World War II
The Word War lends itself to diverse uses. For instance, we can proclaim a war on drugs, not because we would in the literal sense, kill drugs, but because we wish to portray the gravity of the current situation. It is a matter of poetic license. Yet, there is the other, much darker, literal side of war, where people are urged to fight for their country, to fight for freedom from oppression, and are given deadly weapons with which they ought to spill the blood of other people they have never met before, who have not done them any wrong, whose only flaw is that they are from another country, and the governments of these two opposing countries decided to send soldiers into battle, while they sit comfortably and safely in their offices, doing nothing but forming strategies. Eric Bogle’s song “And the Band Played Waltzing Matilda” and John McCutcheon’s “Christmas in the Trenches” speak exactly of this. Their humanized and personalized, almost diary-like epigraph on their war experience portrays war not as a liberating movement, but as a dehumanization of their uniqueness, where soldiers are no longer individuals with emotions, a past and a future, but are one unity of the present, where the loss of a individual does not matter, as long as the unity is victorious in the end. In their effort to fight this unfair loss of identity in war, both Bogle and McCutcheon paint a vivid portrait of their own experience, and not the experience of the whole regiment, with McCutcheon even giving himself a name: “Francis Tolliver” and a past: “I come from Liverpool” (line 1). Bogle also offers his own past: “Now when I was a young man, I carried me pack, and I lived the free life of a rover/ From the Murray’s...
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The attack on Pearl Harbor which happened on December 7th of 1941 was one of the major turning points in the 19th century history of Japan and America (Walter, 1957). Over 2000 Americans died the day that the Japanese launched a surprise attack on the almost unsuspecting bay. Most of the people who died or got injured were U.S Navies or those who are employed by the U.S government for maintenance and other types of jobs (Prange, 1981). Almost all of the sea vessels, especially the battle ships that were stationed at Pearl Harbor during that incident either got damaged or were completely destroyed. Air Strips, including the aircrafts stationed inside, and buildings, especially the ones that are located near the battle ships were also damaged (Wallin, 1968). This paper will thoroughly cover more details about the Pearl Harbor incident. Pearl Harbor is basically a lagoon-type harbor located at Oahu Hawaii (Anonymous, 2000). One of the main reasons why the harbor was built is because it was intended to be used as a headquarters for the United States Navy particularly the U.S Pacific Fleet; and one of the reasons why a U.S Fleet has been decided to be stationed there is because America have always regarded the Hawaiian Islands to be a strategic location in case a war between the U.S and another country situated in the Pacific breaks out. The U.S did not really have any intention to participate in the ongoing and upcoming rumored wars in the Pacific but it sure has prepared contingency and backup plans for unexpected and insidious cases; and that’s why Pearl Harbor was built although Pearl Harbor had already been operational even before it was used as a U.S Navy Headquarters. Troops and fleets that are mostly composed of ships were stationed there usually...
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The battle of Stalingrad raged from August 1942 until the German surrender on 2 February 1943. Significantly, it was the first catastrophic defeat to befall the Wermacht Army who not only lost the battle but were severely humiliated. Indeed, the German Army never fully recovered from this blow to its morale. Upwards of 270,000 troops were killed and 91,000 prisoners were taken by the Red Army; included in this latter number were 23 German Generals. Conversely, morale in the Red Army soared as a consequence of Stalingrad giving the Russians increased strength and confidence. This battle represented a turning point in the Second World War. By successfully defending the city of Stalingrad the Soviet Union were able to deny Hitler his summer 1942 objective of paralysing the Soviet war effort by interrupting Russian oil supplies and seizing the Caucasus oil fields. This achievement was made possible through the stubborn and ferocious resistance of the Red Army within the confines of Stalingrad and the meticulously planned counteroffensive which led to the encirclement of the entire 6th army outside the city. In addition, compared with their German counterparts, the Red Army were highly organized, they had superior lines of communication and were better equipped. Stalingrad, reduced to a burning shell within days of the first German assault, was defended by the Soviet 62nd Army led by General Chuikov. Although German troops captured 90% of the city, Chuikov maintained his hold on a strip of land a mile long. Stalin had issued the order 'not a step backwards' therefore discipline was harsh and traitors were killed without sentiment. The Red Army were merciless, executing over 13,000 of their own men. It was however the counteroffensive, Operation Uranus, launched on 19th November 1942 that saved Stalingrad. The plan, a dual attack 50 miles north...
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When the Holocaust, or the persecution of the Jews around World War 2, is mentioned there is one name that immediately comes to mind: Adolf Hitler of course. And sure, he was the chief culprit, but he had many collaborators. One of them was Karl Adolf Eichmann. Born in 1906 in Cologne, Germany into a middle class protestant family, as a boy he was teased and nicknamed "the little Jew" by classmates, because of his dark complexion. At age 26 he joined the growing Austrian Nazi Party at the suggestion of a friend. A year later he took a job in Heydrich's SD, the powerful SS security service. He was assigned to the Jewish section, which was at this stage collecting information on all prominent Jews. At this point in time began Eichmann's almost obsessive interest in the Jews. He studied all aspects of Jewish culture and gradually became the acknowledged Jewish specialist. In 1939, Eichmann was appointed Head of the Gestapo, the secret state police of Germany, and became one of the most powerful men in the Third Reich. In Poland, Heydrich and Eichmann ordered all Jews to be rounded up and forced into ghettos and labor camps. Methods of execution used at this time involved gathering Jews to a secluded location and then shooting and burying them. SS leader Heinrich Himmler witnessed such a killing and nearly fainted. He then ordered more "humane" methods of killing to be found, mostly to spare his SS men the ordeal of such a direct method. The Nazi's then turned their attention to gassing. At Auschwitch the gas chamber, disguised as a shower room, could accommodate 2000 people at a time. In 1941, Eichmann was told to prepare "a general plan for carrying out the desired Final Solution of the Jewish question"....
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Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China's leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China's premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution which had had as their bases ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 "Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems produced by Hua Guofeng, the man who had succeeded Mao Zedong as CCP leader after Mao's death" (Shirk 35). Hua had demonstrated a desire to continue the ideologically based movements of Mao. Unfortunately, these movements had left China in a state where "agriculture was stagnant, industrial production was low, and the people's living standards had not increased in twenty years" (Nathan 200). This last area was particularly troubling. While "the gross output value of industry and agriculture increased by 810 percent and national income grew by 420 percent [between 1952 and 1980] ... average individual income increased by only 100 percent" (Ma Hong quoted in Shirk 28). However, attempts at economic reform in China were introduced not only due to some kind of generosity on the part of the Chinese Communist Party to increase the populace's living standards. It had become clear to members of the CCP that economic reform would fulfill a political purpose as well since the party felt, properly it would seem, that it had suffered a loss of support. As Susan L. Shirk describes the situation in The Political Logic of Economic Reform in China, restoring the CCP's prestige required improving economic performance and raising living standards. The traumatic experience of the Cultural Revolution had eroded popular trust in the moral and political virtue of the CCP. The party's leaders decided to...
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At various times in global history, nations have acted in ways that cause conflict with other nations. Germany had conflict with the U.S and Europe in two different situations. Germany and the U.S had the Berlin airlift situation. Germany and Europe had the Treaty of Versailles disagreement. The treaty of Versailles ended military actions against Germany in World War 1. The treaty had been signed for official peace between Germany and Europe. In addition to the treaty of Versailles with Germany, the peace builders drew up separate treaties with the other central powers. The Germans, who complained that it had been dedicated to them, that it violated the spirit of the 14 points and that it demanded intolerable sacrifices that would wreck their economy, criticized the treaty. A couple of years after, the treaty was revived and altered mostly in Germans favor. In the end, the Treaty of Versailles almost surely caused World War 2. Had it been softer on Germany, the Weimer Republic would have had been strong and would not have faced as much economic and social problems. Had the treaty been harsher, Germany would not have had the power to make war. Another conflict that Germany had was with the U.S. In June 1948, the Soviet Union attempted to control all of Berlin by cutting surface traffic to and from the city of West Berlin. Starving out the population and cutting off their business was their method of gaining control. The Truman administration reacted with a continual daily airlift which brought much needed food and supplies into the city of West Berlin....
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In preparation for the United States' entrance into World War II, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt made wise decisions in many critical situations and displayed great leadership qualities in rising to the defense of democracy. President Roosevelt shows by his dealings throughout 1941 that he is ready and willing to lead the United States into war. He was asked to make many crucial decisions throughout the years preceding the war, and he proved himself to be wise in all of his choices. Roosevelt knew of the trouble to the West, but kept the United States out of the war while he prepared our nation to fight. President Roosevelt promised United States aid to U.S.S.R. two days after German's first invasion of the Soviet Union in late June of 1941 (Taylor). He began to plan and to establish allies throughout the nations of Europe. He saw the war not only as an inevitable crisis, but also as a way to supply jobs to the millions of Americans still being affected by the Great Depression. On July 21, Roosevelt sent a special message to Congress in which he urged an extension of one-year military training by selectees. President Roosevelt increased our military power to destroy Nazi Germany while creating jobs for those in the service as well as in arms production and war materials in factories across the nation. Roosevelt issued an executive order prohibiting transactions in United States credits and assets by Japan and China. This order immediately halted the shipment of U.S. scrap iron and gasoline to Japan. Franklin Roosevelt approached the relations between Japan and the U.S. with hesitation, and timely cut off trades with the country. President Roosevelt demonstrated his character well and proved himself to be a leader inspiring the American people to fight for democracy. On August...
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From the time Adolf Hitler became the dictator of Germany in January 1933, until the surrender of his Third Reich at the end of World War II in May 1945, Hitler's Nazi led government engaged in two wars. One was a declared war of military expansion against the nations of Europe, which began with the 1939 invasion of Poland and reached its peak in mid-1942, when German armies occupied much of the continent and had penetrated deep into the Soviet Union. The other was a war against the Jews of Europe, the persecution and mass murder, hidden at first from the rest of the world that came to be known as the Holocaust. Even when the tide of war turned against Germany in 1943, and became clearly hopeless with the mid-1944 Allied invasion of Europe, the mass killing of Jews continued with increased ferocity, eventually claiming six million lives. In addition, the Nazis also put to death an estimated five million Gypsies (or Roma), Slav peoples, homosexuals, mentally retarded people, and people with handicaps, all of whom were considered "inferior" to the pure "Aryan" race. The term "holocaust," however, which means "destruction by fire," refers specifically to the Nazis' systematic destruction of Jews. As Elie Wiesel puts it, "Not all victims were Jews, but all Jews were victims." Hitler's horrifying scheme was foreshadowed by his denunciation of "the Jewish conspiracy" in his 1923 book Mein Kampf and fueled by German economic hardships that tapped deep currents of anti-Semitism, but to carry it out required the active, deliberate involvement of hundreds of thousands of people, both within Germany and in the occupied countries. It also required the silent acquiescence of millions of people throughout Europe, people who saw what was happening and either did nothing to stand in the way or...
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Ever since the dawn of time man has found new ways of killing each other. The most destructive way of killing people known to man would have to be the atomic bomb. The reason why the atomic bomb is so destructive is that when it is detonated, it has more than one effect. The effects of the atomic bomb are so great that Nikita Khrushchev said that the survivors would envy the dead (International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, 1982). These devastating physical effects come from the atomic bomb's blast, the atomic bomb's thermal radiation, and the atomic bomb's nuclear radiation. An atomic bomb is any weapon that gets its destructive power from an atom. This power comes when the matter inside of the atoms is transformed into energy. The process by which this is done is known as fission. The only two atoms suitable for fissioning are the uranium isotope U-235 and the plutonium isotope Pu-239 (Outlaw Labs). Fission occurs when a neutron, a subatomic particle with no electrical charge, strikes the nucleus of one of these isotopes and causes it to split apart. When the nucleus is split, a large amount of energy is produced, and more free neutrons are also released. These neutrons then in turn strike other atoms, which causes more energy to be released. If this process is repeated, a self-sustaining chain reaction will occur, and it is this chain reaction that causes the atomic bomb to have its destructive power (World Book, 1990). This chain reaction can be attained in two different ways. The first type of atomic bomb ever used was a gun-type. In this type two subcritical pieces of U-235 are placed in a device similar to the barrel of an artillery shell. One piece is placed at one end...
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The summer of 1944 saw the beginning of long awaited battles begin. The Allied landings in France, and the Soviet offensive against Army Group Middle. From now till the end of the war the Waffen SS would be in constant action and its strength would dwindle accordingly. Replacements and refits were few and far between, and always inadequet. At the time of the Normandy landings the four Waffen SS divisons in the West were widely scattered. LAH was in Belgium, Hitlerjugend [HJ] west of Paris, Gotz von Berlichingen [GvB] was at Thouars, and Das Reich near the Spainish border. The German reaction was to have HJ launch an immediate couter attack. At the conclusion of this, the Germans were able to hold the Allies to little gain with extreme cost to what they earned. Soon Das Reich and GvB were at the front. Recognizing that forces were lacking, German command ordered Hohenstaufen and Frundsberg from Poland to Normandy. By 29. June both were in line, and on the July 11, LAH was released from reserve. On June 12. and 26., and July 18. the British and Canadians launched major offensives, however all were contained. On the 25. of July the Americans launched theirs but with different results. Das Reich and GvB were encircled temporarily but were able to cut across Americans lines and save most of their men and equipment. The Germans now made a series of blunders which exasperated an already bad situation. With American tanks circling from behind and the British pushing forward, the Germans were being forced into a vulnerable and narrow pocket near Falaise. The Germans had two options. Either cut off the Americans by attacking towards Avranches and cut them off, or withdraw. They did nothing, for ten days. When the attack towards Avaranches was...
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After the Allies victory in World War 1, much of industrialized northern France lay in desolate ruins. The Allies, and the French in particular were very bitter towards their defeated enemy, and vowed to extract reparations. For a young newly formed German republic, these debts to the world were of such incredible proportions, that nobody ever believed that they could be paid. Facing a full occupation, they had to try. Outside of Germany, the Allies were divided by their respective opinions of the Germans. A combination of war debts to the USA and the enormous reparations thrown onto Germany caused a complicated and unstable economic flow, that ultimately cumulated in a global depression. The Treaty of Versailles was not a solution, but a careless and vengeful reprimand that only protracted and intensified hatred and the same problems as before. The German people finished the war in a state of near starvation, thanks to the British blockade. The German army had surrendered while on French and Belgian territory, and the common people and the common people felt betrayed by the government, by their leaders, and the world all of a sudden was a scary, confused place. The new German republic established at Weimar moved quickly to Berlin, and watched hopelessly in 1921 as the Allied Reparations committee handed them a bill for 132 billion gold marks. There was absolutely no way that the Germans could afford to pay such a pricey bill. In 1921 they paid 2.5 billion gold marks, but the next year inflation caused an economic crisis at home, and they could not pay. They proposed a delay on payments for three years, so they could stabilize their government and economy, and then hinted strongly that drastic reductions of reparation would have to be made later. Germany was never...
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The date is August 2nd, 1939. Physicist Albert Einstein has just completed the first of a series of five letters to Franklin Delano Roosevelt. In it he urges Roosevelt to support research toward the construction of an "extremely powerful" bomb. "A single bomb of this type, carried by boat and exploded in a port, might very well destroy the whole port together with some of the surrounding territory. However, such bombs might very well prove to be too heavy for transportation by air." Albert and his colleagues vastly underestimated the power and magnitude of the weapons they were to create. The world had never seen anything as awesome as the bomb's destructive endowment on loan from God. The Japanese could never have predicted what fate held for them. Predictability, however, is different than inevitability. The bomb was destined to be fabricated by some country, at some time. The Germans and French were leading the way, in a mad race to be the first to create nuclear devices. Germany was especially desperate towards the end of the war, the bomb being their last result. The question was when, where, and most importantly, how big. Roosevelt did not catch on to the race until the U.S. was sucked into the war. He then approved the Manhattan Project. The Manhattan Project was the effort to develop, test, and deploy a weapon of mass destruction. FDR never lived long enough to see the disposition of the new implement of war. Japan was never a country to surrender easily. On Iwo Jima, less than 1,000 of the 22,000 Japanese defenders survived. They took their oath to heart, their oath to kill 10 United States Marines before they die, the same way they kill "snakes" in their homes. They took this to heart. Iwo Jima was...
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Were I in Simon Wiesenthal's place, I would not have forgiven Karl, the SS officer, nor would I have walked away silently like Wiesenthal did. If I had been a Jewish prisoner in a concentration camp and had been mistreated and humiliated by SS officers like Karl, I would be too angry to forgive this man who claimed to regret what he did and the part he played. I would have told Karl the horrors of my tenure as a concentration camp prisoner, as a Jew, and as a person who had friends and family who were being persecuted by officers like Karl. Then, I would have explained to him why I could not pity him even as he was on his deathbed. Karl was not forced to commit the crimes he preformed or to partake in the activities he participated in; however, he did these things. In freely choosing to denigrate, torture and brutalize persons from a select ethnic group, Karl consciously denied the humanity of the Jewish population. It was only as he lay on his deathbed, that he sought forgiveness. It does not appear that there was a true recognition and awareness on his part of the magnitude of the harm that his decision had caused. Moshe Bejski says, "Only the awareness of imminent and certain death induced Karl to think that his actions had been crimes against both humanity and God. Had he not been mortally wounded, he would almost certainly have continued to commit these crimes" (Wiesenthal 113). In other words, had Karl many more years to live, he most likely would not have had these same thoughts of regret that came to him as he was on the verge of death. Forgiveness would allow him to die in a state of peace that he...
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German Enthisiasm To Hitler In order to thoroughly understand German enthusiasm to the Nazi regime, we must first understand the 2 great events that preceded the Nazi power in Germany: World War I and the Great Depression. Out of World War I came the Treaty of Versailles in which Germany lost 13% of its territory, 10% of its population. Economically, Germany was required to pay installments towards the reparations debt, 28 billion dollars total, to be paid over a period of 42 years. Militarily, Germany was not allowed an army larger than 100,000 men and was not allowed to produce most any of it's own military devices. The treaty put Germany in great debt. In the years to follow the Treaty, Germany's economy underwent several unpredictable waves, which ultimately resulted in a social loss of status, and a rise in crime, suicide and prostitution. The middle class, once known for its patriotism, now rose in revolt against a government who failed to protect their property and security. However, Germany bounced back, and by mid 1920s, Germany, functioning under a constitution and an elected president, had begun to reenter the world market in automobile production. Nevertheless, by 1930, due to the Depression, Germans found themselves once again unemployed and run by an incapable government which offered neither hope nor policy to its citizens. When Germany was at it's weakest, and in dire need of a strong government capable of digging the country out of it's misery, the NSDAP, also known as the Nazi party, began to rise in popularity. Perhaps the core reason for the growth and ultimate popularity of the Nazis was the seducing tongue and manipulating mind of Adolf Hitler. To gain status, Hitler promised the German nation a strengthened country, through the setting aside of the Peace Treaty...
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At the end of World War I the victorious nations formed the League of Nations for the purpose of airing international disputes, and of mobilizing its members for a collective effort to keep the peace in the event of aggression by any nation against another or of a breach of the peace treaties. The United States, imbued with isolationism, did not become a member. The League failed in its first test. In 1931 the Japanese, using as an excuse the explosion of a small bomb under a section of track of the South Manchuria Railroad (over which they had virtual control), initiated military operations designed to conquer all of Manchuria. After receiving the report of its commission of inquiry, the League adopted a resolution in 1933 calling on the Japanese to withdraw. Thereupon, Japan resigned from the League. Meanwhile, Manchuria had been overrun and transformed into a Japanese puppet state under the name of Manchukuo. Beset by friction and dissension among its members, the League took no further action. In 1933 also, Adolf HITLER came to power as dictator of Germany and began to rearm the country in contravention of the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles. He denounced the provisions of that treaty that limited German armament and in 1935 reinstituted compulsory military service. That year the Italian dictator Benito MUSSOLINI began his long-contemplated invasion of Ethiopia, which he desired as an economic colony. The League voted minor sanctions against Italy, but these had slight practical effect. British and French efforts to effect a compromise settlement failed, and Ethiopia was completely occupied by the Italians in 1936. Alarmed by German rearmament, France sought an alliance with the USSR. Under the pretext that this endangered Germany, Hitler remilitarized the Rhineland in 1936. It was a dangerous venture, for Britain and...
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Before the Spanish Mexico was occupied by a large number of Indian groups with very different social and economic systems. In general the tribes in the north were relatively small groups of hunters and gatherers who roamed large areas of sparsely vegetated deserts and dry lands. These people are often called the Chichimecs, though they were a mixture of several cultural groups who spoke different languages. In the rest of the country the natives were agriculturists, which helped to support the more dense populations. Some of these tribes were the Maya of the Yucatan, Totonac, Huastec, Otomi, Mixtecs, Zapotecs, Tlaxcalans, Tarascans, and Aztecs. Some of these groups made advanced civilizations with fancy buildings and temples used for religious, political, and commercial purposes. The Mayan cities of Chichen Itza, Uxmal, and Palenque, the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan, Tzintzuntzan of the Tarastec, and Monte Alban of the Zapotecs are a few examples. By 1100 AD the Toltecs had taken over a lot of central and southern Mexico and had built their capital at Tula in the Mesa Central. They also built the city of Teotihuacan kind of by present-day Mexico City. At about the same time, the Zapotecs had control of the Oaxaca Valley and parts of the Southern Highlands. The cities they built at Mitla and Monte Alban are still here today, though they were taken over by the Mixtecs prior to the arrival of the Spanish. When the Spanish came to central Mexico, the Aztecs controlled most of the central part of Mexico through a state payment system that got taxes and stopped them from being able to act independently from conquered tribal groups. The Aztecs moved into the central part of Mexico from the north and accomplished a tribal story by establishing a city where an eagle with a...
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In early August 1945 atomic bombs were dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These two bombs quickly yielded the surrender of Japan and the end of American involvement in World War II. By 1946 the two bombs caused the death of perhaps as many as 240,000 Japanese citizens1. The popular, or traditional, view that dominated the 1950s and 60s – put forth by President Harry Truman and Secretary of War Henry Stimson – was that the dropping of the bomb was a diplomatic maneuver aimed at intimating and gaining the upper hand in relations with Russia. Today, fifty-four years after the two bombings, with the advantage of historical hindsight and the advantage of new evidence, a third view, free of obscuring bias and passion, can be presented. First, the dropping of the bomb was born out of complex infinite military, domestic and diplomatic pressures and concerns. Second, many potentially viable alternatives to dropping the bombs were not explored by Truman and other men in power, as they probably should have been. Lastly, because these alternatives were never explored, we can only conjecture over whether or not Truman's decision was a morally just one, and if indeed it was necessary to use atomic energy to win the war. The war in Asia had its roots in the early 1930s. Japan had expansionist aims in Eastern Asia and the Western Pacific, especially in Indochina2. In July of 1940 the United States placed an embargo on materials exported to Japan, including oil in the hope of restraining Japanese expansionism. Nevertheless, tensions remained high in Asia, and only increased in 1939 when Germany ignited World War II with an invasion of Poland. America's determination to remain isolated changed abruptly following Japan's "surprise attack" on Pearl Harbor on December 7th 1941. Military...
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Pearl Harbor is a very popular event in American History. There was a recent movie about it, and with the recent World Trade Center attacks, it is likely that Americans are going to compare the two. The Japanese attacked us with no forewarning and United States never seen in coming. The attack was right out of the blue. Americans were not pleased with the attack, thats for sure. On December 7, 1941 at approximately 7:53 A.M. , Japanese bombers approached Pearl Harbor. There is a US Navy Bass by Pearl Harbor at Oahu, Hawaii. Since this attack came out of nowhere, nobody was on alert for defense. This wasn't the first time we hadn't responded quickly to a war situation either. When World War I began, we basically kept to ourselves. Yes, we did offer supplies and other things to Britain and her allies, but it wasn't until German U-boats sank one of our cargo ships, the Lusitania, for doing so. This attack on us was what got us up and into the war. Right after the first bombers struck, the US started to fight back. The Pearl Harbor Naval Base was done under the command of Admiral Yamamoto Isoroku, the commander in chief of Japan's Combined Fleet. A lot of US planes got in airspace to defend the base relatively fast and did there best to defend the base. As the attack went on, the defense got better and better. The Japanese has launched 353 planes against Pearl Harbor. Over 3000 military troops and navy troops were killed on the ground or wounded. For every person that died, a letter was sent to the families of the victims saying that there son or daughter was dead. 200 Aircrafts, 13 sea vessels, and 8 battleships were destroyed in the attack....
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On the 11th November 1918 the Armistice was signed which brought the dreadful Great War to an end. Germany Surrendered to the Allies. The following year the leaders of the Allies met at Versailles to decide how Germany was to be treated. When the terms of the Treaty of Versailles were given out in June most Germans were fuming. Adolph Hitler left the German army in January 1919. He had spent the last weeks of the war in hospital recovering from gas blindness. He believed that the army had not been defeated but had been stabbed in the back my politicians for accepting the Armistice. When the war ended Hitler got a job working as a spy for the German army. He was sent to a meeting of the German workers party in 1919, which was led by Anton Drexler, who was very anti-Semitic. Hitler joined the party and became its leader in 1921. Hitler wanted to attract as many people as possible to the party, so he changed the name to National Socialists. He hoped the word "national" would attract people to the party. The National Socialists or Nazis as they began to be called, were very violent they would attack their opponents at meetings and this put many people off. A violent ex-soldier led Hitler's Private army the S.A. In 1922 and 1923 Germany was hit by Hyperinflation. This means massive rise in prices, everyone was affected by this. Te confusion caused by the hyperinflation led Adolf Hitler to believe that he could take power in Munich in November 1923. The attempt failed. Hitler believed that the government was so unpopular that Germans would be on his side. Hitler was arrested for high treason. While Hitler was in prison he wrote a book called my struggle, he became...
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1.The Beginning At half past six on the evening of April 20th, 1889 a child was born in the small town of Branau, Austria. The name of the child was Adolf Hitler. He was the son a Customs official Alois Hitler, and his third wife Klara. As a young boy Adolf attended church regularly and sang in the local choir. One day he carved a symbol into the bench which resembled the Swastika he later used as the symbol of the Nazi party. He was a pretty good student. He received good marks in most of his classes. However in his last year of school he failed German and Mathematics, and only succeeded in Gym and Drawing. He drooped out of school at the age of 16, spending a total of 10 years in school. From childhood one it was his dream to become an artist or architect. He was not a bad artist, as his surviving paintings and drawings show but he never showed any originality or creative imagination. To fulfill his dream he had moved to Vienna the capital of Austria where the Academy of arts was located. He failed the first time he tried to get admission and in the next year, 1907 he tried again and was very sure of success. To his surprise he failed again. In fact the Dean of the academy was not very impressed with his performance, and gave him a really hard time and said to him "You will never be painter." The rejection really crushed him as he now reached a dead end. He could not apply to the school of architecture as he had no high-school diploma. During the next 35 years of his live the young man never forgot the rejection he received in the dean's office that...
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