Legal scholar Gene Healy has made a powerful argument in favor of abolishing the Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution. When a fair vote was taken on it in 1865, in the aftermath of the War for Southern Independence, it was rejected by the Southern states and all the border states. Failing to secure the necessary three-fourths of the states, the Republican party, which controlled Congress, passed the Reconstruction Act of 1867 which placed the entire South under military rule. The purpose of this, according to one Republican congressman, was to coerce Southern legislators to vote for the amendment "at the point of a bayonet." President Andrew Johnson called this tactic "absolute despotism," the likes of which had not been exercised by any British monarch "for more than 500 years." For his outspokenness Johnson was impeached by the Republican Congress. The South eventually voted to ratify the amendment, after which two Northern states—Ohio and New Jersey—withdrew support because of their disgust with Republican party tyranny. The Republicans just ignored this and declared the amendment valid despite their failure to secure the constitutionally-required three-fourths majority. The Cato Institute's Roger Pilon, who is a supporter of the Fourteenth Amendment, has defended the way in which the amendment was adopted on the grounds that after the war some Southern states had enacted the "notorious Black Codes" (Liberty Magazine, Feb. 2000). "What should Congress have done," Pilon asked, "turn a blind eye to what was going on?" The notion that a racially-enlightened and benevolent Republican Congress unconstitutionally imposed the Fourteenth Amendment on the nation because it was motivated primarily (if not solely) out of concern with racial discrimination in the South is childishly naive and ahistorical. The fact is, Northern states pioneered viciously discriminatory "black codes" long before they existed in any Southern state, and these codes were...
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On November 12, 1864, Sherman marched out of Atlanta toward the Atlantic coast. Tracing a line of march between Macon and Augusta, he carved a sixty-mile wide swath of destruction in the Confederacy's heartland. The only forces the Confederacy could bring to oppose him was Wheeler's cavalry and a motley collection of militia and over and under-aged reserves of perhaps 14,000 troops; certainly no match for the 62,000 Union veterans Sherman had kept with him upon leaving Atlanta. His army marched in two large columns under the command of Howard and Slocum. Sherman reached Savannah on December 10. The Confederate garrison could not hope to prevent its capture, so evacuated the city with 10,000 troops via a pontoon bridge. Sherman presented Savannah to Lincoln as a "Christmas gift". Sherman did not linger long at Savannah, and despite the miserable winter weather was soon on the march again. The Confederate forces in the region were fragmented at this time, with troop concentrations under Hardee and Beauregard, who could do little with the forces either had at hand, to slow Sherman down. Columbia, South Carolina, captured on February 17, 1865, was dealt with particularly harshly by Sherman's men. Two-thirds of the city was burned down, although it was probably done at their own initiative rather than under any orders from Sherman. Many Federal troops held a special hatred for South Carolina because they felt the state was responsible for starting the war. Finally, too late to really make any difference, Robert E. Lee was named General-in-Chief of the Confederacy's armed forces and Joe Johnston was given command of all remaining forces in North Carolina. Reinforcements from the tattered remnants of the Army of Tennessee would arrive via a patchwork railroad/overland route from Tupelo to join other commands under Beauregard, Bragg, and Hardee, but...
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Question I: Evaluate the significance of the multiple causes of the Civil War. Answer I: The Civil War was caused by a myriad of conflicting pressures, principles, and prejudices, fueled by sectional differences and pride, and set into motion by a most unlikely set of political events. In the days of the American Revolution and of the adoption of the Constitution, differences between the North and the South were dwarfed by their common interest in establishing a new nation, although sectionalism steadily grew stronger. Throughout the early 19th century, the South remained almost completely agricultural, with an economy and a social order largely founded on slavery and the plantation system. These mutually dependent institutions produced the cash crops, especially cotton, from which the South derived its wealth. The North had its own great agricultural resources, was always more advanced commercially, and was also exponentially expanding industrially. Through these basic economic differences, including the institution of slavery, the sectionalistic and nationalistic tensions of the two regions derived its roots. Hostility between the two sections grew perceptibly after 1820, the year of the Missouri Compromise, which was intended to solve the question of the extension or prohibition of slavery in the federal territories of the West. In addition, difficulties over the tariff, which led Calhoun and South Carolina to nullification and to an extreme states rights stand, and troubles over internal improvements were also involved, although the territorial issue nearly always loomed the largest. Since slavery was inadaptable to much of the territorial lands, which eventually would be admitted as Free states, the South became more anxious about maintaining its position as an equal in the Union. This initial anxiousness led to a period that might be called the era of compromise, although with each compromise and apparent resolution, however, raised the emotional...
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For five days Jackson had looked on Washington spread before him with the Dome of the Capitol in sight from his headquarters on the Georgetown Pike near 7th Street. Lee having recovered sufficiently from his wounds had resumed command of the army but had been summoned to Richmond by President Davis following overtures from ( Vice ) President Johnson to discuss common grounds for a peaceful settlement to the War. Lincoln left the Capital for Canada, reluctantly, following pressure from Cabinet to avoid possible capture by the advancing Confederates who seemed unstoppable as the Union forces in and around Washington disintegrated into a disorderly rabble. Following his heroic retreat from Gettysburg Howard had been promoted to Lieutenant-General and assumed command of the defenses of Washington superseding Major-General S.P.Heintzelman who had very little combat experience. Howard had about 55,000 men but very little control and desertions were whittling this force away hourly. The Federal army was totally demoralized and soldiers were going home as if it was all over, sensing the end was near. Grant had, after eventually capturing Vicksburg on the 4th July been ordered to evacuate and return control to the Confederates under Pemberton. This would be accomplished by the 12th and an uneasy peace would settle across the Western theatre as Lieutenant-General ( Old Pete) Longstreet entrained to take command of all the South’s western forces. Jackson chafed... aware that the Union forces were a spent force and there for the taking, his spies reported that the defenders had shrunk to 35,000 and if they waited for another couple of weeks Washington would be a ghost town. France had broken with England and recognized the independence of the Confederacy and England was expected to follow suit very soon. In Richmond McClellan was leading the Union delegation and was pursuing a course...
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No condition is worse than that of a slave. It is by far the worst social injustice ever endured by man. A slave is taken from his home by force, shipped off to a foreign land and made to obey another person who speaks a different language, practices a different religion and follows a dissimilar culture. The only reason a slave complies is to preserve his life, which is no longer truly his own. This is because another man controls every facet of the slaves life, another man determines whether the slave lives or dies and works or rests. No one else has lived in such menial conditions, or has been subjected to fewer rights, clearly this is why the emancipation of slavery is the most important emancipation effort in history, and furthermore it was simply a problem that could not be ignored or avoided. From its inception, the slave found himself in a convoluted position. Others in troubled situations with minimal rights, such as the condition of women at the time, still enjoyed comparative independence to that of a slave, a quasi relatively stable position within society and semi functional skills which allowed women to participate within their society, whereas the slave enjoyed almost no advantages and was faced with myriad obstacles. The status of women paled in comparison to that of a slave. Women although somewhat socially oppressed and subjugated were not slaves and still had minimal control over their own lives. How can one emancipate the rights of women or anything similar to that when people in society are still oppressed far beyond that? Fixing the larger problem of emancipating slavery would lead to the wide spread emancipation of other efforts for it is a significantly larger problem. If society can give the lowest members of society emancipation,...
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Rise of Persecuting society To what extent can we attribute responsibility for instances of persecution in history to the influence of powerful individuals? In this essay it will be focusing on the persecutions that took place in China up until Chairman Mao Zedongâ€™s death in 1976. Also the influence he had on decision making and to what extent he was personally responsible for the death of so many people. Chairman Mao Zedong has become one of the most influential figures of the 20th century, from his early political career in creating the Chinese communist party to the creation of the Peoples Republic of China and the many policies he passed while as head of state. During the Chinese civil war is where Mao first found a power base. In the Jinggang Mountains Jiangxi created the Workers and Peasants Red Army of China (also known as the red army). This is also where Mao first encountered his political opponents who were against his land proposals and other army branch reforms. To this opposition Mao responded by accusing these opponents of opportunism which was swiftly followed by their silencing. During this first â€˜purgeâ€™ estimated about several thousand were victims and the total number could be beyond 100,000. This first example of persecution against a group of people by Mao supports the argument of Maoâ€™s own paranoia and self interest of securing power by the lengths he is willing to go to as seen here. It also shows Maoâ€™s influence over the CPC (Chinese communist party) in their participation of following Maoâ€™s orders. According to Jung Chang and Jon Halliday victims of Maoâ€™s torture were forced to give names and victims were subjected to red hot gun rods being rammed into their anus and many cases cutting up their stomachs and taking out the heart. This...
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Reasons for a Need of Farm hands Directly following the Civil War There were different sources of strengths and weaknesses of the working class in the decades after the Civil War. After the War there was a large demand for resources produced on farms. Farming and the need for agricultural workers increased. Some of the other strengths that were held by the working class after the war were a large result of the Homestead Act. This act was passed in 1862. It gave people the opportunity to own one-hundred and sixty acres of land. In return for the ownership of this land, the people had to put ten dollars down and live on the land for five years. If they developed the land better and created a productive area, then they could stay and live on the land. This act kept social and economic mobility open for many working class citizens during this time. After the war, Industrialization created an increased need for raw materials. There were also some weaknesses that the Farmers faced after the Civil War. There became an increase in competition between farmers and several different groups. After World War II, urban majority became suburban majority. A percentage of farmers decreased and had much less power in the political world. This also created less of a cultural influence given by farmers. Farmers also began to compete more with Native Americans for the land and the available resources. The farmers also competed with the land speculators and the ranchers in the area. The cattle and sheep ranchers dominated a large amount of the land. However, in the winter of 1885-1886, a blizzard killed about 90% of the ranchers' herd....
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"I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free." Stated so eloquently in a speech by Abraham Lincoln, those words prove true. There exist arguments from all sides-the abolitionist, the proslavery man, and views in between. For instance, Thomas R. Dew writes of slavery and its positives while Theodore Dwight Weld states, "There is not a man on earth who does not believe that slavery is a curse." Meanwhile, William Lloyd Garrison notes his desire for "the immediate enfranchisement of our slave population." Despite that all three men propose prime arguments, it is evident that Dew, though wayward in conclusion, presents the strongest statement in the slavery debate. Thomas R. Dew writes his essay with intentions to counter arguments that slavery stands unbiblical, negatively consequential, and bad for the republic. Using the bible, he describes how slaves number greatly in biblical days, and that the book commands slaves to respect even the worst master. Dew also explains that the Israelites owned slaves; however, he neglects to acknowledge the Israelite's suffering. "And the Lord said, I have surely seen the affliction of my people which are in Egypt, and have heard their cry by reason of their taskmasters; for I know their sorrows; and I have come to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians. . . I have also seen the oppression wherewith the Egyptians oppress them." – (Exodus 3:7-9) Mr. Dew writes of slavery not being abrogated because of God's acceptance towards it, but the Lord himself ends slavery for the Israelites because the conditions continue so harshly. Hearing and witnessing their suffering, he rescues them. Why then should the same not be done for the American slave? By quoting many men, Jefferson, Smith, Hall, and Giles, Dew notes that many think slavery entails drastic consequences....
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Jefferson Davis stated in the pre-Civil War years to a Northern audience, "You say you are opposed to the expansion of slavery... Is the slave to be benefited by it? Not at all. It is not humanity that influences you in the position which you now occupy before the country," (Davis, The Irrepressible Conflict, 447). The Northerners had not freed the slaves for moral issues; the white majority did not have anything but its own economic prosperity on its mind. The African Americans gained their emancipation and new rights through the battling Northern and Southern factions of the United States, not because a majority of the country felt that slavery possessed a 'moral urgency'. As the years passed and the whites began to reconcile, their economic goals rose to the forefront of their policy, while racism spread throughout the country and deepened in the South. Even with all of the good intentions and ideals expressed in the 13th, 14th and 15th amendments, blacks watched as their freedom disintegrated through the late 19th Century as a result of the Supreme Court decisions that limited the implications of the new amendments. After the passage of these amendments, two of the three branches of government disconnected themselves with the issue of black civil rights. Following Grant's unenthusiastic approach to protecting blacks in the South, the executive branch gradually made its position on the issue clear in 1876. (Zinn, 199) When Hayes beat Tilden in the presidential election by promising to end the Reconstruction in the South, it was evident that the White House would no longer support any calls for the protection of blacks. The compromise of 1877 brought Hayes to office, but "doomed the black man to a second class citizenship that was to be his lot for nearly a century afterward," (Davis,...
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The time of Reconstruction for the South was wrought with many conflicting factors, which ultimately brought about the end, and noted failure, of the plan. Opposing elements in the political realm, coupled with economic hardships following the war, and the attempt to redesign the entire social structure of the South slowly but assuredly destroyed the plan of Reconstruction. Although the original design of the plan seem plausible, as things progressed, it became more and more evident that the problems of the South were not being solved by severe laws and continuing malevolence against previous Confederates. In May 1872, Congress passed a comprehensive Amnesty Act, restoring full governmental rights to all but about 500 Confederate supporters. Progressively Southern states began electing members of the Democratic Party into office, displacing thus termed "carpetbagger" governments and scaring blacks from voting or striving to hold public office often through the use of fear tactics. By 1876 the Republicans continued in power in just three Southern states. As a piece of the negotiation that determined the disputed presidential elections that year in preference of Rutherford B. Hayes, the Republicans pledged to terminate Radical Reconstruction, thereby allowing practically all of the control of the South to the Democratic Party. In 1877 Hayes removed the remaining government military, virtually forsaking federal accountability for ensuring blacks' civil rights. The South was still a region shattered by warfare, impeded by a deficit caused by a mediocre administration, and depraved by a decade of racial fighting. Unfortunately, the battle of domestic racial policy moved from one stance to another. Forasmuch as it had maintained severe punishments against Southern white leaders, it now sanctioned increased and degrading types of discrimination toward blacks. The end of the 19th century brought about an abundance of Jim Crow laws in Southern states that divided public schools, referred...
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In the beginning of the American Civil War, all odds were stacked up against the Southern insurrectionists ever having any chance whatsoever at being victorious. Economic factors as well as a severe lack of manpower in comparison to the federal forces gave the impression to all that the Union would have a quick and instantaneous rout of the rebels. The Confederacy was the one that seceded so it had to either defend itself or risk being absorbed once again into the Union. This called for expertise in command as well as a skillful use and distribution of the few supplies the Confederacy did have, as well as an emphasis on the advantages it did have over the Union. By a purely economical status, the Confederacy was far outmatched by the Union. At the war's beginning, only 11 states seceded, leaving twenty-two to still oppose them. The union had twenty two million individuals whereas in comparison, the Confederacy had about nine million, one third of which were slaves. Also, the South was not as developed in an industrial standpoint as the North. Its economy was based upon the cotton industry, and trading to Europe to supply their textile mills. The north was a diverse mix of both agriculture and industry. It would be able to support itself agriculturally while at the same time have the ability to mass-produce more weapons of mass destruction and goods to be traded to foreign countries. The majority of necessary minerals, such as iron ore, copper, and coal were contained in the North as well, fueling the factories of the Union. The sheer number of resources and number of troops in comparison to the South should have been an indication that the North should win. Mobility was also key element throughout the war. The Union had a clear...
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The foundation for black participation in the Civil War began more than a hundred years before the outbreak of the war. Blacks in America had been in bondage since early colonial times. In 1776, when Jefferson proclaimed mankind's inalienable right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, the institution of slavery had become firmly established in America. Blacks worked in the tobacco fields of Virginia, in the rice fields of South Carolina, and toiled in small farms and shops in the North. Foner and Mahoney report in A House Divided, America in the Age of Lincoln that, "In 1776, slaves composed forty percent of the population of the colonies from Maryland south to Georgia, but well below ten percent in the colonies to the North." The invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney in 1793 provided a demand for cotton thus increasing the demand for slaves. By the 1800's slavery was an institution throughout the South, an institution in which slaves had few rights, and could be sold or leased by their owners. They lacked any voice in the government and lived a life of hardship. Considering these circumstances, the slave population never abandoned the desire for freedom or the determination to resist control by the slave owners. The slave's reaction to this desire and determination resulted in outright rebellion and individual acts of defiance. However, historians place the strongest reaction in the enlisting of blacks in the war itself. Batty in The Divided Union: The Story of the Great American War, 1861-65, concur with Foner and Mahoney about the importance of outright rebellion in their analysis of the Nat Turner Rebellion, which took place in 1831. This revolt demonstrated that not all slaves were willing to accept this "institution of slavery" passively. Foner and Mahoney note that the...
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Why the Confederacy lost. The American Civil War, one of the bloodiest wars the United States has ever had to go through. The American Civil War started in 1861 and lasted until 1865. This conflict was a," separatist conflict between the United States Federal Government (Union) and eleven slave states that declared there secession and formed the Confederate States of America." We all know that the Union eventually came out on top in 1865 with the surrender of Robert E. Lee, but why did the South lose? (Wiki) The South seceded from the Union and created the Confederate States of America on February 9, 1861 with the sight of a "fire-eater" dominated country. Unfortunately for the South the big plans they had in mind seemed to fail and put them into the loss of the Civil War. One of the big plans the South had was to hold back the huge cotton supply from Great Britain, to force them to inevitably help out the South. Unfortunately for the South, this plan backfired. The South miscalculated too much for this to work, and I'll tell you why: For one, the South was only 2/3 of the cotton import Britain had, and when the South refused to sell the cotton, Britain just made it so that the 1/3 of the cotton export became the 3/3 and ruled out the South. Secondly, the South forgot that cotton was one of the major commodities they had to sell, and with the stop of trade on the export, there were no funds coming in to support their war. Probably the biggest deciding factor in the Civil war that created the losing scenario for the South was military sizes. The South had many famous Generals on their side, but not enough troops. The Union had already imposed a draft and...
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Why the North won the Civil War "You Are Bound to Fail." Union officer William Tecumseh Sherman to a Southern friend: In all history, no nation of mere agriculturists ever made successful war against a nation of mechanics. . . . You are bound to fail. (Catton, Glory Road 241) The American antebellum South, though steeped in pride and raised in military tradition, was to be no match for the burgeoning superiority of the rapidly developing North in the coming Civil War. The lack of emphasis on manufacturing and commercial interest, stemming from the Southern desire to preserve their traditional agrarian society, surrendered to the North their ability to function independently, much less to wage war. It was neither Northern troops nor generals that won the Civil War, rather Northern guns and industry. From the onset of war, the Union had obvious advantages. Quite simply, the North had large amounts of just about everything that the South did not, boasting resources that the Confederacy had even no means of attaining (See Appendices, Brinkley et al. 415). Sheer manpower ratios were unbelievably one-sided, with only nine of the nation's 31 million inhabitants residing in the seceding states (Angle 7). The Union also had large amounts of land available for growing food crops which served the dual purpose of providing food for its hungry soldiers and money for its ever-growing industries. The South, on the other hand, devoted most of what arable land it had exclusively to its main cash crop: cotton (Catton, The Coming Fury 38). Raw materials were almost entirely concentrated in Northern mines and refining industries. Railroads and telegraph lines, the veritable lifelines of any army, traced paths all across the Northern countryside but left the South isolated, outdated, and starving (See Appendices). The final death knell for a modern South...
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Women were a great effect in the civil war. Many women would disquise themselves as men or spies to fight in the war.Other women would be nurses,aides,and doctors on the battlefield. Women who were not part of the civil war still mad a great effect by manufacturing things to the war. Women as spies were particulary effective. The people they helped were very grateful.Belle Boyd a teenager known as "La Belle Rebella" was one of the most famous spies. after being arrested six times it still did not stop her from doing her job. Belle ran across the battlefield to deliver military information. Elizabeth Van Lew was from Richmond,Virgina. she was a union confederate who was able to assist a spy among one of Jefferson Davis's servants. Rose O'Neil Greenhow a confederate spy who ran a large art in washington. Harriet Tubman was a black union spy,scout and commander. Harriet would disguise herself as an old lame lady. Sarah edmonds was disquised as a black laboror. sarah joined a crew to learn about fortification in Yorktown. The general that sent her had no idea that she was a women. Nurses,aides,and doctors were the "angels" of the battlefield.Mary A.Brady was a union nurse who served at the Battle of Gettysberg. Mary died and was given an honorary funeral.Dr.Mary Edwards was a union surgeon. mary was given a medal of honor. Mary ann Bickerdyke traveled with the union army for four years and nineteen battles.she helped with amputateing peoples legs,brewing coffee,and collecting cattle,chickens,and eggs. Dorethia Dix was a 59 year old Lady who volunteeres her service to the union. she was the head of all nurses.More than three thoudsand were army nurses.no matter how bad the pay was or any worse the conditions they still stayed and helped....
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