In approaching the topic of consumption, it is evident that many academic writers from a wide background of disciplines including historians, geographers and sociologists have contributed to the academic literature on late eighteenth century and early nineteenth century consumption. This essay will examine the literature surrounding early nineteenth century consumption, in order to ascertain what have been the significant contributions to consumption by geographers in comparison to the boarder context of consumption. It will argue that although geographers have brought new ideas and areas of research into the field of consumption, there has been an undue emphasis on department stores as 'cathedrals of consumption' (Crossick and Jaumain, 1999) to the point where there has been little research on other consumption spaces. Specifically this essay will provide insight into what has been addressed within the area of the department store and consumption, then move on to other spaces such as shops and consumer co-operatives that have been studied to a lesser degree, before providing new avenues of possible research for historical geographers to pursue in the field of consumption. What contributions have been made in the literature? - Department stores In examining the literature on consumption, the department store plays a prominent role; there has been a vast array of literature focused around the notion that department stores of the nineteenth century were perhaps responsible for changing the face of consumption. This notion has been addressed by historical geographers and their writing has developed around the idea that these spaces, according to Coles (1999:72), 'were a new and highly innovative form of retail organisation'. Geographers instantly followed this lead 'stress the role of the department store in modernising retailing and introducing new methods' (Crossick and Jaumain, 1999:1). In doing so, geographers such as Domosh (1996) have chosen to document the techniques that operated in...
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Japan 1930-1945 The stage of Japanese Expansion in South East Asia and the Pacific by 1942 The 1930s were a time of turbulence for the nations of the world, the armies of evil had begun to rise up and create problems. Nations still healing from the wounds of World War One were pursuing an active course of peace whilst struggling to remain neutral in the new situation which faced the world. This situation was not unlike the problem America and Britain were facing with Japan. Throughout the 1930s, the Japanese government had begun to develop a policy of Japanese expansion in South East Asia in an attempt to gain vital agricultural, economic and oil supplies. Throughout this policy, Japan had practiced brutal tactics to overrun South Eastern Asia such as in Manchuria and China. This created a dilemma for America and Britain as the question of whether or not to intervene in Japanese brutality and expansion was faced. Japanese expansion in South East Asia would eventually end in a war world and a collapse in Japanese militarism before the policy ended. The idea of "Japanese expansionism" in South East Asia was not a new policy that came about in the 1920s and 1930s; in 1895 Japan went to war with China for control over Korea in the Sino-Japanese war. The war came to a quick end in 1895 with the signing of the Treaty of Shimonoseki. China had to make territorial concessions (Taiwan and some islands) and had to pay large indemnities to Japan while Korea became a dominion of Japan. Another element of Japanese expansionism was revealed during the 1905 Russo-Japanese war; a war once again came to a quick end with the signing of the Treaty of Portsmouth. Formally Russia recognised Japanese Dominance over Korea. Within ten years, Japan had full control over...
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Russian Civil War 1918-1920 A war to end all wars is a phrase generally reserved to describe World War one and the appalling conditions and horrific death toll that accompanied it. However, the Russian Civil War of 1918-1920 virtually crippled Russia's Economy, its people and claimed thousands of lives. In effect the Russian Civil War can be compared to World War One, The War to end all Wars. Towards the end of 1917, Russia had withdrawn from World War One and had made peace with Germany, through the Brest-Litovsk treaty. Although Peace came at immense price, the Russian Empire lost all of its western lands, comprising sixty-two million people, 27 percent of its farmland and 76 percent of its iron ore and coal supplies . This loss of land and industry caused great contempt amongst the anti-Bolshevik and pro-Tsarists parties. Eventually, these groups began to rise up against the Bolsheviks. The first group to rise up against the Bolsheviks was a group of Czech prisoners of war, which took control of a town along the Trans-Siberian railway during May 1918. When Bolshevik troops arrived to restore power, more train-loads of Czech prisoners of war came to join in the fight, by the end of 1918 all towns along the railway and the railway itself were in the hands of the Czech prisoners of war now known as the Czech Legion . In January 1918, five months prior to the Russian Civil war, General Lavr Kornilov organised a volunteer army of anti-Bolshevik supporters. By the beginning of January 1919, 8 months into the civil war, this army incorporated many other anti-Bolshevik parties, socialist revolutionaries and pro-Tsarist groups which now became to be known as the White Army. Both the White Armies and Czech Legion never joined forces, but remained close allies. In November 1918, the white...
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