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Revolutionary War
African Meeting House Research Paper Established December 4, 1806, the African Meeting House, referred to in the larger community as the Black Faneuil Hall, is now the oldest standing African American church in the United States. The Meeting House is located on 8 Smith Court on Beacon Hill and is a site of the walking tour of the Black Heritage Trail, which traces the history of African Americans in Boston. The facade of the African Meeting House is an adaptation of a design for a townhouse published by Boston architect Asher Benjamin. After the Revolutionary War the movement by African Americans to build and maintain their own church led to the foundation of the Meeting House. In White churches they were discriminated against so they started attending informal services led by a Black minister named Thomas Paul of New Hampshire. Paul and twenty of his members founded the First African Baptist Church in 1805. The church was built using labor and donations from the Black community and White abolitionist. Cato Gardner raised fifteen hundred dollars toward the total seventy-seven hundred dollars needed. Above the front door there is an inscription that reads, "Cato Gardner, first Promoter of this Building 1806." Land was purchased on the West End and one year later the African Meeting House was built. Originally intended for religious services it quickly became a central political and social institution for Blacks on Beacon Hill. It was also a school for Black children but then the Abiel Smith School was built, which is also a site on the Black Heritage Trail. The Meeting House was a safe forum for Blacks to discuss their issues, such as racism, equality, education, and they held anti-slavery meetings. This place was the canter of the abolition movement in the nineteenth century. On January...
pages: 3 (words: 641)
comments: 0
added: 11/29/2011
After the end of the Seven Years War (manifested in the colonies as the French and Indian War) between Great Britain and France in 1763, the British needed a way to finance their war debt. Its own inhabitants already overtaxed, Britain looked to the prosperous American colonies as a potential source of revenue. Under a policy of salutary neglect, the colonists had been allowed to live in relative peace and self-government since they were first established during the seventeenth and early eighteenth century. However, in the years following 1763, Parliament, with the support of King George III, passed a string of regulatory and revenue generating measures became law. The most notable of these acts, the Sugar Act (1764) and the Stamp Act (1765) significantly affected the colonies' economies and thus aroused the ire of many colonists and colonial assemblies. However, more offensive to the colonists was the fact that these acts were administered and enforced by a corrupt legal system of British admiralty courts operating without juries. The first signs of colonial resistance sprung up in the state legislatures, many of which adopted resolutions decrying the unjust and arbitrary practices endorsed by the British Parliament. Soon popular resistance to British rule became commonplace throughout the New England colonies, in the form of mob violence and demonstrations organized by the patriotic group, the Sons of Liberty. The colonies had developed in relative isolation from each other, each with its own distinctive character and government. Faced with the popular objection to British policies that affected all colonies, however, they began to show signs of unity. Representatives of nine colonies came together to the Stamp Act Congress in October of 1765, where they passed resolutions denying the British Parliament's power to enact internal taxes within the colonies and to sanction trials without a...
pages: 3 (words: 708)
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added: 12/12/2011
During the mid 18th century the American colonists, both bold and ambitious, were showing attitudes of indignation and resentment towards English Parliament. Aside from this, the attitudes generated were mainly the result of British violations of the rights of the new American citizens. The Declaration of Independence and the American Revolution were the direct effect of the economic and political British transgressions. Of many revolts and reactions to Parliament, the Townshend, Stamp, Sugar, and Intolerable Acts were the most significant. The power of tax, was the power to take away land, and with this no people could call themselves free if they were taxed without consent. This statement alone was the driving force towards the American Revolution. When Parliament passed the tax on sugar, and the Stamp Act, the colonists shot back at the British in a great uproar. The colonists felt that Parliament had some right to legislate them, but no right to tax them. In revolt to this presumed tax, The Stamp Act Congress in New York went underway. Here, the limits of Parliament's authority were discussed and the American grew closer towards revolution. Mobs and riots followed all which unified the colonists in their common cause, to gain independence from the mother country, England. Along with the Sugar and Stamp Act, the Townshend Acts followed. Created in July of 1766, by Charles Townshend, these acts levied duties on colonial imports of lead, paper, glass and tea. These items were only legally imported from England therefore the mother country discouraged purchases from it, and encouraged the manufacturing of taxable goods in the colonies. In these set of taxes, Britain had successfully violated every view of the colonies held of Parliament's limitation of authority. The colonists reacted once again, not violently, but with a series of newspaper letters, and...
pages: 2 (words: 537)
comments: 0
added: 01/15/2012
With American Indians randomly attacking the colonies, grave economic problems, corruption in the government, a desire for a representative government, and no help from Great Britain, the American colonies were on the brink of rebellion. All that was left to ignite the rebellion was a leader and a spark. Both of these came in the years to follow 1675. There were great economic problems in the colonies at the time. For one thing, the prices of tobacco, the major economic base of the colonies, were falling fast. To add to the decrease in tobacco price, Great Britain was also increasing taxes on the Americans. This did not help the situation in the colonies. Adding to all the turmoil, was a corrupted government. With William Berkeley as the current royal governor, he was in complete control of the colonies, and had not allowed an election in almost fourteen years. His only helpful actionThe government was corrupted, and Great Britain was doing nothing to help. The Americans wanted a representative and responsive government, in which they could elect their representatives and have a voice in the government. Another major factor that caused Bacon's rebellion was the American Indians. Although some were peaceful, many were not. With many of the tribes shifting territories, the American Indians were attacking planters along the frontier. By 1676, more than 300 Virginians had been killed at the hands of the Indians. Adding to all the turmoil, was a corrupted government. With William Berkeley as the current royal governor, he was in complete control of the colonies, and had not allowed an election in almost fourteen years. His only helpful action was to have more forts constructed, making planters feeling abandoned. The government was corrupted, and Great Britain was doing nothing to help. The Americans wanted a representative...
pages: 3 (words: 695)
comments: 0
added: 10/07/2011
The Battle of Long Island is the biggest battle in the Revolutionary War. General Howe went with his forces to Halifax, and General Washington started for New York, where he soon arrived with his army. However, by superior numbers and more daring activity, Congress had gained the dominance. When he arrived in the city, General Washington attempted to block the navigation of the East and North Rivers, by sinking vessels in the channels. He also raised defenses at New York, and on Long Island; and made every preparation in his power for giving the British army a vital response. General Howe remained at Halifax; but after the recovery of his troops from the fatigue and sickness occasioned by the blockade of Boston, he sailed to the south, and on July 2 landed without opposition. On Staten Island, his army amounted to nine thousand men; and his brother Lord Howe, commander of the British fleet, who had touched at Halifax expecting to find him there, arrived soon afterwards, with a reinforcement of about twenty thousand men from Britain. Thus, General Howe had the command of nearly thirty thousand troops, a more alarming force than had ever before visited these shores. General Washington was poorly prepared to meet such a powerful army. His force consisted of about nine thousand men with many men poorly armed. On his arrival, Lord Howe, by a flag, sent ashore to Amboy a circular letter to several of the late royal governors, and a declaration mentioning the powers with which he and his brother the general invested, and desiring their publication. General Howe wished to open a connection with General Washington, but without acknowledging his official character as commander-in-chief of the American armies; and for this purpose, he sent a letter to New York; addressed to George...
pages: 4 (words: 1089)
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added: 02/04/2012
The haphazard and disorganized British rule of the American colonies in the decade prior to the outbreak led to the Revolutionary War. The mishandling of the colonies, the taxation policies that violated the colonist right's, the distractions of foreign wars and politics in England and mercantilist policies that benefited the British to a much greater magnitude than the colonists; all demonstrate British negligence and incompetence in terms of colonial management. These policies and distractions play a fundamental role in the development of the Revolutionary War. British interests regarding the colonies were self-centered. Through the employment of the mercantilist system the English exploited colonial trade. This system was not utilized entirely for its commercial advantages, but also as a means of governing the colonies. Mercantilism is when the state directs all the economic activities from within its own borders. England was the sole beneficiary of this commercial policy, and did not intend to make any alterations that would in turn aid the colonies. Due to such restrictive policies the colonies were compelled to internal trade. The English further abused their power in the colonies by stipulating that the colonies import more from England then they exported to the colonies. Such a mode of trade involved the importation of raw materials from the colonies and the exportation of finished goods from England. The final product was then distributed on an international scale to foreign markets such as the colonies. Throughout the seventeenth century the English saw America as an abundant supply of raw materials, which were not available at home, and moreover as a market to sell finished products. This proved to be detrimental to the colonies' well being because it made them reliant on British trade. The transitory Navigation Acts between 1651 and 1673 later reinforced the mercantilist ideal, which consequently...
pages: 7 (words: 1812)
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added: 09/29/2011
The American Revolution was fought for a plethora of reasons, notably because of a series of actions by the British stemming from around 1763 to the beginning of the war in 1776. In other words, there were three imperial crises that eventually led up toe the Declaration of Independence in July 1776. The first period began with the Proclamation of 1763, which created a "border" between white settlers and indians and ended with the 1765 Stamp Act. Enraged, the colonists rioted, boycotted, and formed Congresses until it was repealed in late 1765. Yet it was not long until the second imperial crisis period began with the Townshend duties, including the Tea Act, and ending with the British eventually installing troops in Boston. Under pressure from the infuriated colonists, all Townshend duties-except the Tea Act-were repealed. Finally, during the third crisis period, the colonists protested against the British installments in Boston, resulting in the Boston Massacre, and against the Tea Act, leading to the Boston Tea Party. As a result of colonial insubordination, the British then imposed the "Intolerable Acts" which in turn finally led to the colonists' declaration of independence in 1776. 1. After the Revolutionary War's end in 1783 with the signing of the Peace of Paris, many changes, both domestic and foreign occurred. Yet, I feel that the main consequence of the Revolution was domestic change because it affected all aspects of life, not just political. But looking at the political side, especially at the state governments, one can see that a lot of change occurred. Now, not only were the colonies no longer under British rule but also lacked a strong central government, being that the Revolution had been fought to resist it. Instead, there was a pandemic feeling of Republican idealism, in which state focused on...
pages: 5 (words: 1170)
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added: 11/23/2011
Introduction: Methodological Issues and Opportunities If, as is often said, history is the study of change over time, then the American Revolution is an ideal case study for historical understanding. The Revolution presents a wide range of issues having to do with the nature, causation, mechanisms, and extent of historical change. For example: Was the Revolution really a revolution? Or was it that historical oxymoron, a conservative revolution? What does the term "revolution" mean? And can we apply it to such diverse historical episodes as the American Revolution and the French Revolution? Are the arguments of those supporting or opposing the Revolution (and, a decade later, supporting or opposing the Constitution) accurate explanations of and justifications for why these men and women acted as they did, or are they rationalizations (conscious or unconscious) crafted after the fact? What place does intellectual context -- the structure of ideas and intellectual assumptions shared or debated by people in a given period -- have in history? How do we set a historical process such as the Revolution into its intellectual context? Who are the proper subjects of history -- the articulate, power-wielding minority or the inarticulate majority? The victors (those supporting the Revolution) or the losers (the British and the Loyalists)? And does it make sense to choose at all? Can we really know the "truth" of what happened in a major historical event or process such as the Revolution? (John Adams thought not -- and he was there.) These issues are not just methodological preoccupations for modern educators. The Revolutionary generation understood questions of this sort very well, confronting them as the Revolution unfolded and, decades later, in pondering the Revolution's legacy. For example, the elderly John Adams kept up a lively correspondence on the question that forms the heart of this...
pages: 17 (words: 4579)
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added: 12/13/2011
During the late seventeen hundreds, many tumultuous events resulted in Colonial opposition to Great Britain. The conditions of rights of the colonists will slowly be changed as the constriction of the parliament becomes more and more intolerable. During the Seven Years' War England was not only alarmed by the colonists' insistence on trading with the enemy, but also with Boston merchants hiring James Otis inorder to protest the legality of the writs of assistance (general search warrants) used to hunt out smuggled goods. "let the parliament lay what burthens they please on us, we must, it is our duty to submit and patiently bear them, till they will be pleased to relieve us....". This is a very strong dictum, that in 1764, the colonists were of a submissive nature, and were weakly pleading for self-autonomy. This small fire of anger will become a huge conflagration as the rights are slowly rescinded. On October 19, 1765 the Stamp Act Congress and Parliamentary Taxation committee's passed some laws that attempted to strengthen the grip of the English crown. "I.That his Majesty's subjects in these colonies, owe the same allegiance to the Crown of Great Britain that is owing from his subjects born within the realm, and all due subordination to that august body, the Parliament of Great Britain." This statement can be used as a summation of the entire document that the Stamp Act Congress had initiated. The statement depicts the colonists has having to be submissive and servile in the view of Great Britain, this policy angered the colonists very much, and was another component of the transition of the colonists' rights and liberties. When the Declatory Act was passed in March of 1766, many colonies were attempting to claim that they were "seceding" from England. "Whereas several of the houses...
pages: 4 (words: 991)
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added: 01/19/2012
In the years after the Revolution, the Articles of Confederation were put into power as an attempt of a republic government. The Confederation failed miserably and a Constitutional Convention was held in Annapolis and then in Philadelphia. They drew up a Constitution that was not supported by a group called the Anti- Federalists. Even with this opposition, the Constitution became the backbone of the first government of the United States of America and one of the best pieces of writing in America and the world. The Federalists of the time included upper classes, merchants, and many people who knew the country would be stronger when it could control and adjust power. Some important people affiliated with the Federalists include George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, Samuel Adams and John Hay. Alexander Hamilton helped ratify the Constitution more than any one and believed that the president should have rule for life. Federalists wanted a strong central government. They made it so that the power between the states and Federal government. They made a system of checks and balances that would not allow any one branch of government to get too much power. Anti- federalists did not trust this. The Anti- Federalist were made up by small shopkeepers, debtors, farmers, down struck people. Some prominent figures were Richard Henry Lee, George Mason, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine, Patrick Henry, and George Clinton of New York. The people also saw themselves of a particular state rather than the country as a whole. They did not like the fact that the Bill of Rights had to be added, power to tax, and how the president was elected; by the Electoral College. The major fear of the Anti- Feds was the power of the president. The power was so indeterminate and likely to develop....
pages: 4 (words: 890)
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added: 02/19/2012
Soon after England established the colonies in the New World, it began a period of salutary neglect. The English rarely intervened with colonial business. It was during this time that the colonies began gradually to think and act independently of England. This scared England, and initiated a period in which they became more involved in the colony's growth. Parliament tried o establish power in the New World by issuing a series of laws. The passage of these laws undermined the Colonist's loyalty to Britain and stirred the Americans to fight for their freedom. Before 1763, the only British laws that truly affected the colonists were the Navigation Acts, which monitored the colony's trade so that it traded solely with England. As this law was not rigidly enforced, the colonists accepted it with little fuss. The colonies also accepted England's right to monitor trade. The change of course in 1767 was what really riled the colonists. England began to slowly tighten its imperial grip to avoid a large reaction from the colonists. Additional problems began when England passed the Writs of Assistance, which gave British officials the right to seize illegal goods, and to examine any building or ship without proof of cause (The American Revolution, pg.62). This was a powerful weapon against smuggling, but most importantly to the Colonists; it allowed the invasion of their privacy. This was crossing the line and violating the rights of an English man. During the Seven Years War, the British sent over ten thousand troops to America to deal with property problems at the frontier. This cost a large amount of money, and Britain did not want to see the sum come out of its own pocket. To pay for some of the expense, Britain began to pass acts to tax the colonists and...
pages: 8 (words: 1941)
comments: 0
added: 10/29/2011
Soon after England established the colonies in the New World, it began a period of salutary neglect. The English rarely intervened with colonial business. It was during this time that the colonies began gradually to think and act independently of England. This scared England, and initiated a period in which they became more involved in the colony's growth. Parliament tried o establish power in the New World by issuing a series of laws. The passage of these laws undermined the Colonist's loyalty to Britain and stirred the Americans to fight for their freedom. Before 1763, the only British laws that truly affected the colonists were the Navigation Acts, which monitored the colony's trade so that it traded solely with England. As this law was not rigidly enforced, the colonists accepted it with little fuss. The colonies also accepted England's right to monitor trade. The change of course in 1767 was what really riled the colonists. England began to slowly tighten its imperial grip to avoid a large reaction from the colonists. Additional problems began when England passed the Writs of Assistance, which gave British officials the right to seize illegal goods, and to examine any building or ship without proof of cause (The American Revolution, pg.62). This was a powerful weapon against smuggling, but most importantly to the Colonists; it allowed the invasion of their privacy. This was crossing the line and violating the rights of an English man. During the Seven Years War, the British sent over ten thousand troops to America to deal with property problems at the frontier. This cost a large amount of money, and Britain did not want to see the sum come out of its own pocket. To pay for some of the expense, Britain began to pass acts to tax the colonists and...
pages: 8 (words: 1941)
comments: 0
added: 12/22/2011
Benjamin Franklin said at the signing of the Declaration of Independence, "We must all hand together, or most assuredly we shall all hang separately." There could have been many possible outcomes to the signing of the Declaration of Independence. One of the ways that it could have been avoided was if it was never fought at all, therefore Franklin would not have needed to worry about being killed. So what if the American Revolution was never fought? One of the ways the War could have been avoided is if the British Prime Minister, William Pitt, allowed a member of each colony to serve on the Parliament as active members, or even voting observers. This would defeat "taxation without representation," and ultimately diffuse the situation. Another plus of representation would be that Townshend Acts, the tax on goods the colonists imported from England, would never have occurred. A downside of Parliament representation in Parliament would be that those colonists would not be taken seriously and would be considered outsiders. If the War was never fought, the British would have had control over a large part of North America into the 1800s. The Spanish would have controlled the central and southwestern regions (having acquiring the Louisiana Purchase), and the Russians would control the western portion of North America- from "Oregon" to Alaska. As you look at American History in this time period, and with the North American History being primarily British, the British's problems would become the Colony's problems. A major war for Britain in the early 1800s was the Napoleonic Wars. It would spill over into North America. As Napoleon would invade and conquer Spain, British troops would invade and capture Spanish New Orleans, as well as other points on the western bank of the Mississippi River. This would effectively begin...
pages: 3 (words: 685)
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added: 09/19/2011
Thomas Jefferson is a controversial figure in American history. He was instrumental in the formation of the American republic. Jefferson's main contribution was the writing of the Declaration of Independence, the most important document in American history. He does what other people want of him, even if it does not follow his own beliefs. Thomas Jefferson was too liberal for his day and age, which resulted in only modest success for most of his ideas. Despite the lack of success Jefferson had implementing his ideas in American society, he had created a precedent and influenced many others to follow in his ideas on freedom and liberty. Thomas Jefferson was great—not for the changes he managed to implement during his lifetime, but for his social beliefs, which are present predominantly in his writing. To understand what makes Jefferson the greatest man in American history, it must be examined how he is set apart from his contemporaries. Thomas Jefferson was born in 1743, to a prosperous family. Both parents were upstanding citizens in the colony. They lived on a large plantation of close to 7000 acres. Jefferson attended the College of William and Mary, a reputable and legitimate institution in Colonial America. Jefferson went beyond his formal education and expanded his study with additional private education from a noted professor, George Wythe. This led to Jefferson's law practice. He was elected to the House of Burgesses and served there from 1769 to 1774. In one instance, Jefferson, as a lawyer, defended a Mulatto's claim to freedom; "Under law of nature all men are born free…" Meanwhile, though Jefferson had won this case, and established the rights of slaves, the 200 slaves in his possession continued to maintain his plantation for him. At the time, it was illegal to release a slave in...
pages: 7 (words: 1911)
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added: 11/06/2011
1. Mercantilism was the economic theory and practice common in Europe from the 16th to the 18th century that promoted governmental regulation of a nation's economy for the purpose of augmenting state power at the expense of enemy nations. 2. Bounties were payments made to encourage production of certain goods in the colonies. 3. The French and Indian War was part of a great war for empire, a determined and eventually successful attempt by the British to attain a dominant position in North America, the West Indies. 4. Pontiac's Rebellion in this the Indians of the Americas united under one leader to prevent further invasions in their land by British and French forces. 5. The Proclamation of 1763 was a program intended to reduce conflict between the settlers and the Indians in the western lands formerly clamed by France that now belonged to the British. 6. The Sugar Act 1764 was another program where Parliament hoped to raise money to help pay expenses of protecting and securing the colonies against attach from Indians and other nations' troops. 7. The Currency Act of 1764 was yet another act passed by Parliament, which forbade the colonies to issue their own paper money. And, future tax payments were to be made by gold and silver coins. 8. The Quartering Act 1765 was the act that required the colonial authorities to provide barracks and supplies for British troops stationed in America 9. The Stamp Act was much like the Sugar act in trying to raise revenue to pay for defense of the colonies. The Stamp Act levied taxes on all licenses. 10. Repeal of the Stamp Act took place in 1766 when British officials accepted the news of colonial resistance to the act with mixed feelings. The British felt pressure by their own people...
pages: 6 (words: 1453)
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added: 10/10/2011
Taxation Without Representation Leads To The American Revolution The Catalyst of taxation without representation was the Stamp Act of 1765. The Stamp Act Required all legal documents, licenses, commercial contracts, newspapers, pamphlets, and playing cards to carry a tax stamp. The Stamp act enabled England to fund their adventures around the world. In Opposition to the Stamp act the Colonists created the Stamp Act Congress which assembled nine delegates from nine of the thirteen colonies. The congress expressed the opposition of the stamp act in three documents: a Declaration of Rights and Grievances, an address to the king, and a group of petition to both houses of the parliament. They also expressed that they should be taxed because they don?t have representation in the houses of parliament. So the stamp act was repealed in 1766, Largely as a result of pressures that the English businessmen were giving the government to repel that stamp acts. (Comptons Encyclopedia, R-183, S-557, U-156, America, P.134-143, Colonial America, P. 280-283, The Light and the Glory, P.263-265, Revolutionary America, P.21-55, United States History, Heritage of Freedom, P.88-90, the American Covenant, P.114, Microsoft Encarta, Western Civilization P.628) Townshend acts of 1767imposed duties on glass, lead, paper, and so forth. The attitude in American was getting ugly and kept Getting uglier because the American where opposed to new taxes. During the stamp act congress the Americans made it clear That they were opposed to any new taxes that simply put in use for the sole purpose of adding more revenue to England. When they enacted the Townshend acts they were going against all that the colonists had requested them not to do that was why the attitude in America was so ugly. They commissioners of the Townshend Acts where afraid that Physical harm may come to them so...
pages: 10 (words: 2609)
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added: 02/17/2012
The Revolutionary War in America (1775-1783) led to the birth of a new nation. The war began on April 19, 1775 with the Battles of Lexington and Concord. For about a decade, tension had been mounting between Great Britain and the American Colonies. The British government had passed a series of laws in an attempt to increase control over the colonies. But Americans had become used to having control over their local government. They objected to the new laws and protested being taxed without their consent. In 1775, Britain's Parliament declared Massachusetts, the center of most of the protests, to be in rebellion. British troops were placed in Boston to take swift action against the rebels. Shortly afterwards, war broke out. The Colonies were largely unprepared for war. They lacked a central government and had neither an organized army or navy. Delegates from the colonies formed the first Continental Congress, which took on the duties of a national government. Congress directed the war effort and voted to organize an army and a navy. George Washington, a wealthy Virginia landowner and former military officer, was appointed commander in chief of the Continental Army. On July 4, 1776, the Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, in which the colonies declared their freedom from British rule. Tension had been building between Great Britain and the American Colonies for more than 10 years before the Revolutionary War began. Starting in the mid-1760's, the British government passed a series of laws to increase its control over the colonies. Americans had grown used to a large measure of self-government. They strongly resisted the new laws, especially tax laws. Fierce debate developed over the British Parliament's right to tax the colonies without their consent. Great Britain with its larger and better trained army and navy launched a...
pages: 2 (words: 348)
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added: 09/30/2011
The Texas Revolution occurred because of a series of events that began long before the first shots fired at the Battle of Gonzales. In the summer of 1820 a 59 year-old Missourian named Moses Austin asked the Spanish Authorities for a large land tract which he wanted to use to attract American Pioneers. To manys surprise in early 1821 the Spanish government gave him permission to settle 300 families. Spain had welcomed Americans to help develop the land and to provide a buffer against the illegal U.S. immigrants who were causing problems. Although Moses Austin died and was not able to see his goal reached his son Stephen F. Austin stepped into his shoes and promised to carry out his fathers goal of colonizing Texas. By the end of 1824 Austin had attracted over 242 colonists to Texas and persuaded the Mexican government that the best way to attract Americans was to give out land grants. By the 1830's there were 16,000 Americans settled in Texas. As the population grew, the Mexican government grew skeptical of the growing American population. Mexico had feared the U.S. was planning to gain the province by revolution. Due to the diverse differences in language and culture their was bitter conflict between the Native Mexicans and the colonists. To reclaim the authority over Texas the Mexican government reestablished its constitutional prohibition against slavery, restricted trade with the United States, and put a end to further American Immigration. These actions possibly could have provoked the Texas Revolution. In 1832 General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna became Mexico's president. Many colonists hoped that Antonio would make Texas a self-governed state within the United States. Once in power, Santa Anna was less truthful than many Texans were led to believe. In mid 1834 Santa Anna overthrew Mexico's constitutional...
pages: 3 (words: 807)
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added: 10/02/2011
In 1775, war broke out between the British and the American colonists. By 1776, the colonists had declared themselves independent and in 1783, following a prolonged and bloody war, Britain was forced to recognise the independence of the United States. Was American independence inevitable? Some historians have suggested that the British army mismanaged the American War of Independence and that the war could have been won. On the contrary, the war was lost on its first day, owing not to 'inevitability' but to the nature of the conflict. The fundamental difference between the British and the rebellious Americans concerned political authority. Prior to the Stamp Act crisis British authority, rarely asserted, rested on ties of loyalty, affection and tradition, not force. In the wake of the Stamp Act, Parliament repeatedly asserted its sovereignty and was compelled by American resistance to back down. Each time that this occurred the foundation for British rule in America eroded a little bit more. When Parliament sought to re-establish its sovereignty by force it undermined the loyalty, affection and tradition upon which that authority had rested. Indeed, between one-fifth and one-third of the colonists remained loyal to the crown once the war broke out. Many of these, however, switched allegiances to the rebels when they experienced or learned of the heavy-handed tactics employed by the British army in America. Had the British managed to 'win' the military conflict they would have had to resort to a degree of force antithetical to their ultimate objective - the reestablishment of British authority in the colonies. Had American independence not been inevitable then a political settlement would have been found between 1765 and 1775. It was not. In fairness to the imperial administrators and politicians who 'lost' the colonies, they were confronting an unprecedented political, economic and diplomatic...
pages: 2 (words: 399)
comments: 0
added: 10/13/2011
The Revolutionary War brought much disruption to the lives of women in America. Many of these women had to house the "Red-Coats", while others halted their lives to teach the youth of America, and some women even picked up a sword and joined the men in the fight for our country. Many of these women's "baby steps" towards freedom did not do any good, because they were still seen as inferior by the men of America. These women may have helped to change women's standing in society by inspiring women of the suffrage movement, unfortunately all of their efforts were worthless because women did not really obtain any rights until the 1920's during the women's suffrage movement. This essay will show the reader's all of the wonderful things women of the Colonial Era accomplished and how it inspired women who followed them to stand up for what they believed in. Lydia Mintern Post was a Long Island housewife who was forced to house the "Red-Coats" during the war. Post kept a journal of her ordeal with the soldiers. She described how her life was disrupted because the soldiers would " take the fence rails to burn, so that the fields are all left open, and the cattle stray away and are often lost; burn fires all night on the ground, and to replenish them, go into the woods and cut down all the young saplings, thereby destroying the growth of ages." Even worse was the effect that these men made on her household. They lived in her kitchen, with the door to the rest of the house nailed shut. When the soldiers would receive their monthly rationing of rum she wrote of " fighting, drumming and fifing, brawls, dancing all night long, card and dice playing, and every abomination going...
pages: 2 (words: 544)
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added: 12/08/2011
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