After World War II had ended, rising tensions between the United States of America and the Soviet Union came to be. They arose because of a difference in the view each side had on the world after the Second World War. The popular culture of the United States changed greatly during this time, for it was the time of the Cold War. It played a direct affect on the culture of the country, changing movies, books and other forms of entertainment. The culture of the Cold War also brought a new specter that haunted America, the specter of Communism. Just a century earlier, the fear of Communism, or the Red Scare, had traveled through Europe and now it had made its way into the United States by introducing ideological politics. Because of this, American culture was changed throughout the 1940s and the 1950s. The investigation of Hollywood radicals by the House on Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) in 1947 and 1951 was a continuation of pressures first exerted in the late 1930s and early 1940s by the Dies Committee and State Senator Jack Tenney's California Joint Fact-finding Committee on Un-American Activities. HUAC charged that Communists had established a significant base in the dominant medium of mass culture. Communists were said to be placing subversive messages into Hollywood films and discriminating against unsympathetic colleagues. A further concern was that Communists were in a position to place negative images of the United States in films that would have wide international distribution. A major part of popular culture back in the 1940s and 1950s, as well as today, was the movie industry. A lot pf pressure was put on producers to keep such topics as the Red Scare out of movies. If this was so, then why was Jack Warner allowed to make a movie that...
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During the post-war years of 1945-1949, the USSR adopted a policy of "sovietization" and set about its expansion into Eastern Europe, by creating Moscow-friendly satellite states. The USSR saw this as a purely defensive action, while the West saw this as evidence of Russia's expansionist nature. Hence, Soviet Union's move into Eastern Europe was much cause of the conflict between the West and Russia. One of the motivating forces behind Stalin's expansionist policy into Europe was that of overseas economic expansion. By this, we mean that one of Stalin's main reasons for creating satellite states in Eastern Europe was to ensure that he could have enough markets to trade with, and to ensure USSR's influence over the economies of the other countries. However, there are other more important factors dictating its policy towards Europe, like USSR's search for security. Towards the end of World War Two, the Soviet Red Army swept through Eastern Europe as they liberated them from the Nazis. However, the Red Army never left Eastern Europe. The need to restore law and order into these countries provided Stalin with the perfect excuse to station his troops there. This allowed Stalin to tighten his grip over the region later on, making it easier for him to exert the Soviet sphere of influence as the presence of the Red Army gave local communist parties a lot of support. These communist parties then went on to win rigged elections in their own countries. Also, after the war, there was a political vacuum in many countries in Eastern Europe. Their economies were shattered, so, to rebuild them, their governments followed the economic policies of the Soviet Union. The USSR took over all industry, and workers and farmers were told what to produce. As stated earlier on, one of the main factors that...
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The Cold War was a confrontation between military giants, and it was the balance of terror, which preserved the world's peace. But the balance was maintained at a ridiculously high and costly level. Both the United States and the Soviet Union equipped themselves with thousands more nuclear missiles than were needed for self-defense. Those weapons, added to conventional armaments, cost the superpowers trillions of dollars. In 1955 President Eisenhower warned, "The problem in defense spending is to figure how far you should go without destroying from within what you are trying to defend from without." One of many different estimates show that more than eight trillion dollars were spent, worldwide, on mainly nuclear weapons between 1945 and 1996. At one point, the world's nuclear stockpiles held 18 billion metric tons of explosive energy: 18,000 megatons. Today, they still hold about 8,000 megatons. Compared to these totals with the entire explosive energy released by all bombs dropped in the Second World War (6 megatons); in the Korean War (0.8 megatons); in Vietnam (4.1 megatons)., and one could possible realize the significance and foolish decisions of this "war". Total Soviet expenditure during the Cold War is hard to estimate, but Eduard Shevardnadze thought that perhaps nearly 50 percent of Soviet national product was spent on defense, depriving the Soviet people of a better life. The United States ended the Cold War, still a major superpower, with a booming economy. But the poor of the United States, could certainly have used some of the resources spent to the cause of Cold War armaments. A continuing cost will be that for cleaning up weapons-related nuclear pollution. Estimates of what this will cost in the United States range from $100 billion to $400 billion. In Russia and the old U.S.S.R., the problem is intractable; they simply will not be...
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Cold War My first inclination would be to answer the first question with a clear "YES". But come to think of it, the causes of war really have not changed at all, or at least very little. Rather than changes, there has been a shift in the causes. The cause of war which has dominated the last 50 years was the cause of ideology. However, due to the recent end of the Cold War, this cause of war, has significantly declined and is almost trivial. The causes of war have shifted from mainly ideological ones to economic, ethnic and others. Although these reasons have always played a role as causes of war throughout history, they were in the last 50 years overshadowed by the cause of ideology. Now, with ideology not on top of the agenda anymore, these causes have regained their importance. After the second World War the world was dominated by two superpowers; the USA and the USSR. The Cold War was a result of this division of power and of the important policy of spheres of influence. In the post WWII-era the Americans thought that the Russians were aiming to incorporate Western Europe (the US & British sphere of influence) into their sphere of influence (Eastern Europe) by supporting the communists in these countries. Their fears were enforced when a "coup substituted communist for coalition rule in Prague." (Calvocoressi, p.15)(even though this is an Eastern European Country, the fact that a coup was staged against a democratic government is reason enough to raise their fears). In this ideologically hostile environment the Cold War began. It was characterised by the arms race between the two superpowers who were eager to preserve their spheres of influence. Both developed such powerful weapons which were too dangerous to be used in practice, but which contributed to the feeling of security, because they acted as deterrent. (These weapons could be used "politically"[as deterrent] but not "militarily"[since they would bring complete...
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The Cold War was a war caused by the tension between the Soviet Union and the United States of America. It started after WWII ended. Europe was left in ruins while Russia and the U.S. were left as super powers. The Cold War was a battle between these groups in political, military, and economic ideas. Though military build up was great on both sides neither one ever directly fought each other. In this essay I'm going to talk about the following points: Rise of the Cold War, events in and because of the Cold War, and the fall of Russia. England was devastated, France was burnt to the ground, and many small nations had suffered economically. Russia had suffered many losses from the Nazi's. But they were in better shape then Europe. They still had a military and a running, economy. In the late 40's through early 50's the Soviet Union started to spread the Lenin's ideas as it moved toward the west. In 1947 the U.S. started helping Europe economically, to help them rebuild in a system called the Marshall Plan. Russia had its own plan called the Molotov Plan. Because of this they were able to spread communism through many countries. Some of these nations were: Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Eastern Germany, and numerous countries in Southeastern Asia. But on the U.S. side we had the support from almost the entire Western Europe. So the tension started, between Western Europe (republic society) and Eastern Europe (communism) many events happened during the cold war, one of the events that led up to the tension was the foreign aid policies. These policies were able to divide up Europe between the superpowers. After Europe was divided treaty organizations and alliances started forming up again. One of these alliances was the...
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In the Yalta and Potsdam conference 1945 there was an agreement over the ''spheres of influence''.There was a separation between Soviet communism and capitalist America.USSR occupied East Europe and the West occupied Greece and Turkey.This caused great tension between the 'super powers'.At the end of world war II the 'super powers' came to conflict,U.S.A and the Soviets.There was great suspicion and hostility between the two,this became known as the 'Cold War'!.A silent war as there was no physical violence,but many words were spoken on both parts,and conflict grew. The cartoon in source A1 is referring to the 'Arm's Race'.This is a primary source which could be seen as biased,as it has been published by a British new's magazine,so therefore it is a british interpretation of the situation at that time,and as Britain was an ally to America there view may not of been all round truthful.The cartoon is showing the British cartoonist's opinion of the order of which the countries are leading in conflict.Eisenhower and Khruschev are leading followed by MacMillan and De Gaulle.The expression's portrayed on the leader's face's suggest's high tension between them all.The Arm's Race was nothing to do with winning,but more to do with gaining a status of power.This is a useful source as it give's you a better prospective on the situation between the 'Super Powers' during that time. A photograph of a lockheed U-2 reconaissance plane used by the US on high altitude photographic missions over soviet territory is pictured in source A2.It is a primary source that is not referenced,and show's tension rising,as the US must of felt suspicious and hostile toward's the Soviets,to feel the need to extend to these length's to watch over soviet territory. The flight path of the U-2 plane,like the one Francis Gary Powers took,is shown in source A3.Again it is...
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The Cold War was a contest between the USA and the Soviet Union. It led to the existence of thousands of nuclear weapons, two universal ideologies in conflict, and two different self-images, the United States championing a world made safe for democracy. Its opponent, the Soviet Union advocated world Communism. The United States prides itself on its heritage of freedom, a refuge for persecuted religious groups, a land of liberty that successfully rebelled against the imperial power of Britain in 1776. Its guiding principles were the protection of the individual's life, liberty and pursuit of happiness and the establishment of a constitution that embodied the best political idea of modern times, a system of checks and balances so that the president, Congress or parliament and judiciary or Supreme Court shared power, checking each other's work to guard against dictatorship. While the United States did not always live up to its ideals, nonetheless, on paper at least, it looked good compared to its Cold War rival, the Soviet Union. Led by a murderous dictator, Joseph Stalin (1928 to 1953), the Soviet government was brutal, outlawing all opposition, banned political parties opposed to the Communist Party, murdered millions and set up a vast prison camp system known as the Gulag. In the years 1937-38 alone, Stalin ordered the execution of one million citizens of the Soviet Union. In the fifty years of the Cold War, the United States only executed two of its own citizens, the husband and wife Rosenberg spy team. Even though the Rosenbergs should not have been executed because their crimes were tiny in the context of the Civil War, the difference between the United States and the Soviet Union in terms of political mass murder of its own citizens is obvious. Despite this fact, one third of the world went the...
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Introduction When World War II in Europe finally came to an end on May 7, 1945, a new war was just beginning. The Cold War: denoting the open yet restricted rivalry that developed between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies, a war fought on political, economic, and propaganda fronts, with limited recourse to weapons, largely because of fear of a nuclear holocaust.1 This term, The Cold War, was first used by presidential advisor Bernard Baruch during a congressional debate in 1947. Intelligence operations dominating this war have been conducted by the Soviet State Security Service (KGB) and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), representing the two power blocs, East and West respectively, that arose from the aftermath of World War II. Both have conducted a variety of operations from large scale military intervention and subversion to covert spying and surveillance missions. They have known success and failure. The Bay of Pigs debacle was soon followed by Kennedy's ft handling of the Cuban missile crisis. The decisions he made were helped immeasurably by intelligence gathered from reconnaissance photos of the high altitude plane U-2. In understanding these agencies today I will show you how these agencies came about, discuss past and present operations, and talk about some of their tools of the trade. Origin of the CIA and KGB The CIA was a direct result of American intelligence operations during World War II. President Franklin D. Roosevelt recognized the need to coordinate intelligence to protect the interests of the United States. In 1941, he appointed William J. Donovan to the head of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) with headquarters in London. Four departments made up the OSS: Support, Secretariat, Planning, and Overseas Missions. Each of these departments directed an array of sections known as 'operation groups'. This organization had fallen into...
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Cold War Some say that it is useless to speak of world peace or world law or world disarmament - and that it will be useless until the leaders of the Soviet Union adopt a more enlightened attitude. I hope they do. I believe we can help them to do it. But I also believe that we must reexamine our own attitude - as individuals and as a Nation - for our attitude is as essential as theirs. And every graduate of this school, every thoughtful citizen who despairs of war and wishes to bring peace, should begin by looking inward - by examining his own attitude toward the possibilities of peace, toward the Soviet Union, toward the course of the cold war and toward freedom and peace here at home. President John F. Kennedy, American University Speech, June 10, 1963 The Cold War was a time in American History during the twentieth century where the Communist nations were fighting against the non-Communist nations. However, the main countries involved, or the ones leading the two sides were the United States and Russia. The United States led the fight against Communist nations, like Russia. But these intense rivalries didn't just go on in the type of government that should be used or in who could develop the most advanced and most powerful nuclear weapon of the time. This rivalry went into the culture of American societies. The Russians were always being viewed as the toughest rival and the team to beat according to the US. It is similar to how teams think of the defending champions in a sport. The team playing the defending champions wants to come out hyped up and with their "A-game" every time they are competing with them. Another impact it had on the American society was how people started...
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After World War II, the Soviet Union's economy had declined. Mikhail Gorbachev, the leader of the Soviet Union, felt compelled to do something to reverse the economic decline and decay. Gorbachev believed that the Soviet Union needed a change and he wanted his nation to catch up with the economic advances of other nations. "Gorbachev's aim had been to strengthen the political and economic systems that he inherited, to strip away their Stalinist accretions and made the Soviet Union a modern dynamic state." He tried doing this by implementing 3 policies - glasnost, democratization, and perestroika. Although in the end, Gorbachev's policies did worsen the Soviet Union's economy. The end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union were inevitable occurrences. Mikhail Gorbachev and America were influences of these occurrences. In the article written by Joshua Muravchik, How the Cold War Really Happened, he proclaims that the "fundamental underlying cause of the Cold War was the belief in both the Soviet Union and the United States that confrontation was unavoidable." Gorbachev paid close attention to all moves made by the American president, Ronald Reagan, which influenced him in many ways. When Ronald Reagan was elected, he immediately began to promote anti-communism among his nation and rewarded those who followed him. After World War II, America had come out hoping to maintain it's friendly relations with the USSR; but Moscow conquered Eastern Europe and searched further provoking a defensive response from the United States. Reagan was a powerful President because of the speed at which he regained military strength and political assertiveness and the way he spoke about his concern for democracy and freedom. Gorbachev received threats from the United States, so to avoid any possible nuclear war or World War III; and decided to make some changes. After...
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Between the settlement at Jamestown in 1607 and the Treaty of Paris in 1763, the most important change that occurred in the colonies was the emergence of a society quite different from that in England. Changes in religion, economics, politics and social structure illustrate this Americanization of the transplanted Europeans. England's colonies in the New World were becoming an increasingly independent country that started to handle things differently from its mother country. By 1763, although some colonies still maintained established churches, other colonies had accomplished a virtual revolution for religious toleration and separation of church and state. When the colonists first came over to America, they brought with them the ideas the English practiced, which were strict religious schedules and the presence of the Church in the government. However, after the Great Awakening, the colonies relaxed in their religious beliefs. The people that were referred to as the "New Lights" and ideas such as the Halfway Covenant were major factors in this new religious revival. The Great Awakening served as a virtual religious revolution in the colonies that changed the way religion was looked upon. In a similar economic revolution, the colonies outgrew their mercantile relationship with the mother country and developed an expanding capitalist system of their own. England was a very industrialized country that expected their colonies to utilize their trading abilities to England's advantage. Since the colonies were not very industrialized, their economy relied on their plantations and trade with the Indians and other countries. England tried to control the colonies with laws and Navigation Acts, but finally the colonies rebelled against their mother country. They became economically self-reliant, which started their capitalist system. The colonies headed towards capitalism and economic independence after an economic revolution with England. Building on English foundations of political liberty, the colonists extended the concepts...
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"The first duty of society is to give each of its members the possibility of fulfilling his destiny. When it becomes incapable of performing this duty it must be transformed." This quote by Alexis Carrel explains the reasoning behind the French and American Revolution. Although the revolutions have some differences, they have many similarities. The American Revolution had differences from French Revolution. For instance, colonists loved the Americas. They grew tobacco and corn and lived wonderful lives. However, soon that ended, because after the French and Indian War, the King hit the colonists with taxes like a ton of bricks. The King of England wanted more money from the colonists, but they did not want to give it. This is where all the trouble began (Morris and Morris 79-135). With the debts the King had to pay, he decided to put "Acts" on the colonists. These acts made it so that the colonists had to do things a particular way to pay taxes. For example, the Stamp Act was put upon the colonists. This act made it so that every document from a newspaper to a letter had to have the official stamp on it. These emblems cost money so every piece of paper cost more money than what it did before the act (Beck and Black 183-184). The colonists decided that they wanted no more allegiance with Britain, so they wrote the Declaration of Independence. It was written by Thomas Jefferson and it stated what the colonists wanted and the abuses that King George III was putting on them. The people wanted to be in their own country, not Britain's (Beck and Black 184-185). During the revolution, the colonists beat Britain and they started the creation of America. This "America" was exactly what they wanted. The government was great and...
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The Communist Manifesto. By Karl Marx and Friederich Engels. (New York. Penguin Classics,2002.) It is plain to see that in The Communist Manifest Karl Marx is trying to make everyone agree that communism will solve a lot of problems. He believes that having different social rank creates a lot of stress on the modern industry. He believes that if the modern industry keeps going at the rate it is going it will eventually lead to a revolutionary war between the proletarians(working class) and the Bourgeosis (capitalist), and the proletarians will eventually overthrow the Bourgeosis. The Communist Manifesto is written in a thematic structure. Karl Marx separates every section by the different parties and what they believe. This book has an analytical nature. He believes having no social classes, individuals not being able to own private property, and society having no state will end a lot of the world's problems. Karl Marx backs up everything he says with evidence or very strong persuasive thoughts. It is often hard for me to clarify the difference between evidence and strictly opinion because I do not know if what he has written really happened or if he just wrote how he viewed things happening. For Example ,( " The Bourgeosis has subjected the country to a rule of towns it has created enormous cities, has greatly increased the urban population as compared with the rural , and has rescued considerable part of the population from the idiocy of rural life 224.) He has made sure no other arguments are possible from his conclusions. Everything that Karl Marx has written in The Communist Manifesto supports his argument for communism. He covers every source that might even come close to helping his argument. The book is written in a well organized manner. The presentation is logical, although communism does seem...
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"The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles." (TCM pg. 50) This crucial opening to The Communist Manifesto holds the key to understanding Karl Marx's conceptions of history. Marx outlines history as a two dimensional, "linear" chain of events. A constant progression of class divisions being created and overthrown, one after the other, until the result is the utopian endpoint, otherwise known as communism. The Communist Manifesto was generally an attempt to highlight the evils of the bourgeois society, and how through a natural progression of events, it would cause its own undoing. Karl Marx argued that human history unfolds in a teleological manner; therefore, it unfolds according to a distinct series of historical stages, each necessarily following the other. Marx begins by criticizing the historical complexities of early societies. He emphasizes the differences in classes and the complications that occur because of the struggles between opposition. The bourgeoisie and the proletariat were two major social oppositions, which gave way to his manifesto. The French Revolution sparked the rise of the bourgeoisie and the abolition of a feudalist society. During the rise of the bourgeoisie, it allowed much other advancement to take place. Medieval guilds gave way to new methods of manufacturing, and the discovery and colonization of the New World demanded more efficient, larger scale production. As the Industrial Revolution continued, there was a widespread use of the division of labor. The bourgeoisie introduced free trade and the pursuit of profit, and gradually became an economic power. The bourgeoisie evolved from small traders in the old feudal system, through the industrial revolution where they emerged as "…industrial millionaires, the generals of whole industrial armies." (TCM, pg. 9) Their ability to make society reliant on capitalism was reinforced by the implementation of the modern representative state, which is "…a...
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West Enlightenment Thomas Zahora/ Tip Ragan December 10, 2003 Communist Manifesto & We Question #1 Select some characteristics of communist society as envisioned by Marx and Engels in the Manifesto, and compare them with the imagined realities of Zamyatin's "We". Questions to ponder: 1. what has gone wrong, as far as society is concerned, in Zamyatin's novel? 2. In what ways is (or is not) the society in "We" a necessary result of the application of communist ideals in real life? In The Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx along with Frederich Engels envisioned a change that would occur to place a social order. They called this communism. This social order would be the opposite of Capitalism, having the government control all the money, instead of the community. They believed this would occur at the expense of the working class. The main reason for this existence was to create only one class, so that there would no longer be a class struggle. There would no longer be a need for all the downsides of class warfare like money, nation-states and policing. There would be one government that would dictate what went on in the state. Marx and Engels believed that, in order to achieve utopia, which is a perfect society, all private property is made public property, which would be controlled by the state and used to benefit the country. Basically, the authors also wanted to place communication and transportation in the hands of the state. This would get rid of freedom of speech and allow the government to cut and censor whatever they wanted to. The government would also control who can leave the country and where they can go. Marx and Engels believed that when these things were accomplished, there would be a civilized country where everything would run smoothly and benefit the people. There are many defects...
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The Congress of Vienna was held from September of 1814 to June of 1815. It was convened by the four European powers (Russia, Prussia, Austria and Great Britain), which had defeated Napoleon, to remake Europe after the downfall of Napoleon I. The first goal was to establish a new balance of power in Europe, which would prevent imperialism within Europe, and maintain the peace between the great powers. The second goal was to prevent political revolutions and maintain the status quo. The Congress of Vienna supported the resolution "There is always an alternative to conflict". All the European states are summoned. To entertain all these princes and diplomats, there were numerous theater presentations, concerts, balls, and other festivities. This led the Prince de Ligne to say his famous words: "Le congres ne marche pas, il danse." (The Congress does not walk, it dances). The four great powers, which have consisted the Quadruple Alliance, were left to make most of the big decisions. The delegates appointed to the Congress were: Ø Prince Klemens von Metternich, who was the acting president of the Congress, represented Austria. Ø The Russians sent Alexander I, the emperor of Russia. The czar was interested in the territorial enlargement of Russia and the 'independence" of Poland, to which he hould be appointed king. Ø The main delegate from Prussia was Prince Karl August von Hardenburg, whose goal was the return of certain lands lost to Napoleon in 1807, and a few territories in northern Germany. Ø Great Britain was represented by Lord Castlereagh. His principal goal was the stabilization of the European continent through the strengthening of the borders around France. After February 1815, Duke of Wellington was the negotiator of Great Britain. Ø Prince Charles Maurice de Tallyerand represented France when France entered the Alliance. The prince supported the idea that the...
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In the years following 1815, the four great powers, Britain, Russia, Austria and Prussia, agreed to hold periodic conferences to discuss matters affecting the Vienna Settlement 1814-1815, and to discuss the maintenance of order in Europe which was destroyed by the Napoleon Wars which lasted for over 20 years. In the year 1789, the French revolution broke out, a series of revolutionary wars began, leading to the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte. By 1808, Napoleon had gained control of almost all of Europe. During his reign, the reforms he carried out weakened the old absolute monarchies and helped to spread the powerful forces of liberalism and nationalism. However, because of his conquests, the Balance of Power in Europe was destroyed. After the defeat of Napoleon in the Battle of Waterloo 1814, the great allied powers Britain, Russia, Austria and Prussia faced the problem of re-organising Europe. Therefore, they met in 1814-1815 at the Congress of Vienna, drawing up a settlement, which they hope to prevent one power from becoming too powerful in the future, and which would maintain peace. This settlement was the first attempt to establish a general peace in Europe by co-operation between the major powers. The idea of collective security called "Concert of Europe" was also developed. It suggested the great European powers co-operate to safeguard the stability and peace of Europe. This can be done by settling disputes by active diplomacy and discussions. This arrangement became known as The Congress System, because the powers worked through international congresses and also putting the ideas of the Concert of Europe into practise. There are four major congresses held. They are: Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle 1818, where France was admitted to the Quintuple Alliance Congress of Troppeau 1820, which was a response to revolts in Spain, Portugal, Piedmont and Naples Congress of Laibach 1821, where...
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The reasons for the consequences of exploration. Christopher Columbus is a prime example and was only one of many Europeans who spread Western civilization throughout the world. During around the 1300s-1350s, most Europeans didn't have the curiosity or the skill to explore foreign lands. On the other hand by the late 1400s, economics, society, and technology had changed significantly. The transformation ignited European concerns in the lands beyond Europe. Soon enough, captivating explorers/Europeans discovered new routes and trade routes to many other distant places. These explorations unlocked over four centuries. As Europeans became more interested in exploring what is beyond of Europe, they knew they needed to become familiar with the seas. So with that, they enriched themselves through vigorous training in the waters for many hours. At the same time there was also competition that went on against the almighty Arabs and local traders. Europeans then began to focus on finding new sea routes to the East. To overcome this feat, they needed much detailed oriented maps, precise compasses/navigation systems, long lasting and rigorous ships, and weapons. Seeing that these went on for awhile, at the same time, Europeans also set sail to newfound lands such as Asia where the consequences of exploring the land came valuable spices such as pepper, paprika, and so on. As well as the spices, the explorers obtained precious silk that was nowhere to be found during their time. With such luxuries, they bartered with what they had and delivered the goods to Spain and Portugal. While aromatic spices and silk were discovered at Asia and Africa, treasured metals and minerals were revealed in Mexico, where the Aztecs and other Indians owned gold, copper, bronze, and some silver. The ruthless and greedy explorers killed and annihilated Aztecs and other Indian tribes just so they can have...
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CONSTITUTIONAL DEMOCRACY The basic premise of a constitutionaldemocracy is that government has rules and all of the people have voices. Through free and fair elections we elect candidates to represent us. TheConstitution of the United States guarantees us the right to do this, andto live democratically. The framers attacked tyrannical government andadvanced the following ideas: that government comes from below, not fromabove, and that it derives its powers from the consent of the governed;that men have certain natural, inalienable rights; that it is wise andfeasible to distribute and balance powers within government, giving localpowers to local governments, and general powers to the nationalgovernment; that men are born equal and should be treated as equal beforethe law. The framers of the U. S. Constitution sought to make these ideasthe governing principles of a nation. Constitutional democracy has threebasic elements. Those being interacting values, interrelated politicalprocesses and interdependent political structures. The first idea ofinteracting values is popular consent. Popular consent means thatgovernment must obtain consent for its actions from the people it governs.It is similar to majority rule, a political process, in that the mostpopular acts or ideas of the people will be adopted by our government. There must be an allowance or willingness on behalf of the unpopular groupto lose. Popular consent may provide a means for judging parentalconsent laws for minors seeking abortion. Since minors are not legallyallowed to be competent to engage in sex, to enter into contracts, or toform sufficient "informed consent" to agree to their own medicaltreatment, it is incredible that they would be regarded as competent tomake a life and death decision about something that later in life theymight themselves regard as a real person, with individual rights. Drawingon several major contributions of the enlightenment, including thepolitical theory of John Locke and the economic ideas of Adam Smith,individualism posts the...
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Australia is a multicultural country with a variety of backgrounds, skills, attitudes, values and experiences. Since 1945, almost 5.9 million people have come to Australia as new settlers. Their arrival has had a marked influence, and has contributed to all aspects of Australian society. Migrants are a major contributor to Australia's population growth, and since immigration was introduced. Today, almost one in four of Australia's 19 million people were born overseas. Some of the social effects have been the introduction of more than 150 languages into Australian life, the growth of community language schools, ethnic media, businesses, new foods, and diverse religious and cultural activities. The trigger for a large-scale migration program was the end of World War II, and in Australia, there was a desperate shortage of labour and a growing belief that substantial population growth was essential for the country's future. These and other factors led to the creation of a federal immigration portfolio in 1945. By 1947, a post-war immigration boom was under way, with a large and growing number of arrivals of both government-assisted and other immigrants. The migrants have affected the demand side of Australia's economy through: their expenditure, business expansion (investment to produce extra goods and services); and from the expansion of government services (health, education and welfare). Since the introduction of immigrants, more labour, skills and money were introduced into Australia. The developed new businesses, made contributions to technology; and added productive diversity through knowledge of international business markets. The migrants from British Isles established the foundation of the community as is evidenced by the architecture, street names and nature of businesses ?hardware stores, clothing shops and lawyers?offices. Italians, Greeks and Jews created businesses such as delicatessens, fruit and vegetable stores, and groceries and the Asians brought their 'new cuisine?and restaurants. These waves in turn lead to increased employment and...
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