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The article regarding salmonella poisoning mentions that nearly 200 innocent customers of a local bakery suffered from this infectious disease. It is said that the bakery owner and staff had unsanitary conditions in which they worked in. What exactly infected these people was the cannoli filling which was poorly handled. This particular filling which is contributed to making Black Forest Cake had been contaminated with salmonella bacteria. The cause of how this bacteria came into effect could be connected to infected dairy products or very poor employee sanitation. Clinton Township bakery is being thoroughly investigated on the bacteria that infected many people in Macomb County. The punishment toward this one bakery is unknown at the present time but is said to be "still a work in progress". The department of Agriculture will decide on what the results will be. Although the bakery is going through speculation they are still operating under the terms products which contain cannoli be excluded from the menu. Other then that exception the bakery has every right to keep running their business. Due to the contamination a report confirms that out of 196 victims 24 were actually hospitalized. The victims reactions to this bacteria ranged from diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, fever and vomiting. No cases reported any related deaths to this investigation. Sometime this week 32 more people will join in the pursuit to sue the bakery for inefficient sanitation. What the results are from this case are not given in this point in time. My reaction to this article is in complete disgust to the unsanitary situations the food was presented in. If you are going to sell food to the public you need to make sure that you treat the food as if you were to eat it. Hand washing is a major factor along with making...
pages: 2 (words: 365)
comments: 0
added: 01/31/2012
Schizophrenia is a chronic and disabling brain disease, affecting about one percent of the population. It is ¡§marked by severe distortion and disorganization of thought, perception, and affect, by bizarre behavior and by social withdrawal.¡¨ 1 Although schizophrenia has likely been around for a very long time, it wasn¡¦t recognized as a disease until the late 19th century. In 1896, Emil Kraepelin, a German psychiatrist, made the first medical breakthrough in this specific disease by listing symptoms of it. Kraeplin was familiar in the field and was famed for his work with the mentally ill. The term schizophrenia was first used by Eugene Blauer to describe this disorder in 1911. Although this word, in Greek, means, ¡§split mind¡¨, it doesn¡¦t mean that schizophrenics had split personalities. It refers to how schizophrenics split themselves from reality through delusions and hallucinations of the mind. There are many causes of schizophrenia and many factors that contribute to this disease. ¡§Family studies of the genetics of schizophrenia show that the more closely one is related to a schizophrenic, the more likely one is to develop schizophrenia.¡¨1 ¡§Another cause of Schizophrenia is said to be because of severely dysfunctional and stressful family functions such as if a child lived in an environment of constant hostility and anxiety and in which there is no security. If a child has a strong genetic schizophrenic background, and the child is brought up in a bad environment, the chances of this child of contracting the disease are increased.¡¨1 There are many other causes being researched such as ¡§trauma at birth, viruses or infections at an early age, trauma at an early age, chemical imbalance and protein abnormalities¡¨2. There are numerous research studies being conducted to learn more about the cause of this potentially disabling disease. Schizophrenia first appears in an individual through drastic changes...
pages: 12 (words: 3296)
comments: 0
added: 11/21/2011
Schizophrenia is a complex disorder characterized by hallucinations (mostly being hearing voices), delusions (beliefs with no basis in reality), and disturbances in speech. Psychiatrists classify the symptoms into negative and positive categories for schizophrenia. The positive symptoms include hallucinations, delusions, thought disorders, and an altered sense of self. The negative symptoms are a lack of motivation or apathy, blunted feelings, depression or social withdraw. There are three main types of Schizophrenias. The first type is Paranoid Schizophrenic; people with this suffer preoccupation with persecutory and/or grandiose delusions. The second type is Disorganized Schizophrenic; they suffer from speech and behavior problems and they have a flat of inappropriate affect. The third type is Catatonic Schizophrenic; in this case the person gets motor immobility or excessive motor activity that is purposeless, peculiar movements, echolalia or echopraxia. In America there are about 2.2 million people with this illness. That might seem like a lot, but most of the cases get overlooked. They sometimes get called "Nervous Breakdowns" or just "Bad nerves". There have been studies done to see if different groups of people have a greater tendency to get the illness. But so far nothing has been proved. Some groups might seem like they are less at risk, but nothing can be proved so until then there can be no connections made. Although studies show that cases of the illness in Europe have declined over the years, in America they have increased slowly just about every year. So they are trying to figure out why this is. Changes in the chemistry of the brain, changes in the structure of the brain, genetics, viral infections, and head injuries all play a part in what may be the cause of this disease. There are billions of nerve cells in the brain, each one having branches that transmit and...
pages: 5 (words: 1220)
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added: 02/15/2012
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder, which severely impacts the way 1% of people worldwide think, feel, and act. The term comes from the Greek, schizo meaning 'splitting' and phrenia meaning 'of the mind'. Therefore schizophrenia literally can be defined as a split mind. This disorder makes it hard for a person to differentiate between real and imagined experiences. It weakens their abilities to think logically, express normal emotions, and behave properly in social situations. Schizophrenia is a serious thought disorder, which affects one's work, family, social life and an individual's capacity to function. It is extremely draining on the ill person, as well as the people who care for them. In 1809 John Haslam and Philip Pinel observed first symptoms. As time went another man by the name of B. Morel came up with a term demence precoce, which he observed in little boy. But it was still not until the 1800's when a German psychiatrist, Dr. Emil Kraepelin had actually categorized the subtypes of a single syndrome. The three subtypes were hebephrenia, catatonia, and paranoia. He was mistaken when he said that this syndrome was incurable and early onset. In the 20th century a Swiss psychiatrist Dr. Eugen Bleuler had a different idea where he explained that schizophrenia might in fact be curable and possibly manifested later on in life. He was the one that explained that schizophrenia meant split of the mind and not split of personality. His four primary symptoms included loosening of associations, ambivalence, autism, and affective disturbance (Nietzel, Speltz, McCauley, Bernstein, 1998). While Europeans used Kraepelin's criteria, North Americans used Bleuler's. In 1959, K. Schneider had conducted a research and classified delusions and hallucinations as primary symptoms of schizophrenia. During the last half of the nineteenth century different subtypes of what we now call schizophrenia were described...
pages: 15 (words: 3951)
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added: 11/08/2011
2. Recovery: Error! Hyperlink reference not valid. It's only natural to want to get back on track and begin to participate in life again. Recovery can only begin, however, when there is a desire to be healthy. As I talk with families who have a loved one with schizophrenia or any other serious mental illness, the topic of how to motivate him/her away from a destitute life spent watching t.v. on the couch 24 x 7. There are two things that come to my mind regarding motivation. First, a person needs to know that there is a great possibility of developing a new life after the onset of mental illness. Without that knowledge, there is no hope to live nor reason to want to be healthy. Repeatedly, I was told that I would be affected by schizophrenia and wouldn't be able to do everything I had once wanted to do prior to the onset. Wrong. The truth is that there is hope for those that believe. It may and probably will take time. Months may pass before you see signs of recovered health, but time spent in recovery is an investment that will bring forth a future that will give you freedoms and options that one does not have while living under the umbrella of the mental health system. The second thing that comes to mind regarding the couch potato life-style is contribution. During the second week of my hospitalization, I began to see how recovery depended upon my ability to use the skills that I had. Once I began to redevolp those Activities of Daily living I mentioned above, I was able to ponder the important things in life. Eventhough it was going to take years to build my strength up again, I decided that I would begin to help people while I...
pages: 6 (words: 1601)
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added: 12/29/2011
NUR 101- Ms. Lee Extra Credit The Facts About Scleroderma Scleroderma is a chronic autoimmune disease that was first described in the 18th century. The term scleroderma means "hard skin," which describes thickening of the skin from increased deposits of collagen. There are two types of scleroderma. Localized scleroderma affects the skin in limited areas and the musculoskeletal system. Systemic sclerosis causes more widespread skin changes and may be associated with internal organ damage in the lungs, heart and kidneys. It can cause arthritis, slow contractions in the gastrointestinal tract, muscle inflammation, dry eyes and dry mouth. Most people with scleroderma have cold-induced spasms of small blood vessels in their hands or feet, known as Raynaud's phenomenon, which causes the fingers or toes to turn white or blue and may be painful ( Localized Scleroderma is more common in children. It is usually found in only a few places on the skin or in the muscles and rarely, if ever, does localized scleroderma develop into the systemic form of the disease. Systemic Sclerosis may affect the connective tissue in many parts of the body, e.g. the skin, the esophagus, gastrointestinal tract, lungs, kidneys, heart and other internal organs. It may also affect blood vessels, muscles and joints and is life threatening Scleroderma can range from a minor skin lesion to a debilitating and fatal disease. ( In most cases, the cause of scleroderma is unknown. However, in a small minority of cases, scleroderma or scleroderma-like illnesses are associated with exposure to certain toxins or as a complication of bone marrow transplants. Scleroderma is not contagious and is rarely inherited. Systemic sclerosis is associated with over-activation of the immune system, which normally functions to protect the body against cancers and invading infections. This causes damage to cells that line small blood vessels, which in turn leads...
pages: 5 (words: 1304)
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added: 12/28/2011
I take a knife and place it to my wrist and cut deep watching the blood drip down ever so slowly, one drop at a time relieving me of the pain I feel making it so every one can see, They can see my pain but no one help me because I am different BECAUSE I cut and not cry, they all are too late any way my blood is running down my arm I feel a little less pain now I am just a mutation of the human race I don't belong all I can do is just cut. By: Darshana Dave Did you know that the prevalence of self-injurious behavior is put in the range of 700 to 1,400 cases per 100,000 population (Self Injury-A Search). Self mutilation is a serious mental disease and it does have specific causes, it also is very hard to detect and even harder to treat. A self mutilator is hard to point out because some of the "Normal" or "Average" looking people are self mutilators. Most of them have a mental illness and they don't even know about it. When they are confronted by others, they tend to close their self out from the rest of the world. That is why it is very important to confront them with caution because it just might push them off the edge. Most people don't know what self mutilation is. Self mutilation is when a person deliberately harms body tissue without the conscious intent to commit suicide. It is an intentional act (Self Injury-A Search). This type of act is also a voluntary act of harming themselves (Now Chang-Self Mutilation). Self-Injurious behavior or SIB is also referred to as self-harm, self-abuse, and self-mutilation (When The Cut). Most mutilators self injure by scaring , burning, carving, and even picking and pulling off the own skin and hair (Now Change-Self Mutilation). The most common mutilator is a cutter. Cutters are people who cut their own...
pages: 6 (words: 1597)
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added: 10/02/2011
Self injury When most people face stress, they talk to a friend or squeeze a stress ball. However, when a small number of people feel that their life is getting them down, they revert to dangerous behaviors in order to alleviate the feelings they are experiencing. These people, when under stress, may revert to cutting themselves, burning their skin, or engaging in other behaviors that cause themselves physical harm. Because other people view such behaviors as being very extreme, they may feel that the people who do them are merely trying to attract attention to themselves. However, when a person purposefully injures themselves, they are not attracting attention but instead are suffering from a disorder known as self injury. Self injury is defined as a variety of behaviors, "resulting in the destruction of one's own tissue. These behaviors, including scratching, burning or cutting the skin, pulling out hair, breaking bones, amputation, and eye enucleation, can have a likewise variable assortment of causes" ("Definition" 1). Because of the wide range of self injuring behaviors, scientists have come up with three major categories in order to classify them. These categories are based upon "the degree of harm, the rate, and the pattern of behavior." The categories are major, stereotypic, and superficial self mutilation (1). Major self mutilation include "acts that severely damage a significant amount of body tissue. These are injuries that can only be inflicted once, such as eye enucleation, facial skinning, amputation of the limbs, breasts or genitals." People who engage in major self mutilation often have other disorders which cause them to recede into a "zombie-like" state that enables them not to feel the pain of such drastic injuries ("Definition" 2). Stereotypic self mutilation describes "repetitive, sometimes rhythmic, acts, the most common form being head-banging. Other forms include orifice digging, hitting,...
pages: 8 (words: 2174)
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added: 09/20/2011
While I was working on databases and spreadsheets at the American Red Cross, for hours at a time, I would often think to myself, "what is service learning, and why do we have to do it?" Most of the time, I simply thought of it as forced volunteerism, with no real direction, or purpose. This is due to the fact that the reason that we were made to volunteer was not exactly revealed to us. So, I decided, for my paper, to make some discoveries about Service Learning. These discoveries would be made most likely by viewing other schools' programs, which implement service learning. The facts that would be of most interest are, service learning itself, the definition of service learning, the benefits of service learning, and finally, how service learning should and needs to be implemented into the curriculum, most importantly, the pharmacy curriculum. I thought, before heading into my service learning experience at the Red Cross, that Duquesne's pharmacy school would already have a grasp of the concept of service learning, how it should be implemented into the curriculum, and most importantly, how it benefits the students. Benefit to the students, has to be the most important aspect of the entire concept, because if there is no real benefit to the students, there is no good reason to waste valuable time on an education strategy known as service learning. The education strategy that is known as service learning is not a new strategy at all. The roots of service learning can be traced back to the 1930's. It was during this time that a man by the name of John Dewey founded the concepts that would eventually lead to the formation of service learning. This was apparent in his assessment of education, in which, he theorized that effective learning required...
pages: 6 (words: 1516)
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added: 01/21/2012
A fairly new illness that has been emerging in various places around the world, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, also known as SARS is a virus which causes the lungs to hemorrhage and bleed. Cases of this virus have been seen in the U.S., China, Canada, and other countries. The virus seems not to hit the young and old but the middle aged, around fifty or so. It was also odd how the virus victims did not seem to have any previous health problems. SARS is accompanied with high fever, headache, sore throat, dry cough, muscular stiffness. It spreads through droplets from sneezing or coughing; contact with contaminated objects. People who are frequent travelers and have visited the infected places or those in contact with anyone infected are at risk to get SARS. There is no known cure for SARS as yet. While doctors and researchers are grappling with the problem trying to work out an effective medicine. Presently the patients are treated symptomatically with antibiotics and steroids. To prevent SARS infection if near infected person, wash hands often or use alcohol-based hand rubs, avoid contact with patient's body fluids, wear a mask. On March 10, before anyone had heard the term SARS, 18 doctors, nurses and medical students in Hong Kong's Prince of Wales Hospital were out with fevers Every doctor, nurse or medical student who had examined the 26-year-old man who was admitted to the hospital, all the patients around him, and, eventually, people who came in touch with these cases were infected. Five died. This problem has created many global issues and uncertainties, especially creating a setback in traveling via any Asian countries. Persuasive Speech There is without qualm that the SARS outbreak is dangerous and fatal. However, this should not prevent you from going on with your daily lives. New problems are...
pages: 3 (words: 606)
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added: 01/05/2012
The founder of this web site is Heather Corinna. She has been producing sexual education websites since 1997. The copy right of this site is 1997 but also notes that it is copy written in 2003 as well, which leads me to assume that it has been updated recently. However, there is nothing proving that the site is updated on a regular basis. This site is very informational and covers very many topics; there is anywhere from twenty to thirty pages of information. I was unable to find any discrepancies but I did find some similarities. For example, in the politics and Disabilities section of the site, they state that "one common stereotype is that disabled people just aren't sexual". Our text also explains this by saying that "people with disabilities are often seen as sexless and child like" (p. 295). The scarleteen website also discusses that "the other common myth is that, if disabled people do have sexual feelings, then we must go around in a permanent state of frustration," (Politics and Disabilities). Our text book also explains this fact by saying that "some stereotype retarded people in the opposite direction: as having stronger- than- normal sex drives and being incapable of controlling them". (p.297) I personally think that the sexYOUality and reproduction sections are the most relevant on the website. These sections help young people become familiar with their bodies in a tasteful way. This site uses the correct terms in a way that young people can understand and relate to. The sexYOUality section has illustrations and descriptions of all the male and female sex organs. It also contains tips on how to take care of your body and things you can do to become more familiar with it. In the reproduction section, it offers a quick and...
pages: 4 (words: 928)
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added: 02/09/2012
Cloning is what makes another human being a human. People study cloning everyday of their lives and make money doing it. Cloning really is a way of life to some people. What do you know about cloning and do you think we should accept it? The word clone had many different meanings. The scientific meaning is organisms in your body handed down through asexual reproduction. Clone is a word given to us by the Greek. The word then meant "twig" (Cohen 9). The first thing people cloned were a sheep called Dolly. She was the first mammal to be cloned ("Cloning" 39,40). Another term you will need to know is chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are identical structures that have genetical material in them. Plasmids are particles found in some bacteria and yeast's ("Clone" 684,685). Cloning is a very old process. People have been cloning for over two thousand years and haven't even known it. People who grow plants from stem cuttings are cloning that plant. Scientists think that a German scientist Hans Spemann first discussed cloning. In 1952, two American researchers transplanted the nucleus from a cell of an embryo frog to a denucleated frog egg (Newton 39,40). Once the egg cell detected that it had a full set of chromosomes it began to divide and grow on its own ("History of Cloning" online). When an earthworm is cut in half they make themselves again to complete the missing parts (Travers 17). Cloning has many different stages. One of the stages is called the two – cell stage. If an egg completely separates during the two – cell stage, identical twins will be the result. Both people will have exactly the same genes. A man by the name of Steen Willadsen developed a way to divide sheep embryos. This is what made cloning possible (Travers 17). Willadsen also...
pages: 6 (words: 1631)
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added: 02/11/2012
As far back as the birth of America there have been executions of all imaginable types used to punish the undesirables of society. There were executions such as lynching and utilizing a fire squad to execute the individual. The thought of this type of punishment being performed in this century would be horrific. America has come a long way in incorporating more humane punishments when certain members of society cannot obey the "rules". One cannot help to think if the present ultimate punishment, lethal injection, is justifiable. When it comes to punishing the criminal, according to the crime committed, members of society are the ones that decide if he or she must spend time in prison or be executed. Capital punishment is and has always been a controversial topic. With issues to consider, such as the moral of this action and who is justified in terminating a human life, the issues are not easily resolved. Recently, this issue has become even more controversial because there is a possibility that registered physicians might be willing to assist in executions. As it stands right now physicians are not involved in the execution process but it might soon become a reality that they can or will be involved. Should Americans let a physician get involved in aiding the execution of a criminal? No, this should never be allowed to happen. Currently, the American Medical Association condemns any active participation by a physician in an execution. This is because there are written medical honor codes and oaths that prohibit this type of action. Our American legislature should never allow a physician to be involved in such an act because it is not medically necessary, a criminals life should not be measured by what is the most economic way to execute, and a physicians primary...
pages: 5 (words: 1261)
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added: 09/29/2011
Although heart disease is the number one leading cause of death in the United States, killing 948,088 people a year, one would think that it would receive majority governmental funding for disease related research, but it doesn't. The number two leading cause of death in the United States is cancer, killing 529,904 people a year and neither does it receive majority of governmental funding. AIDS ranks 17th among killer diseases, yet it receives far more research dollars than any other disease. It receives $1.8 billion a year in funding, a third of all federal research dollars. As of 1998, AIDS received a total of $2,400 per patient while heart disease received only $108 per patient (Gene 17). Diabetes, which kills more people annually than AIDS and breast cancer combined, received $28 per patient (Gene 17). So why should AIDS research receive more federal dollars than the sixteen other diseases that claim more lives? Federal dollars for AIDS research must be limited because AIDS research is taking an unreasonable share of funding (Courrèges 4). Coleman 2 The American Heart Association reports, cardiovascular diseases have been America's number one killer for more than seventy-five years, nearing one million deaths per year. According to the National Center for Health Statistics, cardiovascular disease deaths are twenty-two times higher than AIDS deaths. Cancer is the number two killer, with the number of deaths thirteen times higher than those from AIDS. But NIH's (National Institute of Health) $1.8 billion in AIDS research is first among diseases. For every $1,000 that NIH spends on medical care, $11.15 is for heart disease, $6.18 for stroke, $3.20 for diabetes, $77.13 for cancer, but $125.87 for HIV/AIDS (Shilts pg.130-131). Of the forty-three percent of its budget that NIH spends on disease related research, heart disease receives $903 million (16.5 percent of all...
pages: 5 (words: 1125)
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added: 01/19/2012
Introduction: The Mental Health Parity Act (MPHA) refers to the law that requires the health insurance provider to cover mental health and substance abuse services as much as other physical health services. President Clinton signed Mental Health Parity Act of 1996 into law on September 26 1997. MHPA was headed by Senator Domenici whose daughter suffers from schizophrenia and senator Wellstone whose brother has severe mental illness. This act forces allows employer group health plans and health issuers, and others offering mental health benefits to set annual limits on mental health benefits that are no lower then the limits for medical and surgical benefits. Companies with more than 50 employees have to include mental health coverage in the health insurance benefits. A group health plan or policy that doesn't impose an annual or lifetime dollar limit on medical and surgical benefits may not impose such a limit on mental health benefits. This parity is the first to promote equality of health insurance coverage for treatment of both mental illness and other medical illness. Before the passing of the MPHA, the typical mental illness coverage was $50,000 for lifetime and $ 5,000 for annual and typical medical coverage of $1,000,000 lifetime and no annual cap. Now I will discuss some points showing weakness of "Allocation", "Delivery", "Finance" and "Provision" of the Mental Health Parity act of 1996. Allocation: A major question is "who needs mental health parity?", "what are the criteria used to determine eligibility" and "how do you know who needs help?" Currently under the key provisions businesses with 50 or less employees and those who do not offer mental health benefits are exempt from this law. This scope of parity legislation differs state to state. This inflicts enormous emotional and financial burden on individuals and their families. According to "National Center for...
pages: 7 (words: 1668)
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added: 12/11/2011
Sickle Cell Anemia I did research on Sickle Cell Anemia; it affects about 72,000 Americans in the United States. Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disease in which the body is unable to produce normal hemoglobin, an iron-containing protein. Abnormal hemoglobin can morph cells that can become lodged in narrow blood vessels, blocking oxygen from reaching organs and tissues. The effects of sickle cell anemia are bouts of extreme pain, infectious, fever, jaundice, stroke, slow growth, and organ failure. Tissue that does not receive a normal blood flow eventually becomes damaged. This is what causes the complications of sickle cell disease. There are several types of sickle cell disease. The most common are: Sickle Cell Anemia (SS), Sickle-Hemoglobin C Disease (SC) Sickle Beta-Plus Thalassemia and Sickle Beta-Zero Thalassemia. ( There are certain treatments that experts are trying to create. Doctors at Emory University in Atlanta credited an experimental stem cell transplant that for the first time is not from a related donor. This transplant cured the inherited disease from Keone Penn who is 13 years old from Georgia. He suffered a stroke at age five years, and had a fever of 106 degrees. What the doctors did was replaced the boy's bone marrow with stem cells taken from the umbilical cord blood of an infant not related to him. ( Dr. Ruby Bellevue of New York Methodist Hospital in Brooklyn has a patient that he wants to do the transplant procedure on, but he is waiting for more studies to come out to see what the long-term effects are. Some effects could be rejection, complications, and/or death. For many years, doctors could only treat the sickle cell disease with blood transfusions and antibiotics, until now. Everyday doctors around the world are coming up with solutions to this debilitating disease. My suggestion for dealing with...
pages: 2 (words: 523)
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added: 01/01/2012
Taquila Clark Corp. July 7, 2003 Research paper rt into a sickle shape. Sickle Cell Anemia Sickle Cell anemia is a group of inherited red blood cell disorders, or a collection of recessive genetic disorders characterized by a hemoglobin variant called Hb S. Normal red blood cells are round like doughnuts, and the move through small blood tubes in the body to deliver oxygen. Sickle red blood cells become hard, sticky and shape like sickles used to cut wheat. When these hard pointed red cells go through the small blood tube they clog the flow and break apart. This can cause pain, damage and a low blood count, or anemia. There is a substance in the red cell called hemoglobin that carries oxygen inside the cell. One little change in this substance causes the hemoglobin to form ling hard rigid rods change the red cell into a sickle shape. At the time of conception, a person receives one set of genes from the mother and a corresponding set of genes from the father. Sickles cell disease is a condition determined by a single pair of genes. The genes are the ones that control the production of hemoglobin in red cells. It is a member of the globin gene family, a group of genes involved in oxygen transport, and hemoglobin binds oxygen in the lungs and delivers it to the other tissues. Most people have two normal genes for hemoglobin. Some people carry on normal gene and on gene for a sickle hemoglobin. This is called "sickle cell trait". People who carry a sickle trait are pretty normal. Problems from having a single sickle cell gene develop only under very unusual conditions. People who inherit two genes of sickle hemoglobin one from each parent have sickle disease. It is said that individuals with African and Mediterranean ancestry have...
pages: 5 (words: 1102)
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added: 10/04/2011
"Sickle-cell anemia" Sickle-cell anemia is an inherited disease, in which the red blood cells become crescent shaped. As a result it functions abnormally ,and causes small blood clots. Sickle-cell anemia is caused by a genetic ,or defective gene that produces an abnormal form of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin distorts red blood cells after they release oxygen in the tissue. Someone who inherits hemoglobin from one parent ,and normal hemoglobin from the other parent will receive the trait if the hemoglobin is abnormal from the other parent ,then there is a high risk that the child being born will have the sickle-cell anemia disease. The sickle-cell anemia disease can cause severe damage to the kidneys, lungs, bones, eyes, and central nervous system. The sickled shape makes it difficult for these cells to pass through tiny blood vessels, resulting in intensely painful blockages that prevent vital oxygen ,and nutrients in the blood from reaching organs and tissues, impairing their function. Sickle-cell patients may experience brain damage such as a stroke. Sickle-cells also break apart more readily than healthy red blood cells, leading to a deficiency of red blood cells known as anemia. Symptoms of the sickle-cell disease usually occur after 4-6 months of age frequent ,and severe infections may start to occur. Damage to some of the major organs may occur as a symptom. You may experience severe pain in the back , chest, abdomen and extremities. Some other symptoms that may occur , is pain and swelling in the hands and feet , and enlargement of the abdomen and heart. Another symptom that can occur is extreme blood lost when cutting , or scraping yourself. Your body doesn't easily stop the blood from running out your body , as it would without the disease. The sickle cells don't clog up the cut as good as regular blood cells. As a result of having the sickle-cell anemia disease ,or trait many things in life...
pages: 2 (words: 516)
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added: 02/10/2012
I need sleep! General this statement wouldn't mean a thing to the normal person, but to Sigmund Freud statements like this would become the basis for his discoveries. Freud was born in Moravia, and became a student of the well known, father of psychology, Wilhelm Wundt. It didn't take long for Freud to come up with his own theories, and when he did he changed the science of psychology forever. Freud wasn't the first one to come up with the conscious mind, although he is credited for making it popular, he did in fact though come up with the preconscious mind. The preconscious mind is what we might call today, "available memory:" anything that can easily be made conscious, the memories you are not at the moment thinking about but can readily bring to mind. Along with this theory, he added to it that besides the conscious and preconscious mind there are even smaller parts. Freud came up with three parts of are personality, the id, ego, and super ego. The id is part of your unconscious mind. This part of your mind holds your desires and impulses, the id must be satisfied. Some examples of what the id would desire would be: food, water, relief, warmth, and sex. The super ego is part of your conscious mind, which reminds you of your morals and acts as your conscience. The ego is part of both your conscious and unconscious mind, and acts as a mediator between your id and super ego. Your ego is in charge of satisfying your id, by delaying gratification so it become exemptible by your super ego. The way your ego does this is by using defense mechanisms such as denial and projection. Freud observed that, at different times in our lives, different parts of our skin give us...
pages: 4 (words: 850)
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added: 01/03/2012
Abortion is the murder of an innocent child, and millions of murders are committed legally each year in abortion clinics. Abortion stops the beating of an innocent child's heart, most people do not see anything wrong with this because they simply believe it's just a blob of tissue. People must no longer ignore the scientific evidence that life begins at the moment of conception, and start hearing the silent screams of unborn children. The argument by the pro-abortion side is that the unborn child is not truly a child. Many people who are pro-abortion justify their beliefs through the concept that a fetus is only a blob of tissue until it is born, or the statement: life begins at birth. Abortion is not as simple as removing a blob of tissue; Abortion is the destruction, dismembering and killing of a human life--an unborn baby. "It is scientific and medical fact based on experimental evidence, that a fetus is a living, growing, thriving human being, directing his or her own development"(Fetal Development). The word fetus is Latin for "offspring or young one," and the life of a human begins at fertilization, so writing it off as just a blob of tissue is morally wrong. At a US Senate Judiciary Subcommittee meeting, most scientists said that life begins at conception or implantation of the embryo. For example, Professor Hymie Gordon of the Mayo clinic stated, " all criteria of modern biology, life is present from the moment of conception"(Fetal Development). In a 1963 Planned Parenthood pamphlet entitled 'Plan Your Children' it states, "an abortion kills the life of a baby after it has begun, and is dangerous to your life and health as well"(Defining Abortion). Even though abortion is dangerous to a woman's health, and kills her baby, Planned Parenthood still offers it as a safe solution. This statement contradicts what most abortion clinics say. It is not possible for abortion to be offered to women...
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added: 11/27/2011
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