In our society, if we don't respect the freedom of others we, most of the time, go to jail. But, in the late 1700's ,in Europe, people were not respected and were fed-up to live in a society where only one person was responsible of the destiny of 27 million people. As you can guess I will, in the following text ,explain the reasons and the results of the French Revolution. In the 1760's the American revolution began. The population was asking for a new constitution and a bill of rights. They wanted to be independent, and not governed by the Great Britain anymore. The French ,eternal enemies of the British Kingdom, gave ,generously, weapons and money to the American rebels ;French officers, also helped the Washington's army. France was maybe too generous and didn't have any money to satisfied their own needs anymore. However, the French society sank in a big depression the peasants were paying more and more taxes , a bread (the main food) shortage began and the wages decrease. The population was very close to revolt… Meanwhile, since the middle age the French society was devised, unequally, into three estates. The first estate ,was formed of the clergy, they owned 10 percent of the land and numbered about 130,000 people. They weren't paying any taxes, however they agreed to pay, every five years a contribution to the state. The second estate constituted of 35,000 aristocrats ,and "noblesse de robe ".They owned 30 percent of the land and had the biggest positions in the army, the church and the government. The third estates was formed of 80 percent of the population divided in three different groups, 2.3 million of them were part of the bourgeoisie (merchants, capitalist, doctor etc.…)they owned 2o percent of the land ,21 million of them...
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A Histroy of the Troubles in Northern Ireland "The only way to beat the British Monarch is to refuse its existence and believe that the Irish Republic is real and alive. Now, if I die, who will take my place?" These powerful words were said by an Irish martyr, Michael Collins, who's unyielding determination as a Nationalist and a Catholic served as inspiration to continue in the struggle that the province of Northern Ireland is still engaged in today. But, from where did this all originate, what steps have been taken towards peace and why is Northern Ireland so reluctant to be ruled by England? The history of the troubles that haunt Northern Ireland are not due to any one particular incident but rather a series of incidents beginning back when the island of Ireland was conquered by the Anglo-Normans troops in the late 12th century. English rulers then tried to colonize the island by any means possible, making enemies out of the Irish. Throughout history England has ruled Ireland. A drastic change took place in 1921, when the country was divided. Northern Ireland remained part of the UK, while the remainder of the country became the Republic of Ireland. The English progressed into Ulster Country with hopes of colonizing it. However, a clash of cultures erupted due to the animosity that Ireland, as a whole wanted to be the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Republic Army fought in hopes of driving the Protestant British out of Catholic Ireland and they only secured 26 out of 32 counties. The desire to drive the British out inspired rebellion on the behalf of the Irish Catholics. They were the domination of Ireland, and now being discriminated against on their own land. They were punished and taxed due to their behavior. They wanted to keep their...
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The Industrial Revolution was a crucial point in the history of the world, and also a very difficult time to endure, especially for the working class. In the late eighteenth century, a young poet and artist by the name of William Blake became outraged and inspired by the inhumane treatment of young boys called "chimney sweeps." Thus he produced a protest in the form of simple poetry. Wicksteed says, "Deeper knowledge of Blake will reveal no darkly buried meaning, only a deeper sense in the meaning obvious to all." (Hirsch, 7) This is precisely the case in the protest Blake calls "The Chimney Sweeper." Blake utilizes realism, rather than deep symbolism, in the form of imagery to portray the brutality of the Industrial Revolution. When Blake was inspired to write about these boys, their barbaric lives were not only common knowledge, but accepted. Throughout the passing years, however, history has lost sight of the horror they faced everyday. Therefore, familiarity with such details does help the reader to see more clearly Blake's indictment of a society that allows children to be subjected to almost unbelievable wretched conditions, and it also gives more force and point to the realism and imagery. (Nurmi, 15) History reveals that children usually began these lives at the age of 6 or 7 or even earlier. The job tormented their small bodies, leaving them to die with deformed ankles, twisted kneecaps and spines, or with "chimney sweeps cancer." The boys began their days long before sunrise until about noon when they "cried the streets" for more business. When it was time to return these young boys carried heavy bags of soot to the cellars and attics where they slept. Even the task of sleeping was torture. The boys owned nothing and were given nothing, leaving them with...
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Final Paper Self-Determination I want to use the opportunity to express myself because many things have built to who I am. This notion of self determination is giving me this much room to express myself in ways that I've never done before. This paper will focus on several aspects of Aboriginal's life and the affect it has. It will also discuss the necessary changes in the political system towards First Nation peoples. Firstly, I really enjoy the segment of story telling in this course because it is an opportunity to tell the surrounding about your life and you wouldn't need to resist yourself because stories does not have limitations. Storytelling has always been a vital part of the cultural identity of the Aboriginal peoples of Canada. It has been in the culture for many years and it should continue to practice the art of storytelling. Stories were told to teach lessons, give warnings, and keep history alive. Imagine the richness of a culture that used stories not only to entertain, but to teach. Stories could bridge the gap between generations and transport the young people to a place that they might never experience for themselves, just as T.V. or movies do today. It was amazing to share my story in front of the class because I can voice an opinion without being rejected or questioned. Aboriginal cultures across Canada rely on oral teachings for their existence. Storytelling has always been a vital part of the cultural identity of the Aboriginal peoples of Canada. Stories were told to teach lessons, strengthen cultural ties, to entertain, and to keep history alive. I believe every culture has their stories and tales to tell to the next generation. For example a long time ago our old people told a lot of stories. Stories of how things were...
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The Anglo-Saxon period began in 449 A.D. This period began the invasion and migration of the island of Britain by the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes. These groups that invaded the Roman Empire, now Great Britain, brought their own traditions, language, and religion. Many historical events during this period greatly influenced literary events. Battles and crusades were an integral part of the daily life. The religious and royalty rulers were held in high esteem. Literature depicted these events and devotions. Literary inventions evolved due to the popularity and need to reach many people with the teachings and entertainment of literature. Epic poetry became an important form for recording legends. Many of these legends had been handed down by word of mouth for hundreds of years or written on scrolls. The inventions of vellum books and a printing method from the Chinese increased the availability of reading material. Epic poetry also gave the Anglo-Saxons an outlet for their many years of oppression. Beowulf, first recorded in c. 700, was one of the first great works of the English literature. This epic glorified the quests of a hero. Creating poetry about heroes was as important as fighting, hunting, and farming. Narrative stories of adventure, crusades, and knightly love grew in importance from the 900's through the 1200's. Chivalry and feudalism dominated this period and literature reflected this domination. The Celtic stories of King Arthur and his Knights became popular. People have been singing war songs in his honor for probably more than 1,500 years. King Arthur was a war leader in post-Roman Britain He fought against the invasion of the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes, c. 449....
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The First World War had many causes; historians probably have not yet discovered and discussed all of them so there might be more causes than what we know now. It was more than just a war between nations. It was a war between what was and what was to be. Most historians today said that it was "The War to End All Wars." The spark of the Great War was the assassination of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, and his wife by a Serbian nationalist on the morning of June 28, 1914, while traveling in a procession through Sarajevo, the capital city of Bosnia. The Archduke was chosen as a target because Serbians feared that after his he became ruler, he would continue the persecution of Serbs living within the Hungarian Empire. The Serbian terrorist organization, the Black Hand, had trained a small group of teenage operatives to get into Bosnia and carry out the assassination of the Archduke. When innocent citizens of a country are mercifully killed by another nation, war is evitable. "You have heard it before, Eye for eye, and tooth for tooth." America has been involved in many wars throughout it's history. From the Revolutionary War when the Americans fought the British to the war in Serbia in 1999 when the U.S. together with NATO fought Slobodan Milosevic. The war that was started at 8:45 am Eastern time on September 11 in New York, the war that was declared on America on that day, is a war that should have no dissent because this new war is America's most justified war. Every war is justified and every war is not justified, so you really can't say either or because both have good reasons. The three things that I would do to the...
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Around the 20th century, the end of the First World War cleared the way for the formation of democratic regimes. Why they had not been successful, why the people didn't use the opportunity to establish a democratic political system and why did the dictatorships appear, is still unclear, but it is a very discussible subject. The decisive role in these processes was the human being. It was the object of the cause, but on the other hand he was also the subject - executor of all the problems as well. The First World War was expected to be short, with a quick triumph on either side. On the contrary, the war caused a giant massacre to all the countries involved, and lasted for four years. Also against the expectations of political leaders and military commanders new techniques of fighting were used, as well as new weapons (for example the chloric gas, tanks and aircrafts). Due to all this, 13 million people were killed, of which 2 million were Germans, 1.75 million Russians, 1.5 million Frenchmen, 1 million British and 0.5 million Italians. But death was just one of the worst consequences of the First World War. Just military failures on the fronts, along with other problems directly affected internal politics in a great way. This horrible catastrophe also left most of the countries in huge debts, especially Germany, Austria, Hungary, Russia, and many others. This led to poverty and chaos, and the people were suffering. That is why they started to revolt, but the political system was so exhausted after the war that it didn't do anything to solve this. The effects of the war sped up the changes. It is an arguable fact, whether the war also had a liberating effect. If it did, it was greatly affected by the downfall...
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The French Revolution of 1789 had many long-range causes. Political, social, and economic conditions in France contributed to the discontent felt by many French people-especially those of the third estate. The ideas of the intellectuals of the Enlightenment brought new views to government and society. The American Revolution also influenced the coming of the French Revolution. The Philosophes planted the seeds for the French Revolution. Their goals were to expose and destroy the inequalities of the ancient regime (old order). The political discontent of France was one of the causes of the Revolution. In the 17th and 18th centuries, France was ruled by an absolute government. The king had all the political powers. Anyone who criticized the government could be arrested and put in prison without trial. Louis XVI was king at the time of the French Revolution. He was more interested in hunting than governing France. He and his Austrian queen, Marie Antoinette, lived an extravagant life at the Palace of Versailles. They did not really care about the state of their country. The excerpt from the cahiers mentioned in document 3 shows that the votes in the assembly were not taken by head. The people of the 3rd estate felt a sense of betrayal when the king supported the block voting over the head voting. The first two estates worked together to outvote the large third estate to keep them from becoming a threat to the power. Lord Acton, an Englishmen, states that the monarchy being overthrown wasn't the spark of the Revolution. He recognizes the American Independence as the spark of the French Revolution. The French government was inefficient, unjust and corrupt. There were numerous government departments, different laws in different parts of the country and officials. Many people became livid at the way France was governed. The...
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The impact of the First World War is still with us. In many respects the events of modern Europe are a direct result of what happened during World War I. Adolph Hitler himself was a product of the First World War. World War I also gave Russian communists opportunity to overthrow the government in Russia and proclaim communism. The events that took place in "No Mans Land" definetly had an impact on the wars to come. The First World War had many causes. The spark of the Great War was the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, soon to be at the throne of Austria-Hungary, and his wife by a Serbian nationalist, while traveling through Sarajevo. The Archduke was chosen as a target because Serbians feared that after he was at the throne, he would continue the persecution of Serbs living within the Austria-Hungary Empire. The Serbian terrorist organization, the Black Hand, had to carry out the assassination. The Arms Race is the second cause. Britain at that time was the largest empire in the world, and it also had the largest navy. The navy was so big and strong because the British needed to protect their empire and maintain the sea routes between the different colonies. Kaiser William of Germany hated and envied Britain for having a stronger navy than his. He increased the German navy and built many warships. Britain responded with building more ships and increasing its navy too. This started a race for building more and better warships and it created tension and competition between those two countries. The system of alliance were another major cause of the War. There was a feud between France and Germany about controlling the colonies, which leads to a greater conflict, the Great War. Europe at that time was divided into two rival...
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In tracing the course of the French Revolution, the patterns of the events as a whole seem to follow specific patterns that can be classified into three separate divisions chronologically. "Revolutions evolve in definite phases. At first they are moderate in scope, then they become radical to excess and finally they are brought to abrupt conclusions by the emergence of a strong man to restore order." The Revolution brought about great changes in the society and government of France. The revolution itself lasted from 1789 to 1799; it significantly affected the rest of the European front as well. The French Revolution promoted democratic ideals for France, however did not make the nation a democracy. It ended supreme rule by French kings and strengthened the middle class. Following the birth of the revolution, no European kings, nobles, or other members of the aristocracy could take their powers for granted or ignore the ideals of liberty and equality. The revolution began with a government financial crisis but quickly became a movement of reform and violent change. During the first observable phase of the revolution, events seemed minor and proceeded in a logical fashion. One of the principle reasons the revolution was established was the discontent among the lower and middle classes in France. By law, society was divided in to three groups called estates. The first estate consisted of the clergy, the second estate of the nobility, and the third estate was comprised of commoners. The third estate, which made up 98 percent of the population of France, was highly underrepresented. In terms of the Estates General the separate Estates were to vote separately and by order; the third estate would almost always be outvoted by the first estate and the second estate which would get to vote first. Because of this, the third estate...
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In What Major Respects Had Europe Changed By 1971 From The Situation In 1815? From the 1815 until the 1871, Europe underwent a great change. As the revolution of the 1830s showed, the Vienna Settlement did not last, even though the great European powers were able for a while to take the situation under control with brutal repression. However, it was impossible to stop the liberal revolution, which led to important political events and deep social changes. In the political field there are three major events: the rise of Napoleon III, the unification of Germany and the Italian Risorgimento. In the field of social changes there are the extraordinary doubling of the population, the new technologies, which made possible the development of communication and transportation, and the important consequences of the industrial revolution. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte came to power the 2nd of December 1852. With him, the Second Empire started. Years before, he was expelled to America, but with the fall of the July Monarchy in February 1848, he returned to France to reassert his claim to being Napoleon Bonaparte's legitimate heir, and to take advantage of the new opportunities that suddenly presented themselves. To obtain what he wanted, Bonaparte used the army and police to arrest his principal political opponents and to occupy the Assembly. After this he announced his assumption of power and proclaimed a new constitution, to be subjected to an immediate plebiscite, where Napoleon obtained a huge majority, and became president of France. But one year later, in another plebiscite, Napoleon received popular ratification of his assumption of the title of Emperor, as Napoleon III. Many observers saw this "meteoric rise", as the beginning of a new era of absolutism. However, the public opinion never considered Napoleon as a tyrant, as electoral statistics show. They trusted him, who...
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Introduction If you look on a map of global population density, you can see four or five major concentrations of people: East Asia, South Asia, North America and Europe. Many of the cities that developed in Europe grew on coalfields as a result of the industrial revolution. But today the factor coal become more and more unimportant and the people in the coal industry are facing huge problems. The highest rates of unemployment can be found in former coal and steel making communities. Their mines and steel works are now closed or at least reduced in size. You now might think that the global community is using less coal or steel, but in fact they are still produced in huge quantities. It's just that the importance of European coalfields is getting smaller and smaller, as new energy sources such as oil, gas, wind and solar power and new materials such as aluminum, glass and plastics. Such changes have affected the lives of many European people. Coal: Black Gold There are three different types of coal. Black coal is the oldest and most efficient form of energy. Brown coal has only about half the energy of black coal, and Peat (Torf) contains only very little energy and is used only in very few isolated houses in Europe, with no access to any electricity network. In the nineteenth century black coal was the most important source of energy in western countries. Steam engines were now in use and it also helped to develop blast furnaces on which the iron and later steel was based. Iron was the main industrial metal in Europe until the 18th century, because steel was only produced in small quantities because the methods were expensive and complex. In 1709 Abraham Darby produced coke from coal, which was able to burn at higher temperature. Then...
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The impact of the Industrial Revolution was a positive experience for some, but it was a great difficulty for others. Because of the demands for reform and protection for workers arose, government and unions began to take place. That was how the evils of the Industrial Revolution addressed in England in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Unions are voluntary associations joined by workers. The Combination Act of 1800, which hindered the growth of unions, states that every workman's goal, who are entering into any combination should not be obtaining an advance of wages, or to lessen or alter the hours, or influencing any other to quit his work. Any workman who did so shall be committed to jail (Doc 1). Although the Combination Act of 1800 prevented the growth of unions, Ralph Chaplin believes that a worker should join the union. He states that there can be no power greater anywhere beneath the sun, but the unions, which makes it strong (Doc 2). Since there's so many workers working in bad conditions, the labor laws came to action. The Health and Morals Act of 1802 limited children under fourteen from working over twelve hours a day (Doc 3). The factor Act of 1833, which enacted that no person under 18 years of age shall be allowed to work at night in machinery (Doc 4). It allowed the child under 18 to work less than 12 hours a day or less than 69 hours in any one-week. There was a ten hours act, which said that the women or children's limit workdays are 10 hours. Socialism is one of the roles of government in the economy. Adam Smith, who is the father of capitalism, believes in laissez-faire, "hands off" the government. He believes all production should be sale at the best possible lowest price....
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Democracy is a government ruled by the people. Throughout history, democracy has changed greatly. Many of these changes in democracy occurred during the Classical Age of the Greeks and Romans and the Middle Ages. Changes were made regarding separation of power, equality, and natural rights. Although thought significant changes were made during both the Classical Age and the Middle Ages, democracy flourished to a higher level in the Middle Ages. Separation of power is used to prevent a single entity from becoming too powerful. In the Middle Ages, the separation of power between Parliament and the king showed that democracy was greater than during the Classical Age. During his reign, William the Conqueror changed the feudal system in England to weaken the lords. William required each feudal lord to swear allegiance to him, causing all the lords to become vassals of the king. By weakening the lords, William prevented them from uniting and becoming too powerful. If the lords did unite, they could have possibly taken over the country and rule even the king. On June 15, 1215, English nobles forced King John to accept the Magna Carta. After William's weakening of the lords, the King gained too much power and the nobles had very few rights. The signing of the Magna Carta protected the liberties of the nobles and prohibited the king from disobeying any laws that the citizens had to obey. In 700 B.C., Greek nobles had generally overthrown the king. The nobles were counted on by the Greek government to supply cavalry and other services. When the nobles gained land and power, many small farmers were forced to sell or mortgage their farms to nobles in order to get money for food. This power over the government made the nobles very rich and too powerful. The Middle Ages...
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The Capitalistic dreams of the Europeans and the natural anarchy of the Indians; never before has a clash of cultures had such a great influence on the future of the world. The Indians were one with nature and shared a kinship with all living as well as nonliving things on earth. They respected each other and flourished under these ties of mutual reverence. The Europeans sought similar refuge in America(1). They longed for freedom from the overpowering monarchies of Europe which, by the 1640s were experiencing overpopulation of cities accompanied by devastating disease and religious indifference. The European settlers of America also faced hardships throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Plagued by disease and lack of nourishment, the Europeans found themselves greatly dependent on the Indians for survival. The Indians were more than welcoming of their new neighbors, lavishing them with gifts and performing rituals as a show of equality. Equality was a major theme throughout the Indian culture as they accepted the newcomers as they would their own family. This initial exchange of gifts would eventually lead to trade practices that would prove to be a pivotal element in the relationship of the Indians and the Europeans in the near future(2). The seventeenth century was marked by the consumer revolution of Europe and Colonial America. The consumer revolution was the product of a drastic increase in per capita wealth, which gave rise to an "unprecedented" purchasing of goods. These goods were manufactured as a result of the rapid enhancement of technology. With mass production came great demands. These goods were imported from Europe and became great value to colonists and Indians alike. Improvements were made in farming tools, clothes, and luxury items during this time. Colonists, for the first time, began to make purchases based on luxury rather than solely...
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The Enlightenment movement and its goals failed due to the efforts of the ruling classes. The ruling classes knew that if they were to remain in power, they would need to destroy any ideas that threatened their power. These ideas came in the form of the Enlightenment. In Austria, Emperor Joseph II was a truly enlightened Monarch. When Joseph II came to power, he sought to destroy serfdom and establish religious tolerance for the masses. When Joseph accomplished these reforms, it separated the nobility from their power, which was a good thing for the masses because now they could farm their own land and make their own money instead of giving all their labor to the nobles. The nobility saw these reforms as a full-scale attack on their power. When Emperor Joseph II died, the nobility immediately began to try to restore their power. The nobility ordered that the ideas of Joseph II be forgotten. Over the course of time, Austria went back to their old ways of serfdom and religious persecution. By forcing the ideas of Joseph II to be forgotten, the nobility was able to restore their power and keep it for generations to come. During the reign of Catherine the Great, Russia was ruled by an enlightened Monarch. Catherine questioned torture, serfdom, and lack of equality but her main interest was with keeping her power and not with gaining rights for the masses. To keep her power Catherine would have to keep the nobility, the only group that threatened her throne, in power. To do this Catherine divided Russia into fifty provinces, which strengthened the nobility. Though Catherine the Great was educated in an Enlightenment sense, the Enlightenment failed because she feared how the powerful Russian nobles would respond if she decided to explore these ideas. Prussia had accumulated one...
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J.A Hobson, a very influential publicist with outlandish but brilliant thoughts, had a tremendous impact on both his time period and future posterity on the subject of Imperialism. However, just like any famous subject or discussion, there are those that rebuttal ones thoughts or feelings. Many scholars, statesmen, and government officials had their own feelings on Imperialism, which are stated in the documents given. These individuals state their attitudes to the answer of the question, "What accounted for the colonial expansion of Europe in the 19th century?" Some of these thoughts show Hobson's views as more of a weaker argument, which clash his thought of Imperialism being the source of the imperial force being certain industrial, financial, and professional classes seeking personal advantages out of expansion. Frank Swettenham and Lord Grey, both British Colonial officers, feel that the European governments trying to handle it themselves did not always accommodate the infiltration of a region, but rather there were native opportunities and elements that persuaded the foreign people to join in. In document 4 written by Lord John Russell, the British prime minister of the 1850s, he states that everyone knows the true answer to becoming strong as a nation. The answer is that the countries and colonies that provide these nations with goods and territory, will always help during peace, but will always pay off during war. This is contradicting the statements of Hobson saying that these acts are not selfish or self-indulgences, but rather for the gain of strength and protection for all. As seen in document 5, a governor writes about the risks involved with imperialism and the consequences suffered if their results are not successful. All these documents were written in the pre Age of Imperialism, but still were major contributors of the contradiction of J.A. Hobson and his...
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The Spanish Armada set sail from Spain in 1588. King Phillip II wished to invade England for both political and religious reasons. Spain put a tremendous amount of money into the Armada and planned for years, but in the end the fleet was defeated. The building of and the defeat of the Spanish Armada led to Spain's downfall as a world power, and England's subsequent rise in power. King Phillip II had many political and religious reasons to invade England. Because Phillip had been named as Mary's successor before her death, he thought he had a right to the English throne(The Invincible Armada, NP). Another reason for the Armada was the race between Spain and England in trade and supremacy in the seas. Spain was one of the most powerful nations in Europe, but English naval power was becoming a threat to Spain's domination of the seas. This was particularly true with respect to the New World. Spain's discovery of the New World had opened up a huge source of trade for Spain and England wanted to share it. Spanish treasure ships coming from the New World were attacked by British ships and robbed on their way back to Spain. The English also raided Spanish towns in the New World. After the English had raided towns and robbed Spanish ships, Queen Elizabeth refused to return what they had stolen. Finally, the English had also helped Spain's enemies, such as the Dutch. Phillip believed that only a conquest of England could halt English aid to the rebels and stop English depredations in the New World. There were also religious reasons to assemble the Armada. In fact, religion was one of the main reasons for the Armada. Phillip was very religious and it angered him that Henry VIII had rejected the power of the...
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The War of 1812 was a result of the conflicts overseas between France and Britain. Both France and Britain were trying blockade each other from supplies and thus seized many American ships. Although Americans were outraged with the idea of the powers in Europe seizing ships they were furthered angered with England for impressing American sailors and forcing them to serve in the English navy. Also when Britain attacked an American ship in 1807 in resulted the U.S. government setting up the Embargo Act of 1807. The act forbid any ships from leaving American ports until France and Britain repealed their restrictions on American trade. Unfortunately for Jefferson and his staff they could not foresee the impact it would have on the country's economy. Madison, who elected after Jefferson, realized that the Embargo Act was destroying the economy and replaced it with the Non-intercourse Act that made it so the U.S. could trade with all countries but France and England. There was still opposition to the Act and Madison finally allowed for all regular trade to resume with the exception that the U.S. would cut off all trade with any country who interfered with American commerce. England did not change her ways and France still seized ships but not sailors. England was also suspected of insinuating a Indian revolt and with these acquisitions and the impressments of the American sailors it was not hard for Madison to get Congress to declare war. The causes of the War of 1812 are debatable because like most American wars there are underlying issues that the common people do not realize. While most Americans supported the war's cause, which was to put Britain into her place so to speak, they had no idea of the grave danger the war put the young country into. The...
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Why and with what results, did major European powers intervene to suppress revolutionary movements between 1815 and 1830? Among the effects of the French Revolution on European political thought, perhaps the most important, and certainly the most immediate, lay of concentrating the attention of European reformers on the possibility of universal peace. The French Revolution inspired the belief in the writers that the dawn of peace was at the hand, and that democracy would unite in the bonds of lasting freedom and peace. The close of the revolutionary epoch left Europe satiated with blood, and painfully anxious to devise a form of international government, which would serve as security against the menace of future wars. The Holy Roman Empire was the earliest form of European confederation, and it represented a rudimentary attempt to give substance to the vision of Isaich a world united in peace. The first step to keep peace in Europe was the Congress of Vienna. They faced three-main tasks. The first one was to make or approve detailed arrangements for sharing the spoils of victory, bearing in mind that the great powers had already made a number of preliminary agreements. This had to be done without setting the victors at each other's throats. The second task was, in so doing, to create a stable Europe unlikely to suffer further great upheavals. The third task is to prevent political revolutions, such as French Revolution and maintain the status quo. The main representatives were strong and fascinating personalities. Foremost Metternich, foreign minister of the Habsburg Emperor of Austria who was a brilliant negotiator determined to get the best deal of Austria, but convinced also that Europe's future peace depended on the major states of Europe being more or less balanced in strength. Britain's representatives was Lord Castlereagh who a cold and...
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