1948: The Forty-First Election When President Franklin Delano Roosevelt ran for president in 1944, Harry S Truman was selected to replace Henry A. Wallace as his vice presidential candidate. Many conservative leaders did not like Wallace's liberal views. They believed that Truman would be more appealing to mainstream voters. Roosevelt won the 1944 election, and on January 20, 1945, Truman became the vice president of the United Sates. On April 12, 1945, President Roosevelt died of a stroke. Truman was then sworn in as president. He had been vice president for only eighty-two days. World War II had started during Roosevelt's presidency and it was expected to end during his presidency. Obviously it didn't. WWII was coming to an end when Truman became president; he just had to finish it. Victory in Europe seemed certain, and President Truman wanted unconditional surrender by the Germans. On May 8, 1945, he proclaimed Victory-In-Europe Day. Truman authorized the use of atomic bombs. Military advisers said that using the bombs would spare the lives of half a million American soldiers. On August 6, an atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, Japan, and on the ninth, a second one was dropped on Nagasaki. On August 14, Japan asked for peace, and officially surrendered on September second. Truman ran for president in the election of 1948. His only real competitor for the Democratic candidate was General Eisenhower. But Eisenhower removed himself from the race. Henry A. Wallace was the candidate from the Progressive Party. The Progressive Party was new; it did not support the "cold war." It thought more diplomatic means should be used to deal with Russia. The three main Republicans to become presidential candidates were Thomas E. Dewey, Robert A. Taft, and Harold E. Stassen. After seeing Dewey's popularity the others dropped out and Dewey got the nomination. President Truman spoke in a...
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A period in American History till 1900 a) important events b) great figures of the period c) characteristics of several works of art/literature of the period important events The site of the U.S. was originally inhabited by people from Asia. To the first colonists they were known as American Indians. Officially, America was discovered by Christopfer Colombus in 1492. Soon, the land was captured by Europeans from the native Indians, who then were either assimilated or forced to leave the area. The Spaniards reached Florida in 1513 and New Mexico in 1540. The French began their exploration of the Mississippi River valley in 1673 and the Russians reached Alaska in 1741. Of all colonizers, the British were the most succesful. In 1607 Jamestown became the first permanent British settlement in North America and the foundation of the Virginia colony. In 1620, after a conflict with King James I., a community of English Puritans (called Pillgrims) wanted to land in Virginia, but were blown to north to the tip of Cape Code. Then they established Plymouth. Many of them died during the first winter from starvation and serious diseases. The settlerers who survived celebrated their survival with the feast of Thanksgiving Day. By the middle of the eighteen century the American colonies felt a need for their own identity. However, England aroused the growing resentment (odpor) of the colonists. Britain increased its military presence and The Boston Tea Party started thr struggle for Independence of the thirteen colonies. The American patriots were led by George Washington. The Independence was declared on July the 4, 1776, and created Articles of Confederation to govern the new nation. George Washington became the first president. As the U.S. moved west, slavery intensified the strains between the industrializing North and the slave-based agricultural South. The election of Abraham Lincoln the president in 1860, led South...
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The seeds of American social reform began in the early days of the nineteenth century. By the 1860s, American society was beleaguered by groups demanding change. Abolitionists called for the termination of slavery. Women fought for their equal rights. Other reformers pressed for wider public education and the expulsion of alcohol. Although these reform movements sought to improve the country's well being, they went against its valued democratic ideals. In essence, they wanted to create a utopian society based on equality, a standard the reform movements did not support. "I have often been told, and I have read, that it is God who makes some poor, and others rich; that the rich have many troubles which we know nothing of; and that the poor, if they are but good, may be very happy…" (Doc.E) Although public education was one of the most successful reform movements of that era, this passage from a children's primer shows children that they must accept inequalities and that wealth and poverty can only be determined by God. This greatly opposes the democratic ideal of equal opportunity. In a sense, the government contradicts itself in how it instills these virtues in children even though they are against what this country stands for. Not only does the government contradict itself, but completely throws out the past, a road paved by those great minds who saw potential in their democratic principles. Perhaps Orestes A. Brownson said it best in his address before the Society of the Mystical Seven, "These systems of reform disown the past, condemn what has been, and propose the creation of an entirely new social order…It is to no man's credit that he disowns what has gone before him…" (Doc.G) Society was ready to abandon their old ideals and replace them with new ones. In addition,...
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Romanticism began in the early 19th century and radically changed the way people perceived themselves and the state of nature around them. Unlike Classicism, which stood for order and established the foundation for architecture, literature, painting and music, Romanticism allowed people to get away from the constricted, rational views of life and concentrate on an emotional and sentimental side of humanity. This not only influenced political doctrines and ideology, but was also a sharp contrast from ideas and harmony featured during the Enlightenment. The Romantic era grew alongside the Enlightenment, but concentrated on human diversity and looking at life in a new way. It was the combination of modern Science and Classicism that gave birth to Romanticism and introduced a new outlook on life that embraced emotion before rationality. Romanticism was a reactionary period of history when its seeds became planted in poetry, artwork and literature. The Romantics turned to the poet before the scientist to harbor their convictions (they found that the orderly, mechanistic universe that the Science thrived under was too narrow-minded, systematic and downright heartless in terms of feeling or emotional thought) and it was men such as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in Germany who wrote "The Sorrows of Young Werther" which epitomized what Romanticism stood for. His character expressed feelings from the heart and gave way to a new trend of expressing emotions through individuality as opposed to collectivism. In England, there was a resurgence into Shakespearean drama since many Romantics believed that Shakespeare had not been fully appreciated during the 18th century. His style of drama and expression had been downplayed and ignored by the Enlightenment's narrow classical view of drama. Friedrich von Schlegel and Samuel Taylorleridge (from Germany and England respectively) were two critics of literature who believed that because of the Enlightenment's suppression of individual emotion as being free and imaginative, Shakespeare who have never written his material in the 19th century as opposed to the 18th century. The perception that the Enlightenment was destroying...
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Romanticism began in the early 19th century and radically changed the way people perceived themselves and the state of nature around them. Unlike Classicism, which stood for order and established the foundation for architecture, literature, painting and music, Romanticism allowed people to get away from the constricted, rational views of life and concentrate on an emotional and sentimental side of humanity. This not only influenced political doctrines and ideology, but was also a sharp contrast from ideas and harmony featured during the Enlightenment. The Romantic era grew alongside the Enlightenment, but concentrated on human diversity and looking at life in a new way. It was the combination of modern Science and Classicism that gave birth to Romanticism and introduced a new outlook on life that embraced emotion before rationality. Romanticism was a reactionary period of history when its seeds became planted in poetry, artwork and literature. The Romantics turned to the poet before the scientist to harbor their convictions (they found that the orderly, mechanistic universe that the Science thrived under was too narrow-minded, systematic and downright heartless in terms of feeling or emotional thought) and it was men such as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in Germany who wrote "The Sorrows of Young Werther" which epitomized what Romanticism stood for. His character expressed feelings from the heart and gave way to a new trend ofexpressing emotions through individuality as opposed to collectivism. In England, there was a resurgence into Shakespearean drama since many Romantics believed that Shakespeare had not been fully appreciated during the 18th century. His style of drama and expression had been downplayed and ignored by the Enlightenment's narrow classical view of drama. Friedrich von Schlegel and Samuel Taylorleridge (from Germany and England respectively) were two critics of literature who believed that because of the Enlightenment's suppression of...
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There are many types of gangs across the United States. One kind is a street gang, Street Gangs have been here for years and where they came from Can be traced back to many large city areas. Many gangs originally formed as a purpose of self protection for family And friends with in their neighborhood, it was an Activity as a way to get money. There are prison gangs too, There are major prison gangs called "traditional Prison gangs" these gangs Started in the 1960's and 1970's in the California Corrections system and were formed originally by inmates as a purpose To proctect them selfs from other groups and inmate predators. Joing this list of gangs is called "Netas", which originated In the Puerto rico prison system and has spread into the United states. The names of some street gangs have groups called Crips&bloods they have a certain language they communicate with Using Garphity. Some gangs members have tattoos to show what gang they belong to. And there are girl gangsters to. For them to get in the gang They would have to fight the leader of the gang or Have sex with him. The Gang laws, As more and more crimes are committed by gang members , many many municipalities ,states , and even the government of the United states have found it necessary to enact gang-realted legislation to protect Persons and property. These laws very from state to state and some are more detailed then other. Some deal with acts committed by gang members as a felony,others as a misdemeanor,and still others combine both. The subject matter of each state law also varies and ranges from gang recruitment, drive-by shootings and carjacking to garffti ; gang related clothing ,and gangs in schools. Gangs and Drugs It has been reported that gangs such as gangster diciples,who originated in Chicago,make millions of dollars each year through seling Illgal drugs; drugs that have been sold, most often by...
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The film segment chosen was the final scene from Stanley Kubrik's 2001 A Space Odyssey made in 1968. As the name would suggest, the film is set almost entirely in the future. Already having projected itself over 30 years into the future, it would be safe to assume that this motion picture offers a wealth of imagery and futuristic vision. It does. It is towards the end of the film, however, that Kubrik offers this to us on a much greater scale. In these few minutes, we are presented with the dawn of a new era: a near incomprehensible evolution of humanity. Through many complex design devices, the set design successfully achieves a vision for the future that is neither dystopian, nor entirely utopian, yet extraordinarily positive on a revolutionary scale. Kubrik himself has never publicly discussed the ending to 2001 and admits that this was a very subjective film, while many people claim not to have understood it at all. Many interpretations have been made as to the real meaning of this scene, many incredibly different and most equally plausible. Despite their differences, however, all have one thing in common: an overwhelmingly optimistic vision for the future. A few example interpretations include alien intervention: an idea that alien technology has helped man progress to the "next level" of consciousness; to an understanding beyond the physical realm. Others adopt the idea of the emergence of man as pure thought completely of his own accord. It is for this reason that the futuristic vision expressed in this scene cannot be labeled simply utopian. What viewers are offered during this scene spans far beyond an idealistic version of the world we live in today: various connotations found in the scene stretch the bounds and horizons of humanity itself. The problem faced by Kubrik, and indeed the set designer was...
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The 20th century has been a period that has seen things such as great political and social change, great advancements, and great catastrophe as well. From World War I in 1914, through the beginnings of the nuclear age in the 1940's, to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990, the century has been full of major and influential occurrences that have strongly affected our global society as a whole. The century has seen two full-scale global wars, and a series of smaller wars to go along with great changes in governments, ideals, and society, as well as great industrial and societal advancements. Our world has seen two global scale wars as well as several smaller scale wars to go along with them. In the early 1900's the world was completely dominated by European countries such as Germany, Austria, Britain, France, and Italy. These countries had great amounts of land throughout the world carved up into colonies. By 1914 Europe was divided into two combinations of great powers originally formed by defensive purposes to decreases risk of attack. This turned out to be quite the opposite however. The two alliances formed were, The Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria, and Italy (who later joined the Triple Entente), and the Triple Entente of France, Russia, and Britain. Nationalism was also becoming an extremely important theme in the early 20th century. The Austro-Hungarian Empire was a state that included people of dozens of ethnic groups. This became a problem in this age of nationalism; this sparked the independent kingdom of Serbia who wanted to take in these Slavic groups to assassinate Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne. If it wasn't for these alliances and ideas of nationalism, Austria-Hungary if they had not been sure of Germany's support would not have risked war with the...
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1. God and only God created the universe 2. God created the oceans and atmosphere 3. God saw everything that He had made, and indeed it was very good 3 concepts that do not exist in Genesis 1. Big Bang 2. Theory of Everything 3. Is the universe, open, close or flat? Science embraces the Big Bang theory as the explanation for the creation of the universe. Theologians have their own Big Bang theory as written in Genesis: GOD created the universe in seven days. These two theories contradict each other and people have had to choose which one is true. So it comes down to this question; did something just appear from nothing or did someone make something appear? If proof is required, both explanations require a leap of faith. What if they both were true? What if science could reasonably prove what was written in the book of Genesis 3000 years ago? In this essay, I will attempt to contrast the two views. Theologians say in the beginning, when GOD created the heavens and the earth, the earth was a formless wasteland, and darkness covered the abyss, while a great wind swept over the waters. Scientists say that the Big Bang sent cosmic debris to every corner of the universe. This debris slowly united into spherical masses creating the beginning of stars, planets solar systems and galaxies. This scientific explanation has an uncanny similarity to what was written in Genesis thousands of years ago. Formless wasteland and darkness covering the abyss could be the same as cosmic debris slowly forming spherical masses. Keep in mind that an ancient writer would not have any concept of galaxies and solar systems only speculations. This is also shown in Paradise Lost when Milton was talking about the nine planets. As for the oceans and the atmosphere, GOD said, "Let there be...
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The fundamental event of European history in the eighteenth century was the French Revolution. From its outbreak in 1789, the Revolution touched and transformed social values and political systems in France, in Europe, and eventually throughout the world. France's revolutionary regime conquered much of Western Europe with its arms and with its ideology. The three interpretations of the French Revolution were Liberal, Conservative, and Social. French Revolution's ideals defined the essential aspirations of modern liberal society, while its bloody conflicts posed the brutal dilemma of means versus ends. The revolutionaries supported individual liberty, rejecting all forms of random constraint: monopolies on commerce, feudal charges laid upon the land and even (in 1794) black slavery overseas. They said that political authority required constitutional government, elections, and legislative supremacy. They demanded civil equality for all, denying the claims of privileged groups, localities, or religions to special treatment and requiring the equality of all citizens before the law. A final revolutionary goal was expressed by the concept of fraternity, which meant that all citizens regardless of social class, region, or religion shared a common fate in society, and that the well-being of the nation sometimes superseded the interests of individuals. The resounding slogan of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity expressed social ideals to which most contemporary citizens of the Western world would still subscribe. Those who made the Revolution believed they were rising against tyrannical government, in which the people had no voice, and against inequality in the way obligations such as taxes were imposed and benefits distributed. Yet the government of France at that time was no more tyrannical or unjust than it had been in the past. We can blame this on the incompetence of King Louis XVI (1774-1792) and his queen, Marie Antoinette. But even the most capable ruler could not have escaped...
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THE SEVEN WISE MEN In the ancient world of Greece there was a group of politicians and philosophers who in time became known as the Seven Wise Men. These men were Bias, Chilon, Cleobulus, Periander, Pittacus, Solon, and Thales. Thales of Miletus was the first known Greek philosopher. He is believed to have predicted an eclipse of the sun in 585 BC. He stated that water, air, and fire were the driving forces behind everything in nature. He was also a mathematician. His mathematical theories include the concept of isosceles triangles and a diameters relation to a circle. Cleobulus was born in. He was believed t be a decedent of Hercules. Few is known about him except that he was both strong and beautiful. His two most famous sayings are "Learn to bear bravely changes of fortune," and "Safeguard the health both of body and soul". Pittacus is most famous for the overthrew of Melanchrus of Lesbos. During a war with the Athenians he defeated Phrynon and was asked by the people of Lesbos to protect them. Bias wrote and epic entitled Ionia. It was a guide on how to achieve happiness. His to famous sayings are "it is easier to decide between enemies than between friends; for that of friends, one was sure to become an enemy to him; but that of enemies, one was sure to become a friend," and "Cherish wisdom as a means of traveling from youth to old age, for it is more lasting than any other possession." Solon was a politician who would also write poetry. He was asked t be leader because the rich felt a connection with him, and the poor trusted his honesty. He valued knowledge and understanding over money. The laws he put in place were fair and often resembled that of our judicial system. Periander...
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Compare And Contrast The Attitudes Of Three Of The Following Towards The Wealth That Has Been Created In The United States During The Late 19Th Century.
In America there has always been differing attitudes towards wealth and the wealthy. People looked upon the wealthy of America with such varying views as envy, disgust, and admiration. Three such people were Andrew Carnegie, Horatio Alger, and Eugene V. Debs. Andrew Carnegie believed the rich had a duty to give back to the world. Horatio Alger wrote that wealth was achieved by virtue, honesty, and industry. Eugene V. Debs had a vehement opposition to the capitalist system and believed that everyone should be an equal, economically as well as politically. Andrew Carnegie thought that the rich had a duty to give back to the world. His tale was a rags-to-riches story which gave hope to poverty stricken Americans. He was born into a poor family and secured a job at a train station as a young boy. His own initiative took him up the economic ladder until he was the owner of U.S. Steel, the largest steel manufacturer in America. He secured a vertical monopoly on the production of steel and his wealth amassed to hundreds of millions of dollars. This figure, accounting for inflation, translates into tens of billions in today's currency. Carnegie, at an age of about 50 sold U.S. Steel to J.P. Morgan. Carnegie's personal belief was that a man should spend the first part of his life accumulating wealth, and the second part of his life giving it away. His actions for the latter part of his life followed these ideas. In total, he gave hundreds of millions away to various charities. He is most well known for the public libraries he established with this money. He wanted to give the masses of America every chance to become educated so that they too could become rich. Andrew Carnegie was a firm believer in free enterprise and...
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The unfair measures in the treaty of Versailles were the main cause for the rise of fascism in Germany and consequently World War II.
The treaty of Versailles played a major role in causing the rise of fascism in Germany and creating conflicts which later led to World War II because of the way in which it was implemented and reinforced by Germany, creating a weak Germany fragile to conflicts. After the end of World War I, many countries remained unsatisfied with the results of the treaty of Versailles, especially Germany. Germany had lost the war and so the treaty took several measures in relation to what should be done to the country. Germany was extremely resentful towards the treaty and so it tried to ignore it. This denial of what was happening to the country created a weak Germany open to fascism and to the start of another war.The steps that led to the conflict in Europe in 1914 involved historical conflicts and issues, the formation of alliances, colonial rivalries, an arms race, Balkan instability, and the July crisis. As tensions rose between the two sides formed previous to the war, the point was reached when any minor action from one side against the other would spark the beginning of a physical war. This was the case of the assassination of Franz Ferdinand, which brought the Triple Alliance and Triple Entente to the brink of war. World War I resulted in territorial reduction as a conclusion of the Treaty of Versailles and in economic destruction within Europe. The Allied victory over Germany led to a meeting at Versailles between Wilson of the USA, Clemenceau of France, and Lloyd George of Great Britain. Among the topics discussed at this meeting was that of what would happen to the territories of Europe, especially Germany, and who would gain or lose what. The war itself, however, also left Europe in great economic destruction....
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Harriet Beecher Stowe's main goal in writing her novel Uncle Tom's Cabin was to convince people, mainly her fellow northerners, of the need to end slavery by showing it's evils that are thrust upon black people and to convince all her readers that slavery conflicts with Christian values. To effectively establish her point, Stowe takes us along on the two very separate journeys of the novel's main characters, Uncle Tom and Eliza Shelby. It is on their journeys that the readers bear witness to the various evils that the system of slavery encompasses. Stowe begins the novel discussing a warm atmosphere on the Shelby plantation and presents to us the best possible circumstances of slavery where slaves are treated very well by compassionate owners. However, no time is wasted in this warm and compassionate setting, not twenty pages into the story we find that even the best masters fall into debt and must settle their bills by what ever means possible. This development quickly brings the reader into the slave world where humans, such as Uncle Tom, are sold to slave traders to settle their master's debts and it is here that a very strong argument against slavery is made. Stowe shows us how human lives can be destroyed even under the best conditions slavery can offer. She also proves that slavery is a terrible ordeal for not only the slaves (Tom, Tom's Family, Eliza, and Harry) who will be forced to move and never see their loved ones again, but for the owner's family, who are very broken up at having to sell their close companions in order to pay off bad debts. She effectively illustrates this point by delving into the strong feelings of Mrs. Shelby, George Shelby, Eliza, Aunt Chloe and Uncle Tom. The readers are shown how...
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During the holidays I visited a local computer shop. There I noticed that all computers were networked together using a LAN and that they had a main server computer which is used not only to share resources with one another but it also ran a web server which is used for their company website. I spoke the one of the workers and they explained to me that because of new computer technology it is now much easier to repair and build computers, the old computers were very hard to assemble and installing software could become a mess, where as the new computers now days are much easier to assemble and you need not to be a computer professional to build one. Computers now days can be built by a complete novice and the help of a manual. New technology is developed every day and at a faster pace. Computers have become extremely fast and reliable and are still becoming even faster every day. Almost every technology is now run by computers. Computers have become a necessity in life, and schooling. Our schooling system has benefited in many different ways from computers and schools have become to rely on computers. New technology will increase the speed in which we learn and discover and as new computers are made and invented, the speed in which we learn will increase and our knowledge will increase dramatically. An information system involves the effectiveness use of people, processes, hardware, software, networks and technology to help achieve a company's goals and objectives. An Information System involves using the above resources to transform data into information. An information system can be manual or computerised, although as a result of the increasing speed and efficiency of computers, there are very few organisations today that would not have at least one computers...
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What does "a city upon a hill" imply? "A city upon a hill" hints to the superiority of one city over another; a model of goodness for other cities to follow. One of the first attempts at being "a city upon a hill" was the forming of the Massachusetts Bay colony. However, the Puritans religious beliefs and the influence of the church on the colonial politics drove away many settlers, such as Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams. The colony of Massachusetts Bay was founded in order for settlers to be free from religious persecution in England. The founders wanted a safe haven for Puritans along with the prospect of making money. This new "haven" was to serve as an example of holy goodness. The Puritans that settled in Massachusetts Bay did not want to break away from the Church of England. Instead they wanted to reform the Church of England from within. The inhabitants of the Massachusetts Bay lived on the basis of hard work and thrifts. Material gifts were considered a sign of being in God's favor. Although the goals of the Puritan settlers seemed righteous, they were far from it. What is a theocracy? A theocracy is where the church is the government. Although the church lacked any formal political power, they influenced many of the church members on political issues. However, if you were not a Puritan "saint" you could not vote. Inhabitants of Massachusetts Bay were taxed in order to fund churches; by law the populace were forced to attend service. While trying to make a prosperous colony, the government and church suppressed the religious rights of citizens; it was conform or leave. Several newcomers did not agree with the running of the colony, such as Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson. One view by Roger Williams, a controversial minister,...
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A City Within A City - Bronzeville A City Within a City - BronzevilleKathy M. Henry Kathy HenryAugust 3, 2003Black Chicago - 351Dr. L. Carey12:00pm - 1:45pmM-W-FIntroduction The reason I took this class is because so much of my fam
A City Within a City - Bronzeville Kathy M. Henry Kathy Henry August 3, 2003 Black Chicago - 351 Dr. L. Carey 12:00pm - 1:45pm M-W-F Introduction The reason I took this class is because so much of my family's history has been entwined in the neighborhood called Bronzeville, or as some call it, The Low End. My family started migrating from Mississippi in the 1940s. My Uncle Joseph was the first Allen to make the trek to the Promised Land and for him the journey was bountiful. He started a Ma and Pa grocery store on 45th and Wabash with the help of his wife, who worked as laundress. With the proceeds of both their earnings, they purchased two buildings, including the one where his store was located. After that, my family, with hope high their hearts, came up here to make their fortunes. Some succeeded and some did not. That was not really important. What was important is that they had the opportunity to succeed, an opportunity that was denied to them in the town of Itta Bena, Mississippi because of the rampant racism that existed. My own experiences with Bronzeville started in 1989, when my mother, my daughter and I moved to 49th and Prairie. We lived down there until 1992, and in spite of what anyone says about The Low End, I had a ball. I had never seen such colorful characters that actually existed outside of books. Bronzeville got its name because of the mass influx of African-Americans who came to Chicago that settled in the areas between 29th and 51st Street, during the Great Migration. Bronzeville was once a city within a city, with its own stores, several newspapers and strong churches. This neighborhood was dubbed the Black Metropolis because of all the opportunities offered to Blacks. It became a magnet for African Americans,...
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During the 17th century, England began to stretch out its tentacles and grab hold of the Americas. The latecomers established their colonies in two different regions along the eastern coast of North America. These regions were known as the Chesapeake and New England areas. As extensions of the British Empire, they all had a similar background and shared a common formative experience. However, Britain's North American colonies were also fragmented and had very separate and unique identities. Their differences arose from the very reason why the settlers came to the New World and affected the colonies' populations, social developments, and economies. To begin with, the Chesapeake and New England colonies were founded for different purposes: the Virginia Colony of the Chesapeake was established as a business- venture, while Massachusetts of the New England colonies was founded for religious purposes. In the December of 1906, the London Company organized an expedition to establish a colony in Virginia and by 1907 the first English colony in the New World was founded and named Jamestown (Middleton, 52). Jamestown was settled by young, single men, "including some 35 gentlemen, an Anglican minister, a doctor, 40 soldiers, and a variety of artisans and laborers"(Middleton, 52). The men who settled Jamestown were predominately from poor, uneducated backgrounds with nothing to lose. They had high hopes of making a profit but instead, they were confronted with a chaotic, inhabitable landscape, uncertainty, violence, and a high mortality rate. During the first three years of Jamestown, 60 out of 600 men survived. In contrast, the Massachusetts Bay Colony from the northern colonies was founded for religious purposes. The immigrants consisted of "persons whose goals were religious rather than material" (Middleton, 81) and were largely Puritan separatists who sought religious freedom from the Church of England. Many people, including John Winthrop...
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Justin Charles Laffer History 115-W The history of the Crusades in Europe and the Middle East must first be linked first and foremost to the feudal nature of medieval Europe. Due to the splintered and divisive nature of kingdoms and principalities, the sense of European and Christian identity was severely compromised. The Popes and the Catholic Church were the only force that could both unite Europe under a singular focus and help combat the rise of the Byzantine Empire and the Turks. The notion of political unity under Church can be directly traced to the foreign policy of Leo IX and Gregory VII and the policy established by the Monks of Cluny that dramatically increased the power of the Pope over all Christian nations. For most of the existence of the Christian church, there has been a nearly constant stream of pilgrims to the Holy Land, and undoubtedly the continued veneration of the sacred city was a motivating factor for Christian unification. The rise of the Seljuk Turks and their harassment of pilgrims and their threatening of the Byzantine Empire contributed greatly to the establishment of the first Crusade and more importantly perhaps, a Crusader tradition. Pope Urban II took over for Pope Gregory VII and utilized Gregory's communication with Constantinople's Emperor Michael VII to help fuel a religious unity in Europe. On the 27th of November 1095, Pope Urban II gave his infamous speech at Clermont which incited much of the population of Europe. The first wave of the first crusade was led by Peter the Hermit in 1096 and it consisted mainly of peasants. On their way to Constantinople, they attacked many Jewish communities. No doubt enraged with religious fervor, the unorganized hoards under Peter the Hermit reached Constantinople only to be ferried across the Bosporus by a nervous emperor, Alexius Comnenus....
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"A Day That Will Live In Infamy." On December 7, 1941 Japan pulled a surprise attack on the United States at Pearl Harbor. The United States knew that there might be an attack towards the U.S. but did not know where. World War II was happening in 1941, between the Allied Forces and Italy, the Soviet Union, and Germany. The leaders of the three communist countries were, Benitto Mussolini, dictator of Italy, Adolf Hitler, dictator of Germany, and Joseph Stalin, dictator of the Soviet Union. These three leaders believed that Fascism was the form of government to have. So, Adolf Hitler, created what was called Nazism, he had complete control over his whole country. The United States didn't believe in either type of government, but did not want to get involved unless it was necessary. Adolf Hitler had built up the Nazi Army and made France fall to him. During this time Churchhill's air force in Britan fought to gained control of the skies after Nazi Germany bombed London. Japan on the other hand had started to gain control of the pacific and joined the Nazis in the fight against the Allied Forces. So, the United States shut off oil exports to Japan. Japan had enough oil to supply them for nine months. They had to do something, and do it fast, in a place that was completely unexpected. Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, home of the Pacific Fleet of the United States Navy. At 7:00 a.m. there was a shot fired in the Pacific Ocean, the Japanese had sent a submarine into U.S waters. Lieutenant Outerbridge (U.S. Naval Officer) had sunk a Japanese submarine. So, the U.S Navy brought upon "first blood" for the United States. At 7:55 a.m. the Japanese bombed Wheeler Field, eight miles north of Pearl Harbor. 2 "I looked...
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