Interaction was so helpful that the Viet Minh leader Ho Chi Minh was made a special agent of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS). When the Japanese signed their formal surrender on September 2, 1945, Ho used the occasion to declare the independence of Vietnam, which he called the Democratic Republic of Vietnam or DRV for short. This declaration of independence resulted in Emperor Bao Dai giving up the throne. The French, however, refused to acknowledge Vietnam's independence, and later that year drove the Viet Minh into the north of the country. Ho wrote eight letters to U.S. president Harry Truman, begging him to recognize Vietnam's independence. Many OSS agents whom knew Ho from work earlier as and official OSS agent informed the U.S. administration that despite being a Communist, Ho Chi Minh was not a puppet of the USSR and that he could potentially become a valued ally in Asia. Shortly after this event Tensions between the United States and the USSR had mounted after World War II, resulting in what we refer to as the Cold War. The United States around the Cold War had a great fear Communism spreading. Eastern Europe had fallen under Communism, and...
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The Romantic Age was a time of great literary expansion and it provided writers a chance to truly speak from their soul to all readers. During the Romantic Age, there were many writers, but few who deserve recognition. Of these writers, there were Keats and Wordsworth. Both alike, yet different in many ways. This is shown in Wordsworth's " It is a Beauteous Evening, Calm and Free," and the poems of John Keats. William Wordsworth found that the best way to express his feelings through sonnet is through a structure containing only one stanza. Wordsworth compiled everything together as if just spontaneous thoughts written on a page. In the beginning of "It is a Beauteous Evening, Calm and Free," Wordsworth speaks of the night as everlasting "A sound like thunder, everlasting" (Line 8.) He then transitions to speaking to a girl, assumed as his lover. "...Dear Girl! That walkest with me here..." (Line 9). Also, Wordsworth uses description words to create a visual image of what he is describing. An example of this is "The gentleness of heaven broods o'er the sea" (Line 5). Wordsworth looked at the beauty of nature and its permanence, described it with great detail, and with that created poems that became icons in the Romantic Age. John Keats, however, felt that several stanzas were necessary to completely get his feelings onto paper. In "Ode to a Grecian Urn," Keats wrote five stanzas, each separated by their subject matter, as if telling a story. He looked at nature as if it were a work of art. He also felt that what was left unsaid was even more powerful than what was actually spoken. "Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard are sweeter..." (Line 12). Although Keats did not think of nature as beauty and permanence like Wordsworth, he...
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In this essay I hope to explain the 5 events in each of these three struggling country. All these countries have things in common like lack of unity, lack of adequate economic development, lack of education. These countries struggle throughout the a couple of decades, but now slowly recovering with the aid of other countries. In Africa, Colonialism left a legacy of problems. Most of the new nations were based on the colonial units set up by the Europeans. The boundaries of those units, however, showed no regard for the people who lived there. As a result, boundaries often divided ethnic groups, enclosed rival groups, or contained so many different groups that a sense of unity was almost impossible to develop. Nigeria included groups that were traditional enemies. The result was civil war in which more than a million people died. By contrast, Uganda had so many different groups that the government radio had to broadcast 24 different languages. In many countries, colonial practices had undermined community and family life. Thousands of men had been forced to work in the gold and copper mines of the Congo, Rhodesia, and South Africa. Often they were away from home for months or years at a time, unable to visit their families. Elsewhere forced migrations disrupted communities and weakened traditional ties and the customs of everyday life. Most ruling powers had done little to develop schools or to educate people as doctors, engineers, technicians, or government workers. Thus the new nations lacked both professional people as leaders and skilled workers to aid in economic development. The low rate of literacy also made it difficult for nations to develop stable governments. Rulers had avoided developing democratic traditions, and there were a small middle class. Tanzania's success in achieving an 80 percent literacy rate showed that support for...
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