Course Outline Description of the course This course introduces students to the events that shaped the Civilization of Western countries, their causes and their consequences. It also describes the age of Enlightenment, what led to it and the key events that were marked in that period. The French revolution, its causes, key players and consequences have been described in detail. The last topic to be covered in this course is the first major war the world ever experienced, World War One, its causes, the real war, effects and the people who played major roles. With the adaptation of this course, some gaps in the Department of history will be filled and it will make work easier. Instead of the students being forced to grasp a lot of knowledge just in short time, this course has reviewed the previous courses which had a lot of topics covered in one semester. Some few topics from the previous versions have been scrapped off to reduce the workload. Under these specified topics, several subtopics have also been described in detail. The course is meant for history undergraduate students pursuing their Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Education degrees. Course Objectives To help History students’ knowledge expansion in the key concepts of social sciences and the terminology used such as humanity, causes, effects and consequences. To make students appreciate History, not just as a subject studied in learning institutions but also as a developmental process that affects humanity directly. The course will also enable students to find evidence about the past on their own. By the end of this course, students should be able to define and explain terms such as Civilization, Enlightenment, Revolution and War. Students should be able to make comparisons between Western Civilization and other civilization processes that took place in the world. The course...
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The Sung Dynasty has been referred to the "golden age" of Chinese culture. It immediately precedes the Yuan or Mongol Dynasty, which the West associates with time of Marco Polo's expeditions. Sung Dynasty rulers were content to be masters of China itself, unlike the preceding Tang Dynasty, whose rulers had great expansionist tendencies and brought Central Asia into their political and cultural orbit. China, during the Sung Dynasty, looked inward to herself. Traditional ideas in art forms and religious thought were now modified and made more truly Chinese. Buddhist philosophy was fused with the meditative mysticism of native Chinese Taoism. Over 300 years of Sung history is divided into the two periods of Northern and Southern Sung. Because of the barbarian occupation of northern China the second half of the Sung rule was confined to the area south of the Huai River. Artistic and intellectual output increased enormously. Sung thinkers turned back to the Confucian classics, attempting to purge them of Han and Tang accretions. The resulting Neo-Confucianism was most concerned with good government, and the hierarchical but compassionate ordering of society. Yet, this era was also heavily influenced by Buddhist ideals of compassion and kinship with all sentient beings and by the Buddhist/Taoist concept that the two are mutually interactive, making Sung the most egalitarian of all periods in China's dynastic history. Icons created for new Buddhist establishment give sufficient evidence of sculptural creativity during Sung. Guanyin was the most popular deities at that time, particularly in the newer embodiments based on the Lotus and Flower Garland sutras. Over time, Guanyin combined major elements from Chinese folk culture, including a growing feminization of the image type and its increasing association with aid in conception and childbirth. Guanyin (Kuan Shih Yin) was first known as a male figure; it was not until later...
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"Anything for Billy" is a historical fiction book about 'Billy the Kid' or Henry McCarty. The story is mostly told by an old man by the name of Ben Sippy. Mr. Sippy lived in New York with his wife and nine children. One day while he was sending his butler out to buy dime novels he [the butler] just fell over dead. From then on Mr. Sippy decided he was going to move out west and write his own dime novels. He became one of the most popular novelists in the US after that. When he first met Billy he thought for sure he was going to be killed because he had a mule and Billy had well, nothing. But sure enough they started talking and Billy decided to take Mr. Sippy along on all his adventures from then on. First of all, they ended up in Greasy Corners, a small bar in the middle of nowhere pretty much. In Greasy Corners Mr. Sippy met a few other cowboys and they stayed for a few days. Then came word that Will Isinglass, the owner of almost all the land in Texas and New Mexico, wanted them out of Greasy Corners because it was on his land. Some of them stayed to fight and others left in a hurry. Billy, who had just met Katerina Garza [Will Isinglass' Daughter] decided to run off with her and of course took Mr. Sippy along. They fell in love and spent months together doing pretty near to nothing all day long. Then one-day Billy's best friend Joe Lovelady rode up and said it was time for them to go they needed to do something. Ignoring Katie's crying Billy got up on his horse and rode off, promising her he would be back. Except for...
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Walter Moffatt describes how, even though the early settlers were very much concentrating on the everyday life necessities, they also found time for serious and light entertainment. "Throughout the Pioneer Period there are references not only to balls, circuses, and horse races but also to concerts, rental libraries, debating societies, and painting." Little Rock had a society of debating as early as March of 1822. This organization had regular meetings for the people that were members and also held discussions that anyone could attend. The organization put together a library for its members. Later on, the library was opened to the public in hopes of making it a permanent establishment. However, by 1835 there was so little interest in debates that the society became basically non existent. The pioneers also enjoyed music. At one time a man announced to the people of the Arkansas Post that there would be a concert at the Arkansas Hotel in the ballroom. Due to bad weather, the concert was cancelled, but did take place on a later date. The tickets only cost fifty cents! At one time there was a man, by the name of Featherstonhaugh, that was traveling in Arkansas's Red River valley and heard the sounds of a piano playing. He was very pleased to hear this sound. By June of 1836 the "Professor of Music", Mr. Wagner, proclaimed that piano lessons would be taught by him in Little Rock. He would charge ten dollars for twelve lessons or twenty-five dollars per quarter (thirty-six lessons). There was not any orientation of painting until 1834. Harry Seckendorff opened a little shop in Little Rock where he had paintings as well as "music boxes, double-barreled shot guns, pistols, bed ticking, winter and summer clothing, stockings, and ladies shoes--all of which could be bought 'cheap for cash.' " Literature was...
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When the assignment was given out on Hell Below Deck, I had no previous knowledge about this topic. As I was reading the information about two months ago, I was totally taken back at how horribly the slaves were treated. To experience the kind of pain and suffering they went through, I am sure it was unbearable. Half way through the reading, I caught my self with my mouth slightly open and in disbelief of the type of treatment they received. I was disgusted with the unsanitary conditions of the ship and how inhumane the crew members were. Not to mention how many slaves were packed on the ships. They would crammed hundred of slaves and make them pill on top on of one another. The more slaves meant more money. Crew member saw nothing but dollar signs when they looked at the slaves. Not men and women who deserve equal amount of respect as the crew. When it came to nutrition on the ship, there were some slaves who would rather starve themselves rather then eating . I guess they figured their lives could not get any worse so they decided to give up. When I was doing my reaction paper for this topic, I automatically knew I wanted to do this for my subject report. I wanted to go deeper with this topic. I was just not sure how specific I could get with it, but I choose to narrow it down to the types of diseases that were spread on the slave ships. As I researched the diseases I realized how much pain these poor people when through. It has given me a different perspective on my own life and just how lucky I really am. The ships were death traps to the slaves. They were on board for...
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"History is the future." This statement may seem somewhat strange, but history would not exist if the people making the history did not look towards the future. For instance, the Civil War would have never occurred if the southern slaveholders thought that, in the future, slavery would not be abolished. In this primary document, J. M. Martin writes a great quantity about what the future holds for him and his family after the war ends. Martin writes about such things as his family's lives, education, and religion. Martin writes this letter to his family trying to imagine that the wars around Jackson and Vicksburg have not interfered much with their lives since he has been gone. He writes, "I often wonder what you are all doing, but try to imagine favorable. Sometimes I imagine you children are romping about picking flowers, hunting hens nest, etc." Martin remembers the things his family enjoyed before the war began. He tries to look into the future and picture that the war has not changed these things. He specifically mentions his daughters' (Mattie, Laura, Kittie, and Bettie), his wife (who he refers to as Ma), and his cousin John. In the postscript, Martin writes, "Tell your Ma there is no use in being troubled. We will all live till we die and there is no use dying as long as we live." What he means by this is he does not want his wife to worry about him and the war to the extent that the rest of their family suffers from it. Instead, he wants her to look towards their future as a family after the war ends. During the Civil War era, education was not a very important issue, especially in the South. Southern education was neglected for the most part, because many of...
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In Retrospect By: Robert S. McNamara Vietnam had long since been a place of controversy, and where the American government focused its fear of communism for many years. Throughout the Kennedy and Johnson administrations the government maintained that the war between the Communist north and the south could have only been won by the South Vietnamese, and that US military could not have won it for them. It stressed that the fall of South Vietnam to communism would threaten the rest of the western world. McNamara's book, In Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam, begins with a dozen or so interesting but terse pages on the author's background; his schooling; his meeting, and marriage to, Margaret McKinstry Craig, to whose memory the book is dedicated; his wartime service as an air corps statistical control officer; and his postwar service with the Ford Motor Company. He had been president of that company for only seven weeks when John Kennedy made him Secretary of Defense in 1961. The problems of Vietnam from 1961 to early 1968 occupy virtually the rest of the book. Although the war lasted some eight more years, the story ends with McNamara's transition to the World Bank in 1968, as the Tet offensive begins. In the period 1965-67, Robert McNamara came to believe that Vietnam was "a problem with no solution." This is the theme of his book. His frustration arose because the war was fought under five rules, which, as he saw it, proved incompatible with victory. These rules were: (1) that Southeast Asia as a whole must be kept from communist control; (2) that US troops should not be sent outside the borders of South Vietnam; (3) that the South Vietnamese should achieve political stability and--with US tutelage and military aid--learn to defend themselves; (4) that the United States...
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In his book, Ordinary Men, Christopher R. Browning gives readers an in-depth look into the minds of the "ordinary" German men, specifically those of Reserve Police Battalion 101, who became perpetrators in one of the most horrifying events in history; The Holocaust. The question arises; how and why did these ordinary men suddenly become cold-blooded killers? This is the issue Browning explores throughout the reading. The men of Reserve Police Battalion 101 did not begin as bad men or murderers. So, what happened? There are a number of circumstances that can be attributed to what led these ordinary men to aid in Hitler's Final Solution. The issue of simply following orders proved to be the most frequently stated explanation, given by the perpetrators, for their behavior. Along with the culture of the Nazi dictatorship came extreme obedience and discipline. "Orders were orders, and no one in such a political climate could be expected to disobey them, they insisted" (Browing, p.170). The men of Reserve Police Battalion 101, from the very start, were simply following the orders given to them. When first called to serve, most men were not even fully informed or aware of exactly what they were expected to do. They had no knowledge of the massacres they would later have to take part in. However, many admitted that when they were told by a higher authority to kill, they did because they were ordered to do so. Fear for his own live kept many from backing out or refusing authority. Another circumstance leading to the contribution of the Final Solution was conformity. To give an example, one can look at the situation at Jozenfow when Major Trapp informed his men, for the first time, of the upcoming massacre they would have to take part in. Trapp offered a way out...
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"Overwhelmingly, and worldwide, human communities and cultures were at that time so engineered as to give immense advantages to men" (p.25) Throughout history, in cultures across the globe, women have always been looked upon as seconds in society. Ever since the beginning of time it seems as if the role of a woman has been limited to baring children, cooking, cleaning, and performing all other domestic tasks. There has never been a time or place when women shared complete equivalence with men. Males have invariably been considered more intelligent, mightier, and more competent than women. During the Middle Ages woman were treated very bitterly. The wife would have to give all her land to her husband after getting married. The woman lost her legal standing and did not have a say in her life anymore. Medieval women were appointed to household jobs while the men held high positions in society such as judges, doctors, and military leaders. Young girls were not allowed to go to school and learned how to sew and cook at home. Married off by the age of thirteen to men sometimes as much as twenty years older to them, females never had a say in their lives. In eighteenth century America, women had a fixed purpose in society. They were to perform conventional tasks such as preparing and serving food, making clothing, and rearing the children. The men enjoyed their lives ungratefully while their wives, mothers, and sisters did laborious and exhausting jobs at home. Women had no say in household earnings, property, or inheritance. Husbands could legally beat their wives. Soon women had to add the task of farming to their list of unjust chores. Later female slaves were brought to the colonies. They were forced to do a man's work in the fields and bare children so...
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As a fledgling city, Rochester NY experienced many problems during this period of growth, similar to that of the Republic during this era. Problems arose in Rochester due to reorganization of the social order as well as the search for an effective system of government. Many of these social and political problems were responsible for widespread public disorder and political paralysis which plagued this city during the 1820's. Although the city faced numerous challenges, the relentless efforts of evangelical Protestants and the Revival movement can be seen in the missions and sermons they gave. They presented several solutions to these problems and in some cases, they were extremely effective. One of the major problems the citizens of Rochester experienced throughout the 1820's was alcohol. When the economy of America saw a shift out of the household, this had a profound impact on the traditional social order which it had sustained. This shuffling of the social order yielded a vast division between the subordinates and the master. The wage earners had created an autonomous social life of their own; whereas, masters were busy in their pursuits of work discipline, and achieving social peace. These differing values and the tangible barriers which existed in the workplace were responsible for pitting these two groups against one another. For ages leading up to the 1820's, drinking was held as "a reasonable accompaniment to whatever men did in groups" (Johnson, 53). The Drinking was recognized across all levels of the social structure. It was still deemed by society but more importantly the master as appropriate. However, when the 1820's arrived, alcohol was seen in a much different light. Many citizens regarded the drinking of the working class as "the cause of almost all of the crime and almost all of the misery that flesh is heir to"...
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It would have been too much of a under taking to capture the definition of Conservatism on a whole in the content of Europe, so I decided to narrow down to the states of Britain and Germany where conservative government and thinkers were most predominate. General definitions of conservatism are difficult and ultimately, fruitless, since conservatism is a national phenomenon. Liberalism and socialism, on the other hand, is to much lesser extent the product of particular political tradition or religious patters, or of special institutional structures which, from a conservative standpoint, set future social and political life for people. Most British conservatives always remained within the confines of the natural law tradition (Organic ideal), while German conservatism developed in opposition to this same philosophical idea. Conservatism is an historical phenomenon which draws its conceptions of nature, authority, freedom, property, and religion for example from the special blend of history and national tradition which gave rise to it. In my research I found Conservatives, particularly in England, define themselves not to what they are, but what they are not. Conservative individuals, in the broad sense of opponents to religious, socioeconomic, and political change, have existed since the beginning of recorded history; but yet it is commonly accepted by historians that a Conservative movement appeared in Europe only toward the end of the eighteenth century In Germany conservatism took shape by mainly attacking two political theories: that of the absolutist state and that of democratic movement. Germany Conservatism did not entirely agree with Absolutism where it had destroyed many old institutions and replaced them with a rational structure that had been contrived for the benefit and efficient operation of a new artificial political machine. German Conservatism opposed to this mechanical state would stress the importance of organic historical institutions which in the long course of...
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The General Court of the Massachusetts Bay colony sentenced Anne Hutchinson to banishment from the colony because they considered her a religious dissident. The charges against her were both vague and obscure. In reality, Mrs. Hutchinson represented a double threat for the government and the church of the colony. Her religious ideas challenged both the Puritan orthodoxy in New England, and the traditional role of women in Massachusetts' Puritan society. Although the New England Puritans believed that men and women were spiritually equal, that does not imply that they believed they were equal in other means. Each member of the colony knew its role and its place in society. Wives, as the author says, "were expected to help with the supplement of their husbands' public activities."# As mentioned before, women dynamically participated in religious activities in order to strengthen Puritanism in the colony. Nevertheless, they were not considered religious leaders; they just followed what the church ordered. Winthrop believed that, "women should be submissive and supportive, like his wife and sister, and there was ample support for his position in the Bible."# In a way they thought God designed women to serve their husbands. This placed women in a position below men, which in consequence meant that women were subjugated to what men decided, and it is important to note that church was lead by men. Therefore women did not have a voice or a vote regarding religious matters. Wheeler mentions that Winthrop called Hutchinson a person of "nimble wit and active spirit and a very voluble [fluent] tongue."#Authorities in the colony feared Anne's ability to promote and lead a growing number of women and men; they saw this as a threat to their own authority over the colony, and they could not tolerate that kind of behavior. Mr. Winthrop said to Anne that she...
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Not one event can be said to cause a revolution, and many factors will accumulate to create the event of revolution. It cannot be accurately stated that the war with Germany was the only reason for revolution, and the destruction of the Romanov dynasty. World War I greatly affected on Russia's economy, industry, agriculture, and transport, and in turn inflamed the populous and their opinion of their tsar, Nicholas II, plunged, however, the effects of war made the tsarism vulnerable. In 1913, Russian tsarism had survived three hundred years. Before 1917, and the abdication of Nicholas II, Russian tsarism was "virtually indestructible", as Pipes interpreted from Russian and foreign press at the time, "for had not tsarism weathered all onslaughts and all crises, and emerged from them intact?" Pipes accuracy is questionable, as public outcry against the tsar was apparent, if only in the presence of political groups calling for the end of the monarchy. The rapid growth associated with industrialisation created a dense concentration of working-class proletariat, with poor living conditions, close to the ruling centre of the empire. Because of this dense geographic concentration, the newly created and despondent proletariat possessed a great political strength, affiliating themselves with many radical and violent political parties, from the Socialist Revolutionary Party to the Liberal Constitutional-Democratic party. These parties were pushing for change and were backed by the popular discontent in both cities and regional areas. Tsar Nicholas refused to make use of the duma for political reform, the fourth Duma (1912-1916) being the most conservative, yet in November 1916, it gave Nicholas clear warning of impending revolution, if there remained no changes in the Russian regime. Nicholas refused to include the new emerging middle class Russia into the political system, which remained without the fundamental changes needed to secure the new and evolving...
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UNIVERSITY OF CONNECTICUT Course: History 326 PAPER Toward World War I Count Aehrenthal and the Annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908 by Sven-Ole Andersen (student) In October 1908 the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy proclaimed the annexation of the provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina. At the same time, Bulgaria declared its independence of the Ottoman Empire. Both actions involved no change in either the territorial or the political arrangements of the Balkan peninsula. Austria-Hungary had occupied and administered the two provinces for thirty years, and the Sultan of Turkey had never exercised the slightest control over the autonomous principality of Bulgaria set up in 1878. However, the policy and action taken by the two governments constitute violations of the Treaty of Berlin because other signatories were not consulted. As a result, a diplomatic crisis followed the events of October 1908. Moreover, memories of what happened between October 1908 and April 1909 were not without bearing on the events of July 1914, when Austria-Hungry declared war on Serbia which ultimately ended in the outbreak of World War I (Schmitt Preface). The architects of the plan for annexation, and the following crisis also, were the Russian foreign minister Alexander Petrovic Izvolsky and the Austro-Hungarian foreign minister Alois Lexa Graf von Aehrenthal. The latter was the most intriguing and most crucial figure of both. Aloys Leopold Johann Baptist Graf Lexa von Aehrenthal was born on 27 September 1854, at Gross-Skal in Bohemia. He began his career in 1877 as an attaché in Paris in the foreign service of the k.u.k. Monarchy. After that, he became the diplomatic counselor to Russia (1888), ambassador to Bucharest (1895), and Austria's ambassador to St. Petersburg (1899). In 1906, Baron (later Count) Aehrenthal replaced Graf Goluchowski as foreign minister. His intention was to revive the foreign policy of Austria-Hungry and to ensure a more active role of the Monarchy in...
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The people of Quang Ngai, China have a history of rebellion dating back far into the sixteenth century. It was there that the Vietminh troops led revolts against and defeated the French in the 1930s and after World War II and where the Viet Cong fought the Saigon government in the 1950s and 1960s. When Vietnam was partitioned in 1954, Saigon officials estimated 90,000 southerners went north to join the Hanoi regime. More than 90 percent of them came from Quang Ngai. By the mid-1960s Quang Ngai's population was estimated to be 640,000 making it South Vietnam's third largest province. It was also considered to be the toughest Viet Cong stronghold in the country. Attempts to separate the Viet Cong from the people began in 1962, when the Saigon government launched the Strategic Hamlet Program (a.k.a. pacification or rural construction). Entire families were taken and moved into fortified hamlets (small villages) and those that refused to go had their homes and fields burned by the South Vietnamese army, but the program failed and embittered the peasants and did very little to drive out the Viet Cong. Those living inside of the hamlets, though, were still in contact with the National Liberation Front, the political arm of the Viet Cong, and the gates and walls inside the hamlets were scribbled over with Viet Cong slogans of defiance. Quang Ngai became the target for the first major American combat operation of the Vietnam War. The mission, conducted in 1965 by the U. S. marines, was called "Operation Starlight" and more than 700 Viet Cong were reported killed. A new concept of pacification was devised in order that the marines are able to free Quang Ngai and its people from Communist control. The orders, as told by a senior officer in 1966, were to sanitize the region—kill...
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Harry Truman was the 33rd President of the United States. His political career began 1934, when, eager to move higher in politics, Truman accepted request that he seek a seat in the Senate. His support of President Roosevelt's NEW DEAL policies as well as his foreign affair issues contributed to his status as a contender. He considered military power to be of great importance, and, after the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, blamed the "pacifists" and the "isolationists." During the war, he worked for the creation of an international organization to preserve peace. Truman's new prestige plus his ability to get along with all sides in his party made him a candidate for the Democratic vice presidential nomination in 1944. President Franklin Roosevelt, had been unhappy with his previous running mate, and considering a run for a fourth term, needed someone he could work with. Roosevelt persuaded Truman to run with him. Truman defeated Wallace for the nomination on the second ballot at the Democratic National Convention. The ticket was elected. Roosevelt died on April 12, 1945,and Truman became President. His first job was in International Relations in a Post Wold War II world. Truman worked for the the plans for the unconditional surrender of Germany, which came on May 8, and the establishment of the United Nations. It was his decision to use the Atom Bomb against Japan .It was his thinking that it would bring a total end to World War II. He became known for: the Truman Doctrine when in 1947 as the Soviet Union pressured Turkey to take over Greece, he asked Congress to grant aid to Greece and Turkey; the Marshall Plan, in which American economic aid was used to stimulate the recovery of European economies not under the influence of the Soviet Union; the Berlin airlift, designed to help the Berliners when the Soviets occupied the city; and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization,(NATO) the nation's...
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1) The news media have extraordinary access to this war. How has the coverage affected your understanding of what is happening? How has it affected your feelings toward the situation in Iraq? Be complete and concise in your answer.
I did not expect we will be the generation experiencing the war. When the Gulf war broke out, it did not feel like now. Those media¡¯s power was great even before the war started. Reading through Newsweek article every week, and watching TV news, I could know what was happening in the world, and the current situation with Iraq. Starting the war with Iraq, it was not easy from the beginning. President Bush had to get an agreement from the UN, but the support was not there. Even now, some countries are still against war, and hate Bush for doing this. Media says if Bush did not break out the war, somebody would have done it. I already knew that Saddam was an evil dictator, but with the articles of journalists and pictures that were taken at Iraq, it made me feel so bad about Iraqi people who have to live there life in horror. Opinions about the war was so different by the countries. South Korea, which has many anti-Americanism throughout the country, they were mad about Bush¡¯s decisions. I even saw a flash movie that was satirizing Bush¡¯s speech about the war. The proof materials Powell has shown was accurate enough to attack Iraq, and Bush has given time for Saddam to escape. How can the information be so different for the same war? Overall, my opinion about this war with Iraq is that it just ends as quick as possible. I am not going to say Bush did a wrong jab because I think he needs people¡¯s support at this time. Whatever the consequences are, the war has started, and I just hope we don¡¯t have to see anymore terrible deaths. I know there will be more deaths and wounds, but I just hope those numbers be small as possible....
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1.Paragraph Writing(i)Developing Topic SentencesTopic sentences introduce paragraphs; they inform readers about what the paragraphs would be about. They are normally found at the beginning of a paragraph, and are often the first sentence. However, they ca
1. Paragraph Writing (i) Developing Topic Sentences Topic sentences introduce paragraphs; they inform readers about what the paragraphs would be about. They are normally found at the beginning of a paragraph, and are often the first sentence. However, they can also be found in the middle of a paragraph, in the last sentence of a paragraph, or may not be stated at all (i.e. implied). A topic sentence always contains the topic discussed by a particular paragraph, as well as the controlling idea (or main idea). A controlling idea states the writer's opinion or stance towards the topic. Example: topic controlling idea Firstly, examinations are stressful. In this example, the topic of the paragraph is examinations. The writer's opinion about examinations is that they are stressful. This is the controlling idea or main idea. (ii) Developing Supporting Details Supporting details provide information to 'support' and explain the controlling idea. They often answer the following questions: Why? When? Which? What? Who? How? For example, supporting details for the topic sentence above would have to explain why and how examinations are stressful. Please peruse Unit 2 of the textbook for further reference and exercises. 2. Sentence Pattern (i) Simple Sentences A simple sentence contains one single independent clause. Examples: I like fried rice. Sarah bought a black dress yesterday. (ii) Compound Sentences A compound sentence contains two or more independent clauses. Example: independent clause 1 independent clause 2 We ate some spaghetti, and we had chocolate cheesecake for dessert. (iii) Complex Sentences A complex sentence contains one independent clause and at least one dependent clause. Example: independent clause dependent clause She is skinny although she eats a lot. (iv) Compound-complex Sentences A compound-complex sentence contains more than one independent clause and at least one dependent clause. Example: dependent clause independent clause 1 independent clause 2 Although we were tired, we had to stay up till 3a.m. and study for our Mathematics examination. 1. Paragraph Writing (i) Developing Topic Sentences Topic sentences introduce paragraphs; they inform readers about what...
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The 1790's were a critical period in American history because they determined how the new Constitution would be interpreted and they set a precedent for future American governmental policies. The 1790s were also a turbulent period both at home and abroad, and the conflicts that emerged layed the foundation of the 2-party system in the U.S. Domestically, great contreversey centered around the nationalistic, economic programs of Alexander Hamilton, Washington's Sec. of Treasury. Hamilton wanted to repay debts to the current holders (speculators) instead of to their original holders. Hamilton also wanted to create a National Bank of the U.S., and to set an excise tax on whiskey. His intention was to create a rich, business sector which would support the government in future years. Hamilton's programs passed but not without fiery opposition from Thomas Jefferson who envisioned an agricultural Republic of indepent yeoman farmers. The result was not only a split in the administration, but the emergence of political parties. "Federalists" supported Hamilton, "Republicans" supported Jefferson. During the administration of John Adams, Federalists passed the Alien and Sedition Acts as a assault on Republican party power. The provisions of these acts not only ran counter to the Constitution but caused Jefferson and Madison to pass the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, the first proposal of nullification (which would be embraced by John C. Calhoun in the 1830s) Controversial "Federalis" legislation, therefore, led to creation of a strong opposition party (despite Washington's warnings of political parties in his Farewell Address) Foreign policy in the 1790s further fomented the emerging political parties. Federalists condemned the French Revolution while Republicans praised its democratic ideals. The Jay Treaty which did little to end British violations against U.S. merchant ships, caused Republicans to burn effigies of John Jay, the federalist who had done the negotiation. The XYZ Affair,...
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Access provided by your local institution [Access article in PDF] Engendering the Guilds: Seamstresses, Tailors, and the Clash of Corporate Identities in Old Regime France * Clare Crowston -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses' guild in March 1675, provoking a groan of protest from the city's tailors, the women's closest trade rivals. Inspired by fiscal, economic, and social considerations, the royal government had created an independent and exclusively female guild for the first time in over two hundred years. The trade rights granted the female artisans consisted of the capacity to make and sell women's and children's clothing, a prerogative they held in common with the tailors' guild. Their statutes forbade them, however, from producing men's clothing. The royal government explicitly reserved this sphere for the tailors, along with the right to make dresses worn by court women.1 The corporate status accorded Parisian seamstresses served as a model for the reorganization of the garment trades in the provinces. In December 1675, seamstresses in Rouen acquired their own guild, as did those of Le Havre in 1721. Seamstresses entered the corporate system in an additional fifteen towns and cities across France after 1675, not as independent guildswomen but as subordinate members of local tailors' guilds. In each case, the female needleworkers' trade rights echoed the Paris model; they could make women's and children's clothing in competition [End Page 339] with tailors, but they could not produce men's clothing or the fanciest ladies' wear.2 Once they entered corporations, seamstresses wielded their privileges aggressively, often against the tailors and their pre-existing trade rights. Deprived of their monopoly over made-to-measure clothing, the tailors did not easily accept women's ascension to guild status. During the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, conflicts erupted between tailors and seamstresses in many cities and towns where women had gained corporate status. In Paris they engaged...
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