Thomas Paine's Common Sense On January 10, 1776, the American colonies were in a mild state of rebellion against Great Britain. Then, Thomas Paine wrote a highly- circulated pamphlet Common Sense accelerating the Americans towards independence. This composition was the strongest driving factor in the move towards independence. Colonists, literate and illiterate, loyal and patriotic, knew of the bold ideas brought up by Thomas Paine. Even undecided leaders and congressional members heeded Tom Paine's proposals, bringing a more patriotic voice to power. The writings suggested the first ideas Republicanism, which proposed a type of government that ((basic definition of Republicanism)). Since its introduction, Republicanism became the goal of the nation and later became a central point in the Declaration of Independence. Thomas Paine and his pamphlet, Common Sense, played a vital role in the American colonists' move towards independence because it offered Americans a clear message of why it was in their best interests to break away from Great Britain. Thomas Paine's Common Sense contained powerful arguments affecting all people in the colonies, despite their social and financial status. First, many of those loyal to Great Britain converted to the Patriot cause after learning of the evils of the monarchy. Prior to Paine's publication, colonists sent numerous petitions to the king, which were simply disregarded by King George III. Common Sense targeted him and created a concrete enemy for the colonies to concentrate their hatred on. Second, this widespread awareness forced a large transition in the political lives of average people. All but one percent of colonists in Great Britain supported independence and became more involved in government affairs. Large groups of colonists would pressure their congressional delegates for their lack of progress in separation and would talk to them about the changes they wanted, procreating a more democratic rule. Colonists influenced delegates and...
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America is the stereotype for countries wounded by salutary neglect and looking to set themselves free. All countries do not decide to become separate from their mother overnight, it is a long, drawn-out process that requires many actions and reactions, plus unity and nationalism. The American Colonies were strained to the limit before they became one to battle injustice. England had put forth too many acts and duties against its American colonies for them not to rebel. For example, the Stamp Act. The Stamp Act was introduced by the British Prime Minister George Grenville and passed by the British Parliament in 1765 as a means of raising revenue in the American colonies. The Stamp Act required all legal documents, licenses, commercial contracts, newspapers, pamphlets, and playing cards to carry a tax stamp. The act extended to the colonies the system of stamp duties then employed in Great Britain and was intended to raise money to defray the cost of maintaining the military defenses of the colonies. Passed without debate, it aroused widespread opposition among the colonists, who argued that because they were not represented in Parliament, they could not legally be taxed without their consent. Opposition culminated in the convening of the Stamp Act Congress to consider organized means of protesting against the tax, a joining of American forces for the good of the colonies. Colonial businessmen agreed to stop importing British goods until the act was repealed, and trade was substantially diminished. Refusal to use the stamps on business papers became common, and the courts would not enforce their use on legal documents. The Stamp Act helped enflame the fire burning in American bodies of independence. Richard Henry Lee wrote to Arthur Lee in 1774, (Document C) saying "The wicked violence of the Ministry is so clearly expressed, as...
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1920's Flappers In the 1920's many women were known as flappers. Flappers were not the best role models for younger girls. They were teenage girls who dared to venture beyond what was known then as forbidden pleasures. "The name "flappers" referred to the sound made by the unbuckled galoshes they wore" (Jennings 115). "Undeterred by the disapproval of adults, the younger generation was setting out to have a good time" (Herald 28). "Flappers were teenage girls who drank, smoked cigarettes, dressed in suggestive clothing, engaged in premarital sex, and affected an air of sophistication" (Jennings 115). "She took on a carefree, boyish look and raised her hemline to scandalous new heights, bobbed her hair, wrapped her chest to make it flat, and rolled down her flesh colored silk stockings. "Flappers accented their new style with a bold application of make-up and big jewels" (Downey 106) Flappers had many ways to amuse themselves. One of the big fads was doing crossword puzzles. It wasn't just the fad for flappers, everyone did crossword puzzles. They also played mah-jongg. Mah-jongg was the craze of the decade. They had many contests in the 1920's such as: pie eating, dancing, rocking chair derbies, and cross country races. "By spending too much of their time flirting, Flappers outraged feminists" (Jennings 115). Flappers also outraged adults because they were worried that these daring young ladies were not good role models for the next generation. They were not exactly what the adults of the 1920's wanted their daughters to be like, much less their granddaughters. Before the flappers, it was a horrible thing to smoke in public. Even exposing your knees in public was unheard of before flappers. I don't think that flappers were good role models. I think that flappers started chains of young girls doing things, such as drinking and...
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The Texas City Disaster, as it is known today, is the worst industrial accident in America's history. Texas City, home of one of the largest petrochemical complexes in the United States, almost disappeared from existence on the morning of April 16, 1947. The losses from this disaster were unprecedented, from the number of those killed or wounded to the billions of dollars in damage. There has not been a documented American industrial accident of this magnitude since. The nightmare began when the SS Grandcamp, bearing a cargo of ammonium nitrate fertilizer destined for Europe, caught fire while in the Texas City harbor. The local fire department responded to the dockside fire as they had done many times before with success. The colorful flames and smoke attracted a large crowd of curious children and adults. The people of Texas City have become unconcerned about fires on the dock, they happened all the time. It had become a common saying, "let's go watch the firefighters work their magic." Nobody knew about the highly explosive ammonium nitrate onboard the very ship that was on fire. The label was simply marked fertilizer after all. There was nothing on the labels to indicate the volatile nature of what was in those bags. As the onlookers watched, the ship exploded sending a column of smoke over two thousand feet high into the air. A second explosion sent out a violent shockwave. Within minutes the entire industrial complex was on fire. Buildings were collapsing, trapping people inside. Pipelines were bursting spraying their contents onto anyone and everything around. The water in the bay that had been compressed by the shockwave from the two explosions returned in the form a tidal wave twenty feet high. Between the violent explosions, fierce fires, and the rushing water, some people literally disintegrated like...
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November 22, 1963 was a day no American will ever forget. Most people remember exactly where they were and what they were doing when they heard the news. At precisely 12:30 P.M. [Central Standard Time], the 35th president of the United States, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, was shot and killed in Dallas, Texas. Constituted by Lyndon B Johnson, and led by Chief Justice Earl Warren, the Warren Commission was assembled to investigate the assassination of John F. Kennedy. This commission was conceived "in recognition of the right of people everywhere to full and truthful knowledge concerning these events." This statement has been challenged by many over the past 40 years. The commission's relatively short investigation and controversial evidence has left much room for doubt among the American people. The Warren Commission arrived at twelve distinct conclusions after investigating the case. Among the most controversial are conclusion numbers one, two, three, four and ten. Conclusions one and four state that Lee Harvey Oswald was the lone assassin, firing shots from the sixth floor window at the southeast corner of the Texas School Book Depository. These conclusions were based on witnesses, many of whom happened to disappear shortly after interviewed; evidence and pictures from an autopsy preformed on the president, which were never disclosed to the public; and Oswald's background information, which conveniently "fit the mold". Another questionable conclusion in the Warren Report is conclusion number two; "the weight of the evidence indicates that there were three shots fired," was left completely unexplained, with no supporting evidence. Conclusion three states that of the three supposed shots fired, one wounded both Texas Governor, John Connally and President Kennedy. However, it also states that Governor Connally's statements leave room for doubt as to which bullet hit him. Although these conclusions leave questions unanswered, the most debated conclusion...
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"I die even as a camel dies. I die in bed, in shame. May the eyes of cowards never find rest in sleep!" Last Words of Khalid bin Al-Waleed, Sword of Allah Muslim history is replete with great military achievements and glorious feats of arms. In the annals of war there are no battles which surpass, in brilliance and decisiveness, the battles of Islam; no commanders who surpass, in courage and skill, the gifted generals of Islam. The sword has always held a place of honour in Muslim culture. And yet very little is known in the world today about the military history of Islam. There is not a single work by a trained military mind, written after proper research and a thorough examination of the ground, describing in detail the famous battles of Islam. In fact there has been no real research. There is a void. I became conscious of this void in early 1964 when I was Chief Instructor at the Staff College, Quetta. Having always been a keen student of Military History, which subject I used to direct, among others, at the Staff College, I felt that I was perhaps better qualified than many Muslim soldiers to undertake the task of filling this gap in literature. The whole of Muslim military history would take several hundred volumes, but at least a beginning could be made; and I decided to accept the challenge. I would start at the beginning; and I would describe the campaigns of Khalid bin Al Waleed (may Allah be pleased with him). I found that a good deal of material was available on the early battles of Islam, but it was all in Arabic. Not all early Muslim historians have been translated; and where translations exist, they are often inaccurate and sometimes downright dishonest....
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African Americans were not always a major part of the Armed Forces. They were not a big factor in the military until the Civil War, when The Emancipation Proclamation opened the door full-fledged for Blacks to participate in the military. Both black slaves and freemen saw this opportunity to serve in the military as a chance to relinquish their chains and to help the nation develop as a whole. There was widespread resistance by whites on both the Union and Confederate sides in accepting Blacks as part of the military. Blacks joined the military for a variety of different reasons including challenge, education, manliness, job opportunity, and to escape living conditions. By the time The Spanish-American War came in 1898, African Americans were already participating in the military. When the U.S. beat the Spanish they received Spain's colonies. This sets up the initial stage of the U.S.'s Empire. This essay will tell prove that with the help of African Americans the U.S. military is stronger as a whole, as shown in the Civil War and Spanish American War. Leadership and honor were some of the prime reasons that African-Americans wanted to serve in the U. S. Military. When the island of CUBA was seeking its independence from SPAIN in 1898, the black military units were ready to serve. It took the explosion of the American battleship, the U. S. S. Maine, killing 260 Americans (22 which were black) on February 15, 1898 in Havana Harbor that the United States a reason for declaring war. The preparation for the war was fast, and on April 24, 1898 declared war on Spain. Congress also activated ten regiments of all black troops. Only four of the regiments saw action in the short war. It was no surprise, under the circumstances, that among the first...
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During the period 1929 to 1990, the lives of the black people changed a lot, and overall by 1990, their lives had greatly improved. In 1920, 10% of the US population was black and most of them lived in the southern states. As a result of the Jim Crow segregation laws, they suffered the worst education, the lowest jobs, and they lived in separate areas of cities, known as ghettoes. There was a constant risk of attack by the Ku Klux Klan, and the lynchings of black people for petty crimes (without trial) were common public events. Black people lived lives totally apart from white people. Even in the army during the Second World War, the Jim Crow Army was for the black people and the main army for the whites. Despite the black people fighting for their country, they were still victims of bullying by most of the GIs in the army. During the Second World War, the membership of the NAACP, (the movement for black people's civil rights) had increased by 9 times by 1945. As a result of this, extra pressure was put on the government to improve the situation of the black people. Despite this, the only improvement made, was the law which made segregation in weapon factories illegal. The black people of USA still faced mass segregation economically, socially and politically. And although they had the right to vote, a written test had to be passed in order to confirm their right to vote. With poor education, this was virtually impossible for most African Americans. Small victories were won all the time. One example is the Bus Boycott in 1956. Black people were forced to move to the back of public buses, in order to make room for the whites. In 1955, Rosa Parks, a middle aged African...
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In 1962, the United States Military began to use a potentially toxic chemical known as Agent Orange. The toxic chemical was used a defoliant to destroy crops and eliminate ground cover during the Vietnam War. Vietnamese troops would hide underneath the thick forest and make it impossible for United States troops to spot them. So in 1962 the Army began using Agent Orange as a way of eliminating that problem. The government had very little knowledge about the deadly chemical but went ahead and used it anyway. They had no idea of the disastrous long-term effects that it would have on men, women and children. But the hardest group hit by the chemical was not Vietnamese civilians but United States troops. In 1962, Project Ranch Hand was being deployed all over Vietnam. The idea was to destroy the forest on the battle field and make it easier for the United States troops to see the Vietnamese soldiers. The term "agent orange" was given to the chemical because of the bright orange canisters that it was stored in. (Online, Mar 27. 1999) The orange canisters were used to distinguish the chemicals in the warehouses so that they would not be confused with anything else. During the Vietnam War, 11.2 million gallons of Agent Orange were used as defoliants throughout Vietnam and Southeast Asia. (Online, lewispublishing, Mar 27. 1999) Approximately 2.6 million United States soldiers served in South Vietnam and nearby areas during the war. (Online, lewispublishing, Mar 27. 1999) As the planes would drop the massive amounts of Agent Orange onto Vietnam, United States soldiers would unknowingly walk to certain disaster. The deadly chemical affected everyone from ground troops to pilots to seamen. The hardest hit of course were the ground troops. In some cases the defoliant was dropped almost right on...
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While the war in Europe and the Japanese battle raged on, the United States faced a difficult decision. Should they engage in war or maintain their level of neutrality? Franklin Delano Roosevelt knew that America's involvement in the war stood as an inevitability, however; despite the president's mentality, most Americans felt neutrality stood as the only way to handle the growing conflict afar. On October 5, 1937, President Roosevelt delivered his Quarantine the Aggressors Speech in which he described the military provokers as the "reign of terror" promoting "international lawlessness." He outed their unjust habits of breaking treaties by invading territories, and noted that these countries executed this with no formal declarations of war. They fought like bullies on the proverbial playground. Also, these nations used their force and dominating willpower to mindlessly slaughter millions of civilians—all to increase their power and strength. They attacked every foreign ship they encountered whether provoked or not, and worst of all, denied the very thing they claimed to fight for. Many nations claimed to combat for freedom—to better their land—but, while they themselves achieved this (if one calls a military state better) they denied these simple liberties to the people they oppressed. Roosevelt neglected to list the aggressive nation's names because of this. He delivered his speech years before war officially broke out in Europe—let alone the U.S.—and did not desire a larger conflict yet. He did not want, at that point, to get involved, and naming names while laying blame would have engaged the U.S. America lacked the proper readiness for war. Roosevelt worked to prepare America though. By stating that 90% of the world desired and strived for peace, he appealed to man's sense of ethics and morality. He explained that the 90% of peace-loving people could not allow the 10% of anarchists...
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American Presidency Cyle Parker Dr. Mark Leeper December 12th 2007 All the Worlds' a Stage; A Foreign Policy FOR America? In depth look at Presidential Policies and Action between the United States & neighboring Soviet nations in the 21st Century Often on the world stage, the relationships and tensions that play out between the superpowers of the globe has always been complex. How each leader of each respected nation handles these crises sets the foundation from which future leaders will derive effective solutions. There is the natural inclination to achieve dominance on the world stage, while trying to keep a stable relationship with neighboring world powers. The United States and the USSR had been recognized as superpowers since the end of World War II. "Boosting America into a foreign policy arms race, the United States' Manhattan Project led to atomic bombs being dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945." (Cohen, 20) In 1949, the USSR surprised the world by breaking the United States' monopoly on atomic weapons by exploding their own atomic bomb. In 1952, the United States developed and exploded a thermonuclear weapon, also known as the hydrogen bomb. In the following year, the USSR followed suit by detonating their hydrogen bomb. On a global playground for men with big guns, quickly it was realized that our two countries had major ideological differences. The American system of free market capitalism was in stark contrast to Soviet communism. (Cohen 54, 84) The American economy was built, made and sustained by self-made men who had brought themselves from "rags-to-riches". This stereotype was further perpetuated by American authors of the time and living examples of true life heroes of American industry such as John D. Rockefeller and Andrew Carnegie. The USSR's communist ideology was based on the belief that every person should have the same social status as everyone...
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The conflict in ideologies between capitalism and communism resulted in one of the greatest conflicts of the twentieth century. The belief that freedom and democracy would die under communist rule caused the United States to start a conflict that would last for decades. The decisions made by the United States in W.W.II caused tensions to rise between the U. S. and the Soviet Union. Fear of Communism in capitalist nations, caused the United states government to use propaganda to raise Cold War anxieties. Furthermore, the American media influenced the attitudes of Americans, making a hatred of communism spread though the nation. Thus, the United States caused the conflict known as the Cold War. The political relations going on in Europe during and directly after World War II had an enormous effect on laying the foundation for the Cold War. War time conferences such as Yalta and Terhran harshened the relationship between the communists and the capitalists. At the end of W.W.II American policy towards the Soviets changed drastically. The change in presidents in 1945 caused relations with Russia to worsen. Also, other political contributions to the Cold War entailed the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan. The division of Europe between the west and east drew physical borders which outlined that the war of misinformation that had began. Also treaties of the post war world further separated the two super powers of the world for the decades to follow. The waging of hot wars through other countries also strengthened Cold War hatred. The first of the cold war tensions arose out of W.W.II conferences between the Soviet Union, America and, Great Britain. Tehran, the first major conference which lead America to start the Cold War, included all three of these nations. At this conference the reshaping of post-war Europe was discussed. Later...
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The Nineteen Sixties was a decade that changed America forever. The people reformed the decade not so much by the government. The Sixties contained more spiritualism, people were against the Vietnam war, protests, civil rights, and new beliefs on every aspect of living. The topics that arose during the sixties were not small; when they were accomplished or challenged the outcome changed American society forever. Most legislative bills passed in the sixties still remain today. The Domino Effect was the scare of the spread of communism in East Asia during the Vietnam War; the theory was spread and made to sound like communism would take over the world in time. This theory is one of the reason the United States entered the Vietnam war (The American crusade, propelled as it was by the " Domino Theory," and the naïve assumption that the entire region would collapse to the communist if they one in Vietnam, disregarded the complex nationalistic diversity of South East Asia). (#3 pg.43) The American government also believed if countries fell to communist rule the surrounding regions would rush to make peace. The regions in China are an abundant source of natural resources, if the regions made peace or fell to communist rule it would only greater escalate the situation forcing America into the war (" There would be a domino effect," as former secretary of state John Foster Dulles called it. Other countries in Southeast Asia- al weaker than Vietnam would rush to make piece with the Chinese communist. In the long run as most Asians see it, This would mean the resources of South East Asia would fall to the Chinese Communist Block). (#4 pg. 87) The Vietnam War went on for several more years without a good outcome to America, most people describe it as a...
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America was built by immigrants. From Plymouth Rock in the seventeenth century to Ellis Island in the twentieth, people born elsewhere came to America. Some were fleeing religious persecution and political turmoil. Most, however, came for economic reasons and were part of extensive migratory systems that responded to changing demands in labor markets. Their experience in the United States was as diverse as their backgrounds and aspirations. Some became farmers and others toiled in factories. Some settled permanently and others returned to their homeland. Collectively, however, they contributed to the building of a nation by providing a constant source of inexpensive labor, by settling rural regions and industrial cities, and by bringing their unique forms of political and cultural expression. The volume of immigration before the 1960s was staggering. Figures for the colonial period are imprecise, but by the time of the first census of 1790 nearly 1 million Afro-Americans and 4 million Europeans resided in the United States. The European population originated from three major streams: English and Welsh, Scotch-Irish, and German. After 1820, the data became exact enough to document the volume of immigration more reliably. From 1820 to 1975 some 47 million people came to the United States: 8.3 million from other countries in the Western Hemisphere, 2.2 million from Asia, and 35.9 million from Europe. The stream was relatively continuous from 1820 to 1924 with only brief interruptions caused by the Civil War and occasional periods of economic downturns such as the depression of the 1890s, the panic of 1907-1908, and the Great Depression of the 1930s. World War II, of course, also greatly reduced the numbers emigrating. In fact, 32 million of the 35.9 million Europeans who came to the United States between 1820 and 1975 came prior to 1924. Immigration on such a large scale resulted in...
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Every ten years America is questioned, recorded, and given a basic overview of how well the country is flourishing financially and economically. The Census Bureau goes through strenuous hours of work and study to provide statistics and comparisons informing citizens of our progress and downfalls of the past century. In an essay by Andrew Hacker, a renowned professor at Queens College, he describes the 1990 census report by creating fictional family of characters called the Medians. The Medians, in his essay represent the average household of America as the census report of 1990 portrayed them. Hacker presents the average income, job insecurity and basic way of life in which he ends with predicting a slow change for the worse by the next report in the year 2000. With the economy slowly dipping into a possible recession I can see the prediction made by Hacker eventually becoming a reality. If constructed, how would the median family of the new millennium live and what would their future have in store for them? Through research of the latest 2000 report, Hacker would be rather surprised that there has not been a drastic decline financially and socially. On that note, nor has there been a drastic incline either. Of course not everything is as it was in the early 90's but for the most part the median family are still treading the same water, just on the edge of a possible troubling future. In an article from the Wall Street Journal, Patrick Barta delivers the results and his views on the 2000 report. The article is titled American Poverty Fell To Lowest Level Since '73. Barta begins his article with the fact that the poverty level has reached the lowest point since 1973. He talks about how 31.1 million Americans now live in poverty which is...
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Harry S. Truman was the most influential figure in early Cold War politics. His policies on Soviet expansion and cooperation with western bloc countries set the stage for how other Cold War era presidents would act. It is through his handling of the Korean conflict and the issue of communism, both domestic and abroad, he can be considered the father of Cold War politics. The beginnings of communist distrust in America may be found in the Red Scare of 1919. The Red Scare of 1919 began out of a growing distrust of Bolshevism and strong desire by many groups to preserve America's status quo and throw out the foreign influences that might subvert it (1). People only became more outraged by such frivolous comments by Bolshevik leaders like Vladimir Lenis that "it is necessary to break eggs to make an omelet"(2). Under mounting public pressure the attorney general, Mitchell A. Palmer, conducted anti-alien raids across America. It was not until the arrest and deportation of hundreds of aliens that the national hysteria began to die down as a result of growing public disapproval. Despite the end of the first Red Scare a feeling of Bolshevik distrust continued to pervade America throughout the 20's, 30's, and 40's. At the end of the Second World War America had emerged as the world's most powerful nation. While most of the world lay in shambles, America served as a sort of economic crutch, providing trade and industry to war stricken nations that could no long do so themselves. With programs such as the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA), European Recovery Program (ERP), and the Truman Doctrine the United States was clearly making a concerted effort to re-establish trade with and re-stabilize the countries of Europe. The Marshal Plan, which later evolved into the European...
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The United States Flag is the third oldest of the National Standards of the world; older than the Union Jack of Britain or the Tricolor of France. The flag was first authorized by Congress June 14, 1777. This date is now observed as Flag Day throughout America. The flag was first flown from Fort Stanwix, on the site of the present city of Rome, New York, on August 3, 1777. It was first under fire for three days later in the Battle of Oriskany, August 6, 1777. It was first decreed that there should be a star and a stripe for each state, making thirteen of both; for the states at the time had just been erected from the original thirteen colonies. The colors of the Flag may be thus explained: The red is for valor, zeal and fervency; the white for hope purity, cleanliness of life, and rectitude of conduct; the blue, the color of heaven, for reverence to God, loyalty, sincerity, justice and truth. The star (an ancient symbol of India, Persia and Egypt) symbolized dominion and sovereignty, as well as lofty aspirations. The constellation of the stars within the union, one star for each state, is emblematic of our Federal Constitution, which reserves to the States their individual sovereignty except as to rights delegated by them to the Federal Government. The symbolism of the Flag was thus interpreted by Washington: "We take the stars from Heaven, the red from our mother country, separating it by white stripes, thus showing that we have separated from her, and the white stripes shall go down to posterity representing Liberty." In 1791, Vermont, and in 1792, Kentucky were admitted to the Union and the number of stars and stripes was raised to fifteen in correspondence. As other states came into the Union it became evident there would be...
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The American Supreme Court is a well-rounded look at the creation and nature of the Supreme Court. The author , Robert G. McCloskey, starts off with a look at how people felt about the Court when it was created, giving the reader a feel for the time. It continues on to explain the importance of the creation event using specific details. By making the reader feel proud of being a part of such a great system, the reader is drawn into the book and grows anxious to read on. As the reader goes on information is given about what kind of power was intended for the Supreme Court and a debate is formulated about whether the Court is Constitutionally just. The point is made that the Constitution gives Congress the power to create any court system it feels necessary but the question is asked, does the constitution guarantee the Supreme Court's has final authority. Many of the Forefathers seem to have created the Court in the hope that it would keep the other branches of the government in check according to the Constitution. As the first section goes on, explaining the nature of the Supreme court's power, and telling of the checks and balances that keep the court from gaining more power than is necessary, by only allowing the court to rule on an issue if it is presented in the form of a case. It points out that the power given is that of a court's power as well as something more. A number of facts are debated, such as whether or not the court should play a large part in directing the states. The overall nature of the courts power is covered and presented in a form, which is at times confusing and roundabout, but always backed up by reasoning...
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By the 1760s, American colonists and English Parliament had very different views about the extent of authority for governing the colonies. British officials assumed Parliamentary Sovereignty in which Parliament alone could tax and govern within England and its possessions. American colonists believed they had a certain amount of sovereignty to govern themselves through elected assemblies as a check on the power of appointed governors. In the eyes of the colonists, only these elected assemblies had the power to tax. Colonial charters were vague about Parliament's authority to govern and tax in America. A clash of ideals ensued when it tried to assert control after the French and Indian War. For years the colonists resisted against Parliament's attempts to assert power but it wasn't until the Boston Tea Party that Parliament took a hard line to force submission. Why did the English government wait so long to put its foot down? What could the colonists expect after the Intolerable Acts? What options were left for Boston and the other colonists? What could England do if the colonists rejected English actions? The Intolerable acts did not make war inevitable but they were certain to cause trouble. For years the American colonists resisted and rebelled against increasing attempts at control by the British government, and the government responded with mild or conciliatory gestures until the Boston Tea Party in 1773. Parliament taxed the colonies and interfered with their internal affairs for the first time with the Revenue and Currency Acts of 1764. A year later they increased taxes with the Stamp Act. The colonists' response varied from peaceful, such as Massachusetts' call for a Stamp Act Congress, to violent with the effigy hanging and burning of stamp distributors and destruction of their homes and offices by mobs. In March 1766, Parliament's reluctant response was...
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The definition of a true American. It can't be found in any text, the possibilities are too vast. There are those who consider place of birth and citizenship, those who feel that residency is the only factor, and there are some that will not make a judgment unless an entire life is laid out. The definition is simpler than many people will choose to admit. John "Duke" Wayne once stated,"A man's got to have a code, a creed to live by, no matter his job (Pilar Wayne, vii)." To Wayne, that creed meant living his life as someone who would represent America well. That is the mind set of a red blooded American. John Wayne epitomized a true American by his concrete ideals regarding integrity and leading an good life along with his unconditional love for America. John Wayne was constantly asked of his basic philosophy on life, to which he always responded with advice he received from his father. "1) Always keep your word. 2) A gentleman never insults anybody intentionally. 3) Don't go around looking for trouble but if you get into a fight, make sure you win it. (Eyles, 11)" The words were simple and true, and seemed present in Wayne's actions and speech throughout his life. He was patient with fans, even through provocation from them. His image on screen shown through to his personal life when he would talk about "having a good horse under you...the sound of a kid calling you Dad for the first time...(Eyles, 12)". John Wayne was the ideal American, full of strengths, weaknesses, and national pride. John Wayne's love for America was a known fact. He said at a Republican convention," I am proud of every day in my life I wake up in the United States of America (Eyles, 11)." Such...
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