A Rumor of War, by Philip Caputo, is a first hand account of the Vietnam War. He landed with the first group of Marines to be committed to Vietnam. Caputo was a Lieutenant in the Marines and was the leader of a platoon. His platoon encountered many assaults by the Vietcong and the group of men passed into Vietcong controlled land several times. Caputo left Vietnam 16 months after he had arrived. Philip Caputo is one of America's most prominent writers. Besides A Rumor of War, other novels of his include, Horn of Africa, Delcorso's Gallery, Indian Country, and Equation for Evil. Caputo was born in Illinois, served in Vietnam in the Marine Corps, and for several years worked as a journalist, most incredibly for the Chicago Tribune, where as part of an investigative team he was awarded the Pulitzer Prize. This book gives a good view of the American soldier's fear going into this war. Caputo mentions troop's fear going into Vietcong area. He and his men feel they are bound to run into trouble. In one village troops know there will be problems. Hoi-Vuc, which is a village under Vietcong control, is being assaulted again by the Americans. Each company has their own position, one making a helicopter attack on a field and one going by truck to a near-by river. Caputo's company has possibly the scariest attack plans of each group. His men are to go by foot up the river. They have run similar plans, but in Vietnam, Caputo says nothing happens as it is planned. When Caputo's platoon reaches the bank, he talks about the troop's understanding that they had crossed out of the secure zone. They know the paths are lined with traps. This knowledge leaves the group feeling tense. You can feel the troop's hearts pounding...
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A new age of thought and reason emerged from Europe and America in the 18th century. This new age would be known as the Enlightenment, where people believed they were entering an age of reason, science, and a respect for humanity. During the Enlightenment, thinkers thought that the Roman Catholic Church had caused the human mind to be closed from reason. Instead of strictly following Christian theology, people took the form of Deism, accepting the existence of God. There were also some risks involved by taking part in the Enlightenment. A person could be imprisoned for his writings, and most were hampered by the government or attacked by the church. The Enlightenment ended with the French Revolution of 1789. After the French and Indian War, Britain suffered from a great war debt. The solution to this was to tax the American Colonies. One example of these taxes would be the Stamp Act. In order for marriage licenses, mortgages, diplomas, bills of sale, and newspapers to be official, a person had to pay a tax for the stamp. The Stamp Act of 1765 affected almost everyone, and the colonists hated it. Many other taxes soon came, such as the Tea Act and Sugar Act. The American Colonies became tired of these taxes brought upon them from the British. The Declaration of Independence was then written in 1776. It contained the reasons for their want to break away from British rule. After winning the Revolutionary War, the Americans soon started to produce their own government. It was a one-house legislature that denied Congress the power to tax. It was called the Articles of Confederation. But this inability to tax proved to be a problem for the new country for they had a large war debt. Farmers in debt soon began to rebel against the...
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The film was by the way a family which was to affect by the revolution. In this family there was a mother s?appeller Lucie. Lucie was to like by all the world, there were three men who wanted to him marrier. But l?homme which had marrier was Charles St Evrémonde, but because he did not want was a aristrocrat he A take names it Charles Darnay, for qu?il could marrier Lucie. They have marrier and had a pettie girl. One of the others two men who wanted marrier Lucie, (Sydney Carton) was in love with it during every year qu?il had known it. Even when it was a marrier with Charles; now he is a friend of the family. Dr. Manttte is the father of Lucie; during are life it was a emprisonnier in bastille for 16 years to try to help the woman of l?oncle of Charles. Because are uncle beaten are woman until died, and because it was a aristrocrat it had put Dr. Manette in prison. Charles was a man who never to break one promised, then when it could not take one of its being useful in Engleterre with him for saved revolution, it l?avait promised that nothing would happen has him. Then he to help him by going to France for liberé him when he had ressu a letter which says qu?il was a emprisonnier. When Charles to arrive there he was a emprisonnier also because the citizens qu?il was thought was a aristrocrat. When Lucie and Dr. Manette had heard that they one travel to France to help him. Because Dr. Manette is a héro in France for surviver the Bastille it had persuaded Paris of librer Charles. The first night qu?il was librer the police officers have to turn over to are house...
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In mid morning on September 11, 2001 I was trying to make my way through the crowded halls of my high school. I pushed my way through the crowd to try and get to my Social Studies class. When I got into the classroom, I saw my teacher, Ms. Reiber, watching the television. I took a look at the television and I knew something serious had just taken place. We all got in our seats and stared at the television like animals stare at their prey. We were shocked at what was happening and could not believe that it was reality instead of a dream. We spent the whole class period watching CNN and talking about the incident. Our nation was attacked by those who seek to end our way of life, freedom and democracy. When I looked up at my teacher I saw her wiping tears from her eyes, and from that moment forward, I knew I would remember this day for the of my life. I knew I would know where I was when the incident took place, and who was with me during that time. That day I had to walk home from school. It seemed like it was the longest walk I had ever taken home from school. Looking around I saw major businesses closed and even banks closed. It looked like the city of Lebanon was dead because hardly anyone was on the streets. Everybody must have been in their homes watching the television coverage. The few people that were out on the streets were talking about the incident like I was with my friend who was sitting on her porch. We were both thinking about, "What if it happens to us in Lebanon? What if one of our buildings is targeted?" We didn't know what was...
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U.S. Against Cuba Should Americans and the United States government advocate some type of normal relationship with Cuba? Would the opening of trade and travel lead to a Cuban democracy and the improvement of human rights in that country? Would Cubans benefit from American tourism? The answer to all these questions was definitely NO, as I analyzed an extremely strong argument against Cuban relations presented by Frank Calzon, who is the executive director of Center for a Free Cuba. His writings have been published in a variety of journals and newspapers. Each one of them is the same persuasive genre appealing to an audience that is sympathetic to the dilemma of the citizens in Cuba, but he explains with factual text the reasons why we cannot subsidize Castro and his government. His use of powerful adjectives; such as repression and misery, support his claim that Castro is a man not to be trusted. The Center for a Free Cuba (CFFC) is an independent organization that promotes human rights and a transition to a peaceful democracy in Cuba. The center's website has a variety of interesting information for anyone just wanting to learn more about Cuba. The main emphasis of this website is to offer political viewpoints about Cuba. However there are also archives of articles by sponsors of the organization as well as expert information. The sub-areas of the website are: media, exhibits, get involved, books, and inside Cuba. This center's website is: www.cubacenter.org where one can read more articles by Mr. Calzon and will find an array of links about Cuba. In addition there are press releases, new sources and a link called "Ask the Experts." Just clicking on the Learning about Cuba link will give you more valuable information than any encyclopedia. While visiting this website I learned that Mr....
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Abe Lincoln is one of the most influential presdents. I think he is for several reasons.First how well he led his country during the civil war. He is most remebered for preserving the union during the civil war.Also, he began the process that led to the end of slavery in the united states. Lincoln made many speeches and addressed the nation many times during his presidency. His most remarkable speech was his second inaugural address that he gave on March 4, 1865 to the public. I also think that he is an influential person because even though we were at war, he kept his character lively so that everyone basically stayed clam. When I think of President lincoln, i think of a guy who went for his dreams, and accomplioshed them. Also of a guywho never gave up no matter what. Honest Abe will always be remembered in this country and by me for his speeches, letters,high spirits, and determination.this is why I think he is one of the most influential presidents. Abe Lincoln was the 16th president in the U.S. He was born on February 12, 1809 in Kentucky. when he was 7 he moved to Indiana. In 1846, he was elected to the U.S. House of representatives. This was a big day for him. He had a rough life. He lost his mother, father,sister and brother all to death. He ealt with many hardships during his presidency. The hardest of all was the Civil War. Lincoln made it through though....
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Abraham Lincoln was born February 12, 1809 at sunrise. His birthplace was a one-room log cabin, which were sixteen feet long and eighteen feet wide. The tiny cabin had only one dimly-lit window and hard-packed earth for flooring. When Abraham was six years old he and his sister Sarah walked two miles to a log cabin schoolhouse where he learned to read, write, and do arithmetic. Abe liked writing best of all and practiced it wherever he went. He wrote with charcoal on the back of a wooden shovel and even in dust and snow. There was little time for play, but between chores Abe liked to climb the rocky cliffs at Knob Creek Farm. There were no close neighbors so he was used to being alone and played by himself. In December 1816 the Lincoln family moved to the backwoods of Indiana. The Lincolns settled near Pigeon Creek in Spencer County, which was about sixteen miles from the Ohio River. In 1818 and epidemic of the milk sickness broke out. Drinking poisoned milk from cows that had eaten the wild snakeroot plant caused this sickness. Abe's mother Nancy was one of the first victims she died October 5, 1818. The next year Thomas Lincoln married Sarah Bush Johnston, a widow with three children. Abe was very attached to his kind stepmother and he referred to her as "my angel mother". Abe's stepmother always encouraged his quest for knowledge. Whenever Abe's father could spare him form chores he attended school where he learned to read, write and to cipher. Though Abe had less than one full year of formal education in his life. Abe made up for his lack of schooling by reading, he always had a book by him. His first books were the Bible and Aesop's Fables. Abe always kept teaching himself...
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During the American Revolution, a patriot was defined as "one who loves, supports and defends one country" (Webster's Dictionary) Most certainly these qualities were reserved exclusively for the male population of the time. In 1776, words such as androgynous, woman's activist did not exist. It is difficult to obtain and explain one simple definition of what a patriotic American was around 1776 and the Declaration of Independence. Therefore how can one person give a simple definition of a patriot during the American Revolution? Many people insist that the great political leaders of the time and the soldiers who actually fought in the Revolution exemplified a truly patriotic American. The opinions of today's society lean towards men such as Thomas Jefferson, General George Washington and John Adams among the most ardent patriots of the time period. However, there is an entire gender omitted when defining the term. Female colonists during the time of the American Revolution were also patriotic and tried to help the cause in any possible way. Some may say that these women followed the boycotts of the time and were patriotic in supporting the cause simply because they were married to men who were patriotic. However, this is a sever understatement. Clearly, some women were self-opinionated and possessed a true passion for freedom. Thus, these women could be considered patriots because of their own love for their country. A prime example of a true female patriot was Abigail Adams. She voiced her opinions on politics in private letters to her husband, John Adams, and at times, expressed her support publicly. She encouraged the women in her town to encourage the revolutionary cause by boycotting British goods and living simply in order to assist the politicians of the time. Since Abigail herself could not hold an office, she lived vicariously...
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Olivia Ricks January 12, 2002 Abolitionist Movement Project Period 1 Thesis Statement: As the anti-slavery movement moved on it became clear that the reasoning and opinion of whites on abolition issues were relevant, even though the voice of an African American is more heartfelt and emotional. Sojourner Truth and Fredrick Douglass were great abolitionist. They are still being remembered as heroes along with other abolitionist such as William Lloyd Garrison, Harriet Tubman, Wendell Phillips, Lucretia Mott and Quaker Benjamin Lundy. Those are just some of the people that proved that the justification of slavery by whites was bogus. Isabella was born between 1797 and 1800. She later changed her name to Sojourner Truth (Narrative of Sojourner Truth, 1875). She was born to Betsy and James. James and Betsy were the slaves of Colonial Ardinburgh Hurly. Colonial Ardinburgh died when Isabella was a baby. She and her parents became the slaves of his son Charles. Isabella was said to have ten to twelve brothers and sisters, but has only seen six of them. She remembers the two that were younger than her a three-year-old girl and a five-year-old boy. Isabella and Peter her younger brother stayed with their parents until the death of Charles. At an auction to decide where Charles's assets were going to be placed, the people thought that James, Isabella's father wasn't able to do anything anymore. Betsy was given her freedom to care for James. They were able to live comfortable for several years until the death of Betsy. Betsy was supposed to be fixing something to eat for James in the kitchen. James came into the cellar where they lived and saw that Betsy was lying on the floor choking. She had become ill with palsy. Isabella and Peter were permitted to see their mother's remains and visit with their father. James...
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Abolitionist Paper-History Throughout the 1830-1860s slaves were a huge debate between the North and South. There were two sides to the way people viewed slavery. One side viewed slavery as a positive necessity, these people came from the South and used slavery on their large plantations. The other side viewed slavery as wrong; these people were typically from the North and didn't use slavery because it was not needed up North to run large factories. The side that viewed slavery as wrong were called abolitionists. Abolitionists worked to abolish slavery in all states and in their eyes slavery was wrong and inhumane. There have been many famous abolitionists throughout history. Each abolitionist has their own story and own way of telling of the abusive, cruel system of slavery. Fredrick Douglass may be known as one of the greatest abolitionists in history and also America's foremost great black speaker. Douglass was one of the first leaders of the abolitionist movement. He was known for his speeches, lectures, and wise words towards the abolishment of slavery. Harriet Tubman was known as a great abolitionist because of her work personally guiding other slaves to freedom. It is said that because of her work against slavery, she is one of the reasons the Civil War began! Unlike Harriet Tubman, Douglass wrote and told his life story to become a strong abolitionist. Harriet Tubman used the Underground Railroad to raise her fame being known as the "Moses of her people." While Douglass spoke inspirational words, Tubmans efforts were inspirational to other runaways. Douglass career started when he ran away to the North. He wrote about his life as a slave. Douglass was a brilliant speaker, and because of this he was asked by the American Anti-Slavery Society to engage in a tour of lectures and from there he...
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Aboriginals regarded their land as sacred. Places on earth share the sacredness of dreaming as they were formed in their present shape by the journeys of the ancestors. Aboriginal tradition, culture, religion, law and kinship were derived from "their" land. High mountain peaks may represent a place where one of their ancestors reared up and looked over the surrounding country, and a ridge along a range could be an ancestral track. To the Aboriginal people the land is not dead. It's alive with power and history marked by their ancestors. For Aboriginals the land is the core of all spirituality and the ownership of this land means that they had the responsibility to care for and nurture it. Aboriginals consider the land as sacred not only for food and water, but because it is also the depot of the secret and sacred activities of dreaming ancestors. Dreaming is a complex concept of importance to Aboriginal culture, embracing the creative era long past as well as the present and the future. For most Aboriginal people their religious beliefs are derived from a sense of belonging to the land, to the sea, to other people and to ones culture. Dreaming is the centre of Aboriginal religion and life; it is the closest translation of Aboriginal concept of how the world works. Kinship is the system of relationship traditionally excepted by a particular culture and the rights and obligations they involve. Traditional Aboriginal society is an all-inclusive network of giving and receiving. Kinship is not only ones place and role but it also extends to the whole environment, being the land. These aspects are also all supported by dreaming which was initially derived from the land. When Europeans arrived in 1788 the connection between the Aboriginals and the land was taken away through the doctrine of "terra...
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Consider how the experiences of Aboriginal People described in "A Terribly Wild Man" have influenced the involvement of aboriginal parents with schooling and the outcomes of Indigenous children? As from the mid nineteenth century Aboriginal people experienced both psychological and physical trauma. The youths were kidnapped and removed from their traditional localities, abused and did not receive remuneration for their labour, this is just to put it nicely. In the late 1800s, the federal government and Christian churches collaborated to determine the education of Aboriginal children. The government and the church would methodically use education as a tool to assimilate Aboriginal children (and eventually their families) by inculcating white middle-class values. It was believed that Christianity would "civilize" the natives. The plan was to forcibly remove children from their homes, segregate them from their reserve communities, and place them in residential schools. Indigenous students did not have the opportunity to experience their cultural and natural heritage. This would have enhanced their sense of identity and pride in their culture. Indigenous people can reach comparable levels of literacy and numeracy as other Australians and should be given every opportunity to do so. The most important contribution parents can make to the success of their child's education is to be involved. Many Aboriginal parents are hampered in their desire to aid and direct the schooling of their children by a lack of experience, knowledge and resources; this is all due to the mistreatment they received by the white settlers. Successful schooling should promote the participation of educational staff, students, families and the community in making decisions about learning. Children from the age of five were torn from their families and placed under the stewardship of missionary priests and nuns in foreign institutions devoid of caring and love. Foreign language (English and Latin), foreign religion...
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Since European settlement, Aboriginal History has been a spiral of mistreatment and death. I believe that the Australian Government should say "sorry". This would cause a recognition of past injustices. The reasons that I believe the Australian Government should say "sorry" is because of: 1. Reserves. 2. Missions. 3. Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths. In 1883, the Aborigines Protection Board was set up in New South Wales. It's purpose was to 'smooth the pillow of the dying race' and thus hasten the extinction of the Aboriginal people. Two of the methods used were Missions and Reserves. A Reserve was an area of land set aside for Aboriginal people to live under the control of the Europeans. It was like a refugee camp. The Aboriginals even had to ask permission to leave the boundaries of the camp. On the reserves they were given basic housing and just enough food to survive. Many were also shipped off to foreign territories, often to share accommodation with Aboriginal tribes who were traditionally their enemies, or whom they could barely communicate with as a result of language barriers. Distance from their land, and coexistence with incompatible groups caused a large breakdown in Aboriginal society as kin relationships, marriage rules and cultural practices were distrupted. In many cases, particularly on Christian-run missions, Aboriginal people were given European names and were not allowed to speak their own language or practice their own ceremonies as these were considered heathen. This is a reason for the Australian Government to say "sorry" because: 1. This was a deliberate attempt at cultural genocide. 2. This deliberate attempt at cultural genocide was intended to break Aboriginal spirit and contribute to their 'inevitable' extinction. In the late 20th century, Australia's indigenous peoples were: • 29 times more likely to be put in jail than other Australians. • 20 times more likely to be picked...
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Stolen Generation The Australian governments of the mid 1900s should all be ashamed of the way they treated indigenous Australians. Aborigines are as much a part of this country as white Australians and for them to be treated the way they were is irreconcilable. Aborigines were discriminated against through removal, lies and abuse which the government should be responsible for. For over fifty years, government policies required indigenous children to be removed from their families in an attempt to destroy the indigenous community. The children were removed simply because they were indigenous which is a clear example that the Australian government was genocidal towards the indigenous population. "There was a clear and explicit intention to eliminate indigenous cultures and entities". [P.17. Questions and Answers] The governments at the time believed that they were doing the correct thing but due to the lies told to the indigenous community and the rest of the world this is obviously a farce. The governments told the parents that their children would only be removed if the parents were drunks, untrustworthy or unfit to bring up children, which is clearly a lie. The government could remove any child they wished even if the parents abided by these so-called rules. The government also lied to the rest of the world by signing a Genocide Convention act which stated that countries may not inflict harm on any racial group. Australia signed this treaty even though they continued to remove indigenous children after the treaty was signed. Indigenous children were taken away from their families and put into foster homes and boarding houses where the majority were abused and tormented. Children who were fostered out to caring and loving families were the lucky ones. Others were not so lucky. Some were made to work as servants and others as cleaners for little or no...
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Native title Native title, is the name given by the high court to indigenous property rights recognised by the court in the mabo judgement (3 june 1992).The mabo judgement overthrew the legal fiction of Terra Nullis-that the land of Australia had belonged to no one when the british arrived in 1788. Land rights The aboriginal land rights (northern territory)act 1976,was passed by the Australian parliament under a coalition government in 1976.It was based on the recommendations of the woodward royal commission which argued that the commonwealth had a responsibility to grant land rights to aboriginal people in the northern territory. Stolen generation Aboriginal children were removed from their parents on various pretexts for a very long time.The children who were removed,and either placed in orphanages,church institutions,or with white families have come to be referred as the "Stolen Generation". The Dreaming The Dreaming has different meanings for different Aboriginal groups. The Dreaming can be seen as an embodiment of Aboriginal creation which gives meaning to everything. It establishes the rules governing relationships between the people, the land and all things for Aboriginal people. Terra nullius A concept in international law meaning 'a territory belonging to no-one' or 'over which no-one claims ownership'. The concept is related to the legal acceptance of occupation as an original means of peacefully acquiring territory. However, a fundamental condition of a valid occupation is that the territory should belong to no-one. The concept has been used to justify the colonisation of Australia. The High Court decision of 1992 rejected terra nullius and recognises Indigenous native title. Reconciliation A Commonwealth initiative to promote reconciliation between Indigenous people and the wider community and to redress Indigenous disadvantage, with a target date of 2001. Dispossession Aboriginal people were gradually dispossessed of their land. As their culture was land-based the disintegration of traditional culture and society followed soon after. Aboriginal tent embassy Directly in front...
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since 1788, the newcomers to australia have often assumed that indigenous peoples' cultures and societies were worthless, because their efforts to understand the white society were too superficial. Indigenous Australians have in the past been completely excluded and to a large extent remain largely excluded from 'normal' economic activities. Even when barriers to institutional exclusion are progressively removed, practical barriers related to location, lack of education, health status, lack of access to capital, and a host of other factors combine to exclude Indigenous people effectively. there are many issues that have and still are affecting the indeginous australians such as land rights, deaths in custody and the stolen generation which have been looked over by the government to some extent. however, was the government response enough to make the aboriginal and torres strait islander peoples' life easy and equivilant to non aboriginal lifestyles? the answer to this can be evaluated by overviewing the government responses through these years concerning the three main issues mentioned above and how effective they have been. Seeing what these people go through will open your eyes to the reality of racism that still exists in our world today.It is important for people to understand the extent of the problems facing the Aboriginal community so that improvements can be made. Yet to fully achieve an understanding of the issues at hand, one must learn about the Aboriginal issues of yesterday. When you can relate to where the people are coming from, it is easier to understand why their current situation exists. as australians begin to see themselves as part of the asian and pacific regions rather than as a satelite suburb of europe, they are also seeing the first australians through new eyes. it is almost impossible to exaggerate the importance of land to aborigines, either in...
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Aboriginals are Australians whose ancestors were the first people to live in Australia. The word comes from the Latein phrase ab origine, meaning from the beginning. When spelled with a small "a", the word aborigines refers to any people whose ancestors were the first to live in a country. You can write Aborigine also like Aboriginal, both has the same meaning. History Most scientists believe the ancestors of today`s Aboriginals first arrived in Australia as early as 50,000 years ago. They came from Southeast Asia. 50,000 years ago, the sea level was about 100 meters lower than the today`s sea level, because of the ice-age. So there was land between Southeast Asia and Australia and the Aboriginals could walk over. They were the onliest human beings on the fifth continent and so they strayed all over the country. Aboriginals lived in a great harmony with their natural environment. Before the fateful day in 1788, when James Cook discovered the East-side of the island continent, there were living about 750,000 Aboriginals. There were 500 tribes, each with its own language, its own religion, and with its own tradition. But when the first English settlers arrived, all this changed: It`s the year 1780, streactly speaking the 26th of january, when some Aboriginals saw the British fleet on the horizon. They shouted :"Warra, warra" when the big ships dropped their anchor- run away! But they were helpless. James Cook had discovered Australia and claimed the land for Britain at once. And when he told the English king that the land he had found was great to live and work on, the king had an idea. This idea was perhaps great for the English people, but not for the people living in Australia long before Mr. Cook came to the island continent. In May 1787 the first ships,...
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Between 1788 and today the relationships between Aboriginal spirituality and Christian tradition have undergone a major development. Initially Christian relations with Aboriginal spirituality was mainly on an anthropological level, if it existed at all. Compassion was shown by men like Lacelot Threlkeld however there was no empathy toward the Aborigine's and there was no attempt at understanding them. This came much later and only after great interplay between the two religous schools of thought. As time passed the relationships changed as members of the Christian tradition began to realise and feel responsible for the destruction of the Aboriginal culture. This realisation eventually led to more empathy being shown and to attempts, by members of the chrisitan tradition, to understand the Aborigine's way of life. This new found understanding was to bring respect to the Aborigine's and has influenced chiristianity, in Australia, to an extent. Originally European Chrisitan's attitude toward was one of arrogance and superiority. Early paintings show the Aborigine as a 'noble savage'; tall, elegant and handsome. Art is a very concise way of describing the rapid deterioration of this initial 'noble savage' view. By the early 1800's the art had changed the way it drew it's Aborigine and they now appeared dirty, comical and ape- - like. This reflected European opinion which now saw the Aborigine as a 'comic savage' and had lost its original respect for them. This religious challenge often forced varied responses from the Aboriginal spiritual community. Believing, at first, that the 'Whites' were spirits returned, the Aborigine's greeted them and tried to provide a place for them in society. After this initial attempt at friendship, and when it became obvious that the returned spirits were not freindly the Aboriginis divised means of riding these 'returned spirits'. Similar to their traditional anit-spirital rights these involves creating smoke...
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Abraham Lincoln was born Sunday, February 12, 1809, in a log cabin near Hodgenville, Kentucky. He was the son of Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln, and he was named for his paternal grandfather. Thomas Lincoln was a carpenter and farmer. Both of Abraham's parents were members of a Baptist congregation which had separated from another church due to opposition to slavery. Abraham Lincoln, the son of a farmer, was born near Hodgenville, Kentucky, on 12th February 1809. Although his parents were virtually illiterate, and he spent only a year at school, he developed a love of reading. In March 1830, the Lincoln family moved to Illinois. After helping his father clear and fence his father's new farm, Lincoln moved to New Salem, where he worked as a storekeeper, postmaster and surveyor. Abraham Lincoln, from the backwoods of Hodgenville Kentucky, rose to become one of the greatest presidents of the United States. During his attempt to keep the Union in the Civil War, he gained more power and authority than any president before him. A excellent politician, Lincoln was always looked upon for leadership for he put reason and thoughtful decisions behind his word. Adolf Hitler, a charismatic, Austrian-born demagogue, rose to power in Germany during the 1920s and early 1930s at a time of social, political, and economic upheaval. Failing to take power by force in 1923, he eventually won power by democratic means. In this essay I will describe the civilizations of Africa and the New World. I will show how these great civilizations were alike and how they were not. The Africans and the Indians were alike in their rise to greatness, each achieving it through conquest. They were also alike in their means of survival; all were agricultural peoples. These two cultures both experienced tremendous wealth and all were a model...
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The foundation for black participation in the Civil War began more than a hundred years before the outbreak of the war. Blacks in America had been in bondage since early colonial times. In 1776, when Jefferson proclaimed mankind's inalienable right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, the institution of slavery had become firmly established in America. Blacks worked in the tobacco fields of Virginia, in the rice fields of South Carolina, and toiled in small farms and shops in the North. Foner and Mahoney report in A House Divided, America in the Age of Lincoln that, "In 1776, slaves composed forty percent of the population of the colonies from Maryland south to Georgia, but well below ten percent in the colonies to the North." The invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney in 1793 provided a demand for cotton thus increasing the demand for slaves. By the 1800's slavery was an institution throughout the South, an institution in which slaves had few rights, and could be sold or leased by their owners. They lacked any voice in the government and lived a life of hardship. Considering these circumstances, the slave population never abandoned the desire for freedom or the determination to resist control by the slave owners. The slave's reaction to this desire and determination resulted in outright rebellion and individual acts of defiance. However, historians place the strongest reaction in the enlisting of blacks in the war itself. Batty and Parish in The Divided Union: The Story of the Great American War, 1861-65, concur with Foner and Mahoney about the importance of outright rebellion in their analysis of the Nat Turner Rebellion, which took place in 1831. This revolt demonstrated that not all slaves were willing to accept this "institution of slavery" passively. Foner and Mahoney...
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