The Delaware Complaint One of the main issues among the Iroquois tribes and the Pennsylvanians was that of the "Walking Purchase" and the Delaware Complaint against the contract. Between 1630 and 1767 the Lenni Lenape Indians of New Jersey and Pennsylvania signed many deeds of land to colonists that numbered around 800. Little did the Indian people know, the Europeans would use the land to eventually push the Native Americans out of their homeland. One man named William Penn claimed to have discovered a document in 1734 that would give him land based upon the idea that Delaware chiefs agreed to give away land to his father and his heirs. The constituents of the document referred to the idea of giving the amount of land that a man could walk in a day and a half. The chiefs agreed unwillingly to the idea and Penn took many miles when the Indians gave a few inches. The Delaware would not have given the land away, but felt obligated to fulfill what Penn had said about their ancestors giving land to the Pennsylvanians. The Pennsylvanians took more than was offered by clearing a path and hiring three runners who were supposed to "walk" the distance. The runners ran 65 miles and gave Penn the rights to approximately 41,600 acres of land. The "walk" had turned into a "run" and the Indians were upset with how wrongly they had been treated. The Delaware felt that the runners should have "walked along by the River Delaware or the Indian path next to it --- should have sat down and smoked a pipe, and now and then have shot a squirrel, and not have kept up the run." Disputes arose, but the Indians had lost the battle. The "Walking Purchase" was the last step in the process...
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This book illustrates the views of a Frenchman on politics, society, and ideals of the U.S during the period of the 1830's. Tocqueville states his observations, provides solutions to what he finds faulty and predicts America's destiny. This book contains several themes concerning the structure of the American government and its relation to democracy as well as its influence on the behavior of people. I'm going to focus on the tyranny of the majority and its effect on democracy. Tocqueville mentions that after the Revolution, democracy became the "law of laws" Tocqueville (56). In his opinion, equality initiated democracy and can be of great harm to it if practiced excessively. I find Tocqueville's opinion about democracy quite ambivalent because I see him praising the moral authority of the majority in one hand and then expressing its dangers on the other hand. He thinks, "social power superior to all others must always be placed somewhere" Tocqueville(114). At the same time he feels that this power might be similar to the power of anarchy as he says "If it be admitted that a man possessing absolute power may misuse the power by wronging his adversaries, why should not a majority be liable to the same reproach?" Toqueville (114). He also predicts that this power might turn into tyranny in the future since it is unlimited. He relates this tyranny to the lack of proportionality between power and wisdom in the U.S and shows that humans in general cannot be powerful without causing danger. "God alone can be omnipotent because his wisdom and his justice are always equal to his power." Tocquiville (114) Tocqueville dislikes the lack of the freedom of thought in America and finds it a strong indication of the tyranny of the majority. Even though under the U.S constitution a citizen has the...
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Compare how effectively two or more post communist countries have become institutionalised democratic countries. There is yet no apparent stable democracy formed from a post-communist country. The democracies are still very unstable due to a number of diverse factors. This instability is very obvious in those regions of the formerly communist world where there is warfare, notably in parts of the Soviet Union. But even where there is no definite fighting, there are frequent symbols of instability. These are the frequency in which there are elections, changes in government and government policy. Constant change in government polices and non-adoption of policies. 'Constant reforming of political parties and coalitions; frequent constitutional changes and so on' . According to Diuk & Karatnycky three types of states emerged from the communist regime. The first would be where the communist regime had been overthrown and replaced by democratically elected leaders. Secondly a state where both democracy and communism were forced to coexist in an uneasy alliance. The third type was where the communists still ruled but in the guise of democrats. I am going to take one country from each of these types of states to examine. Firstly from the first category we will look at Armenia. By 1988 it was democratised and had a strong government. However where Armenia was concerned the government consisted of non-communists and former communist opposition. The press had a free rein and all opposition groups were allowed to run. In the second category , During the summer of 1992 'Ukraine, which had elected a former communist party ideology secretary as president, had a government in which the old guard apparatchiki constituted the majority' . The press in the Ukraine were allowed have as much freedom as they wanted the television stations were strictly controlled. At this time the parliament held a communist...
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Deng Xiaoping's influences on the daily life of the Chinese people caused him to be portrayed as one of the greatest leaders of Chinese history. George Church recorded that Deng's openness to technological advances and new ideas changed the Chinese economy forever (26). For these reasons, Deng Xiaoping was chosen to be Time's Man of the Year for his accomplishments leading up to the year 1985. Born Deng Xixian (1904-1997) he changed his name as a young, Pro-Marxist revolutionary (Landsberger). Also known as Teng Hsiao-ping, he attended a modern primary school until he graduated and moved onto a French work-study program in 1920 (Smith, A1). Although he gained little from the work experience, he did begin to study Marxism and eventually joined the Chinese Communist Party. Moving to Moscow to study in 1926, Deng entered the Communist University of the Toilers and then transferred to Sun Yat-sen University (A1). At that time, he was selected through the Communist International to be a member of the Chinese National Army in order to prepare for a revolution (A1). Deng leapt at the chance, and in 1927 returned to China in order to fulfill those duties (A1). Deng married Chang Xiyuan in 1928 (Yang, 56) and couple worked for Shanghai's underground Communist Party Center between 1927 and 1929 (55-56). One of his mentors, Zhou Enlai, served as the Party Center's chief secretary, a link that would help Deng later in his career (57). In 1929, Deng assisted with communications for the Red Army, which later evolved into the People's Liberation Army (PLA), in China's civil war (Landsberger). In 1932, two years after his first wife's death, Deng married his second wife, Ah Jin and she left him a year or two later to marry another. (Yang, 72-75). Deng's third and final marriage was to the...
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Robert F. Kennedy once said that, "Each time a man stands up for an ideal or the lot of others, or strikes out against injustice, he sends forth a tiny ripple of hope." Moreover, this fact is seen through Oskar Schindler and the 1,200 Jews he saved or the village of Le Chambon and the 5,000 Jews they took in and rescued. Subsequently, however, though many individuals showed compassion during the Holocaust and showed basic humanity towards their fellow neighbors, no other nation collectively helped the Jews as Denmark did. Thus, the "Danish rescue was unique because it was nationwide" (Rescue). To understand why the Danes decided to help save their fellow countrymen, one must learn about the life of Jews before the Second World War. Contrary to other European countries, there never were Jewish ghettos. In fact, in 1814, long before Denmark,s neighbors, the King at the time gave full equality to the Jews as citizens. This action allowed the Jews to integrate with the Christians so much that by 1940, 1,300 people were half Jewish. Hence, by the time the war began they could not "recognize Jews as Jews, but as Danes" (Pearl). There was basically no anti-Semitism. The other reasons why Danes helped, and were able to help, was because it was close to neutral Sweden, the Germans waited three years before they went after Danish Jews, high placed German officials were in opposition to action against the Jews, Germany was less brutal in Denmark then in other countries and because Denmark only had fewer than 8,000 Jews (Levine 1). Also, the Danes had a history of protecting one another, especially King Christian X. Once, a German solider asked a little boy, while seeing the king walking unguarded, -Who is that man who rides past here every morning on...
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The Great Depression did not just happen in America, it was born. In the 1930's a sequence of key events and problems led to the fall of America's economy. These included speculation, depressed farms and industries, wealth distribution, low money supply, no safeguards, overproduction, unemployment, and decline in foreign trade. Speculation was a way of gambling with short term investments. Speculators bought low stocks, which they thought, would rise in price, and when they sold them they would receive a profit. This was like gambling on the stock market, which seemed to attract thousands of Americans. The stock market boom was very unsteady, because it was based on borrowed money and false optimism. When investors lost confidence, the stock market collapsed, taking them along with it. Depressed farms and industries caused wages to drop and forced employers to lay off their workers. With their low incomes, many farmers and workers could not afford the manufactured goods that the industries have been producing at a fast rate. This underconsumption became a major disadvantage in the economy. Wealth distribution referred to the big gap between rich and poor. The top 5% received 30% of the wealth, which was social inequity. Even though business profits rose in many industries, workers did not receive a fair and equal share of these profits. This forced goods and products to pile up in warehouses across the nation because there were not enough buying consumers due to the fact that they did not have any money. Overproduction was advanced by the use of the assembly line, which increased the efficiency rate and took less time to make the same product. There was too much supply and not enough demand. After the assembly line invention, many companies started laying off workers because of the efficiency rate dramatically increased and...
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The Depression 1921-1940 The Great Depression known as 'Black Thursday' began in October1929 and lasted for about a decade. It was the worst economic crash ever in U.S. history, and one, which spread to virtually the entire industrialized world. The depression started when large numbers of people brought shares in companies. By buying shares low and selling them at a higher price, investors could make a lot of money quickly. Unfortunately, as the shares dropped, many people wanted to sell before the share price fell below what they had paid for the shares. The main cause for the Great Depression was the combination of the greatly unequal distribution of wealth throughout the 1920's, and the extensive stock market speculation that took place during the last part of that same decade. Australia entered the depression because it depended on selling overseas products like wool, wheat and minerals, but countries could not afford to buy these products as the poverty cycle began. Overnight, individuals and companies were ruined. The depression threatened people's jobs, savings, and even their homes and farms. How did this event influence or have an impact upon Australia society? The Depression has a big impact on Australian society firstly it meant the shame of unemployment. In Australia, unemployment peaked in 1933 at approximately 28 per cent. The unemployed felt humiliated and many names were called. Women had to resign as an order from the government to help solve this problem. Many families couldn't afford to pay rent and were evicted from their homes. Some families left in the middle of the night to help maintain a bit of dignity. These families that were evicted moved to a 'Shanty Town'. These towns were made up of tents, made from potatoes bags, old crates, corrugated iron and cardboard. The Shanty Town was for families who had...
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Watson: Montana 1948 Summary In a small town out West, the summer of 1948 is a turning point in the lives of 12-year-old David Hayden and his parents. When David's uncle is accused of sexual abuse, the family must choose between loyalty and justice. Author Biography Larry Watson, the author of Montana 1948, was born in Rugby, North Dakota. His father, and his grandfather before him, was the sheriff of this small town in northeastern North Dakota. When he was five years old, the family moved to Bismarck, North Dakota. Although Watson loved to read, he was an unmotivated student. After junior college, during which he married his high school sweetheart, he entered the University of North Dakota. He enrolled in a writing class and began writing poems. With faculty encouragement, he abandoned pre-law and decided on teaching as a career. He wrote stories for his M.A., then moved to the University of Utah to pursue the flexible Ph.D. program in creative writing. For his thesis at the University of Utah, he wrote In a Dark Time, a mystery of sorts. This was his first published novel, which gained respectful reviews although it was not especially profitable. After leaving the University of Utah, Watson taught at the University of Wisconsin at Stevens Point. His recent success has allowed him to cut his teaching time in half. He has considered leaving Stevens Point to find a new comfortable place. Success was elusive, and it was not until 1993 and the publication of Montana 1948 that Watson achieved his goal. Montana 1948 won Milkweed's annual National Fiction Prize. Watson has since published Justice, a prequel to Montana 1948, and White Crosses just this year. bla...
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Artists and entertainers built the foundations of America's well-known culture. Jazz musicians and club singers encouraged a world of passion, rebellion and freedom and the big-screen stars changed the world of America's young generation of the era. Jazz music encouraged awareness of Black Americans and on some level, placed whites and blacks on the same step of the ladder. Entertainers set the wheels in motion for changes in women's right, changes in morality and acts of rebellion. The Jazz singers of Chicago and New Orleans impacted on American Culture through their passion for the soulful melody of Jazz. Most Jazz singers were African American and although anti-black campaigns were at their height (a result of the growth of the terrifying racist terrorist organisation the Ku Klux Klan), white Americans' found themselves being able to lose themselves in the music that was second-nature to their darker skinned fellow Americans. With the white society's growing fancy of Jazz, came the emergence of Flappers, Jazz bars and the unique party-like atmosphere of the speak-easies. Flappers rebelled against the prohibition and embraced the life of jazz and liquor. Flappers, speak-easies and Jazz came hand in hand with the lifestyle that many American's chose to live in the 1920's and a lot of this was due to the unmistakable influence that Jazz singers had on American culture. Jazz gave many white Americans a sense of freedom and rebellion. By embracing the music of the Blacks - the 'inferior' race - they felt they were doing something forbidden – and rebellion was what the 1920's was all about. Before the Jazz Age, the namesake music was a creation of the minority group in America – the African Americans. With the birth of the white-mans jazz in the 1920's, many didn't realise for a long time the roots from which...
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A traditional pyramid complex usually comprised of a pyramid, burial chamber, Mortuary Temple, Valley Temple, causeway, boat pits and subsidiary pyramids, with a variation of features in each complex. The pyramid itself was the focal point of the complex, which served to ensure the deceased king's safe journey and survival in the afterlife. Throughout each dynasties, it is evident that the pyramid developed from the mastaba through to Djoser's step pyramid then many of Snoferu's experimental false pyramids and finally to the true pyramids at Giza and thus Kanawati stated "the Egyptian builders arrive at the final pyramidal after a series of experimental monuments developed from the basic mastaba shape" From D3 to D4, the core was made from local limestone and the outer facing with Tura limestone. Internal passages and chambers were usually lines with pink granite from Aswan. By D5, resources were dwindling and building materials were becoming less available and this is evident from examining the core of the pyramids which were now built from mud bricks and rubbles, and pink granite was now only used for lintels, jambs and columns. The pyramid also reflect religious significance of that time. Breasted believes that "…the king was buried under the very symbol of the sun god…the pyramid rose above…dominating the royal city below…it was the loftiest object which greeted the sun god…and his charming ray glittered on the shining summit". The four corners of the pyramid aligned with the four cardinal points and the entrance always faced the north, the circumpolar star. The Egyptians regarded the pyramid as the staircase in order for the king to reach his heavenly destination as can be seen in Pyramid Text spell 508 where it is written "I have trodden those rays as a ramp under my feet where on I mount up to that...
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Describe the ways in which the methods of the suffragists and the suffragettes were different In this essay I will be describing the different methods which both the suffragists (the NUWSS) and the suffragettes (the WSPU) used during their suffrage campai
Describe the ways in which the methods of the suffragists and the suffragettes were different In this essay I will be describing the different methods which both the suffragists (the NUWSS) and the suffragettes (the WSPU) used during their suffrage campaigns. I will also be describing how successful they were in these methods and if they weren't successful, what went wrong for them. I shall begin by describing the NUWSS. The NUWSS (the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies) was formed in 1897 and was led by Millicent Fawcett. They were the first of the two organisations to begin, and throughout their time of running they brought in around 500,000 supporters with a total annual income of around £45,000. They ran a newspaper named 'The Common Cause' and kept in contact with other suffragist organisations, as well as the Labour Party. They only dealt out non-violent acts of campaigning. These included Petitioning Parliament, newspapers, demonstrations and meetings. Millicent Garrett Fawcett, later knighted and becoming Dame Millicent Garrett Fawcett was married to a radical political leader, Henry Fawcett. She had served for the NUWSS for many years, and in her years there, before and after she wrote several books, including Janet Doncaster (1875), The Women's Victory and After (1919), What I Remember (1924), and Easter in Palestine (1926). The NUWSS decided that the only way to get their point across was to perform legal actions in the forms of non-violent protesting and petitioning. They thought in order for the dream of women's suffrage to become reality, they needed to educate women and that peaceful methods should be used to change the law. These included public meetings, processions (such as the 1917 mud march), publishing their views in their newspaper and petitioning parliament (where they got petitions signed from high powered members of parliament). All MP's who...
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On September 11 2001, a blow to the solidarity and security of our nation occurred the likes that it had not felt in over fifty years. There is not an American alive that will ever forget the tragedy that happened, all of us that can remember that day will always know exactly where and what we were doing when it happen. I was a Intelligence Analyst for the United States Marine Corps sitting at my desk watch the events unfold, all I could think of is how could this happen, and could we have prevented it. Being part of the Intelligence community it struck deep at the heart of what we do, if our job was done right we may have prevented it. Could we have? is the question that will be debated for years, was it the numerous agencies fault for overlooking signs and threats, or the bureaucratic layers and non-sense that tied the agencies down not allowing them to complete their mission. The national as a whole missed a lot of the warning signs; the first bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993, the attack on the USS Cole, and the bombing of the Embassies in Tanzania and Kenya. All of those should have woke us up but it took the destruction of an icon of the United State for the population to see there was a problem. On September 11, the four concentric circles of American security failed: the Central Intelligence Agency's foreign intelligence together with the State Department visa screening; the Federal Bureau of Investigation and Immigration and Naturalization Service's domestic security, and the Federal Aviation Administration's airport security. The FBI had no procedure for disseminating useful information for analysis within its organization let alone to outside agencies (Cohen). The CIA also created a major lapse...
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Operation Desert Storm: History Essay Examine the political ramifications that formed Operation Desert Storm and to a lesser extent Operation Desert Fox On the 17th July 1990 Saddam Hussein Accused the country of Kuwait of overproduction and theft of Oil. The US ambassador told G. Bush Snr. that is was a Arab problem that did not concern the UN or America. When Saddam annexed Kuwait the UN declared it invalid and America sent in troops. In the opinion of the general public what was happening? The great USA were saving ANOTHER country, but underneath was there any other motives? The Gulf war was a war about religious fervour, and cruel dictatorship. Desert Storm was the war where sophisticated technology was used to end the war in a quick and timely manner, Sure it killed a couple of thousand but hey it was quick. "In 1979 Saddam Hussein took control of Iraq, and immediately set the tone for his rule by killing 21 of his cabinet members. He wanted to make his country whole once again so in 1990 he invaded Kuwait and in less than 4 hours he had taken Kuwait and controlled 24% of the worlds oil supplies. It seemed as if his next target was Saudi Arabia."* This was where the United States entered after a call for protection by Saudi Arabia or rather they said "If you issue a call for help we will answer". The United States set a deadline. January 15 midnight, 1991 for all Iraqi forces to be out of Kuwait. When this was ignored it triggered Desert Shield, or the build-up of troops in the region and eventually led to Desert Storm, a "protection" which turned into to a bloodbath to free Kuwait. Iraq was quite shocked. after all weren't the Americans their friends? Wasn't it the USA that helped...
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Detect political dimensions of Reform and Antjmetarry'cmjsis in Europe 16th and 17th century. Examine the effects the religious these kjnima'twn:a.sti configuration of political life in the European states kajv.ston competition of forces of season.
Aim of this work is the presentation of political makes that was played at the beginning of religious movements of Reform and Antjmetarry'cmjsis in Europe 16th and 17th century. Also the shading of political developments, what were prompted by these movements, influencing the European states in the configuration of their political life inside the walls and in between them conflicts in the altar of territorial claims. The growth of subject will be realised focusing in the historical makes that have political tinge and prepared the field of developments from the Mesaj'wna up to the outbreak of movements. After are investigated the political reasons and are realised a short presentation of movements they will follow growths of main makes that played meaning role in the configuration of political situations of countries but also wider European world placing new bases to the passage of New Years. The gradual weakening of feudal system, that acted controlling the governors, and xy'pnima the national conscience, they prepared the street for the centralized policy of monarchies. France, that was constituted in the past by a line of almost independent provinces, they are linked in a kingdom, a similar change was realised in Spain after the union of Castile and Aragon and the fall of mayrjtanjki's force in the Granada. To England the slaughter of aristocrats in the war of tyres led to the establishment of sovereignty and the undertaking of power from the dynasty of Tydw'r. As result of this centralized policy the kings of France, Spain, and England, and prjgkjpa'twn Germany increased their political force considering eaytoy's absolute sovereigns of their possessions. As direct result of tendency of centralized policy and increase of royal force was expressed a tendency from the governors of Europe for "emancipation by supernational institutions of control". In England the Parliament that checked the...
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3. Compare the ways in which religion shaped the development of colonial society (to 1740) in TWO of the following regions: (2002) New England Chesapeake Middle Atlantic The regions of New England and Chesapeake were dominated by two religions; New England colonies were filled with Puritan congregations and the Chesapeake area with the Church of England. Both these religions had a tremendous impact on each's respective areas especially in the development of government and the communities. The system of town and church government used by the Puritan congregation was well suited to the progress of the colonial society as was the Church of England to the Chesapeake region since it was the official state religion. A. New England 1. Puritan congregations- local communities in all the New England colonies but Rhode Island were governed by Puritan congregations 2. Land- The Puritan colonies allotted each congregation a tract of communal land. Church members divided this land among themselves on the basis of status and seniority, laying out central villages like Deerfield and building churches (called meetinghouses) that were maintained through taxation. 3. Church members- Adult male church members constituted the freemen of the town, and thus there was very little distinction between religious and secular authority 4. Restrictions- Although local communities had considerable autonomy, they were tightly bound by the restrictions of the Puritan faith and the General Court. 5. Toleration Act of 1689- New England at first resisted it, but under pressure from English authorities, Massachusetts and Connecticut reluctantly allowed other Protestant denominations to begin worshipping openly in 1700. However, the Puritan Church continued to be officially supported through taxation. B. Chesapeake 1. Church of England- English authorities made the Church of England the state religion in the Chesapeake colonies 2. Requirements- Residents paid taxes to support the Church and were required to attend services 3. Toleration- No other churches were allowed into Virginia...
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New England and Chesapeake regions were settled by the English in 1700 and they both developed differently. The Northern Colonies were settled by immigrants and the Middle Colonies were settled by the non-primogeniture. The Northern Colonies' religious beliefs led to human rights and rebellion. While the Middle Colonies built up a new source of labor as slavery and servitude. The motivations of the Middle Colonies and Northern Colonies had many differences between rights, religion, rebellion, and slavery. Religion was a major motivation which played a great role in the settling of the immigrants in the Northern Colonies. Greed was the motivation of the Middle Colonists when only the Primogenitures got land. In the Northern Colonies the Separatists, which were just extreme Puritans, left England to break away from the Church of England because they believed that only "visible saints" should be allowed, but the Church of England was open to all comers. Puritans believed in predestination in which during the conversion the elect would find out their status and expected to live a good exemplarily life and from that day forth called the "visible saints". In the Middle Colonies, primogeniture was taking place, which meant the eldest sons got the land of their wealthy parents and the Noblemen came to America to find individualism and land. When John Rolfe discovered tobacco in Virginia, the colonists used it as their substitute for gold which they called Black Gold. The Corn Laws, where colonists were forced to grow corn or they would be put in jail, had to be enforced because the colonists would only grow tobacco plants instead of food crops needed for survival. Religion played a major role in the foundation of the Northern Colonies and led to human rights, religious tolerance, and rebellion against government. William Penn, the founder of Quakerism,...
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Did Alexander and his successors “Hellenise” the East? Alexander the Great was born July 356 B.C. the son of Philip king of Macedon, who reigned from 359-336 B.C. until his assassination by Pausanias. During Philips reign he made Macedonia, of which he was sole ruler, into a international power, and conquered its neighbouring territories, and eventually became the most powerful force in the whole of Greece after the battle of Chaeronea and the defeat of Thebes and Athens, Philip formed the Hellenic League which was the beginning of his plans to conquest against Persia the reason for Philips plans to conqueror Persian and Eastern lands is unclear. It could be because the land was there to be conquered or it could be because Persian and the East was always seen as the Greeks ancestral enemy. As a young man Alexander was taught by Aristotle the ways of Philosophy, ethics and politics, this tutoring by the greatest mind of the period gave Alexander his desire in Greek Culture and the Greek way of life. Alexander was very intellectual, he was a superb general and had the thoughts of classical Greece culture that compelled him in his conquest and hellenisation of the East. When Alexander came to the throne in 336 B.C. he secured his thrown and then he pursued his fathers dream of a crusade into Persia. The crusade began in 334 B.C. starting in Asia Minor then downwards through Syria and Palestine to Egypt here he conquered the Ptolemaic empire, then he went East as far as India, Alexander's conquest of the East was a complete success however on his return home he caught a fever and died 323 B.C. After his death there was rivalry which tore his kingdom into three regions, Egypt, Macedonia and Asia each ruled by a Macedonian general's...
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In this essay I will try to illustrate how Hitler managed to achieve power in Germany without the path of a military coup or ¡°putch¡±. I will show how the somewhat known ¡°most evil man in history¡± flirted with the German laws to achieve his goals. I will look at the nazi campaign from after the stressmen years to Hitler¡¯s dubbing himself F¨µhrer. A key factor of Hitler¡¯s original appointment as chancellor that led to him being named F¨µhrer is that Hindenburg; the president at the time of Hitler¡¯s appointment had already seen many chancellors fail miserably unable to solve Germanys increasing problems with the previous chancellors. Bruning, a simple minded chancellor who led Germany for two years trying to rule by decree but upon Germany and Hindenburg's realisation that he was failing to pull Germany out of the depression he was sacked. The next chancellor to reward Germany with their presence was Papen who was only in office because of a special personal relationship with Hindenburg and Hindenburg¡¯s hatred for Hitler but the Reichstag never had any confidence in him and he was soon dispersed of by them. Another of the reasons Papen left was because general Schleicher warned Papen of not ruling by decree, Schleicher then followed him as chancellor but also followed him in his want to rule by decree because he also like Papen never had any support by the Reichstag so he was finally asked to leave to. This left Hindenburg with only one option, Hitler. A huge problem, which helped Hitler achieve power, was the Weimar republic, just in theory it was a useless system for a country at the time in history and its present inevitable economic situation. In the Weimar republic they used proportional representation which in turn means that every small party had...
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Sir Robert Peel, son of a leading cotton magnate, was brought up with the hope of leading a political life and so the basic principles of 'pittie' Toryism were instilled into him from childhood. This family background affected his later political developments and influenced him greatly throughout his life. Peel, familliar with life in an in an industrial town, appreciated the problems and outlooks of the new class of wealthy industrialists. Peel, like many sons of this new class, recieved an expensive education, at Harrow and Oxford, which had previously been the reserve of the aristocracy. This provided Peel with a training which fitted him for the political life he hoped to follow. After leading an illustrious political carreer from 1812, Peel got his chance of Prime Minister in 1834 when Earl Grey resign from essaybank.co.uk ed. The King asked Peel to form a government just 2 years after the passage of the reform act which he had so vigourously oppossed. Here, Peel had a chance to make public his attitude towards the act and towards the whole political life it had created. These attitudes were best reflected in his Tamwoth manifesto of 1835 which provided the Tory party with a new philosophy, and what later became the foundation of the modern Conervative party. In this document we have the foundations of a new philosophy for the Tory party which had veered from represion to liberal reform and back to opposition to much needed change. This charter meant that the party was prepared to reform, as Peel was to do in the fields of health, factories and mines, but which was also quick to conserve what they felt was good in the existing system....
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Did President Roosevelt Deliberately Withhold Information About the Attack on Pearl Harbor From the American Commanders?
Paper #1 Did President Roosevelt Deliberately Withhold Information About the Attack on Pearl Harbor From the American Commanders? In 1899 and 1900 the Open Door policy was submitted by U.S. Secretary of State, John Hay. The reason for this policy was to provide equal access to commercial rights in China for all nations and to have all countries respect China's "territorial and administrative" integrity. All presidents for the next 40 years restated the open door so China would not be overtaken by Japan and to preserve the balance of power in the world. This policy worked during World War I and the 1920's. Eventually, the Nine-Power Treaty of 1922 was implemented to restate the Open Door principles and the countries that signed the treaty agreed to help China form a stable government. Japan was one of the supporters who signed the treaty because the world economy was stable. But when the worldwide depression hit, it had a major impact of the foreign policies of all nations. "Japan decided that she wanted to extend her influence politically as well as economically in Asia" (p 239). In 1931 an explosion staged by the Japanese gave the Japanese a supposed reason for overtaking the Chinese troops and in five months establish the state of Manchukuo. The problem even became worse, "when a shooting incident at the Marco Polo Bridge between the Chinese and Japanese troops led to a full-scale war on China's mainland" (p 239). Roosevelt helped the Chinese with nonmilitary goods and upset the Japanese with economic sanctions. "When the Japanese occupied southern Indochina, Roosevelt jolted the Japanese government by ordering to freeze all Japanese assets in the United States, which caused major problems" (p 239). Because the United States was bringing economic and military aid to China, Japan tried to make an accommodation...
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