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Medicine
It's a fully mechanized, computer controlled system. Potentiation takes place in an oxygen-free environment, with never coming into contact with the surrounding air or human hands. No degradation or oxidation can occur. Total quality control includes regular inspections for sterility, purity and effectiveness, including visual, microscopic and thionin testing. Packaging is in both sterile capsules and sterile bottles. Let me introduce you to the exciting key which unlocks better health and vitality... Bee Fit POTENTIATED™ BEE POLLEN! More than 40 research studies document the therapeutic efficacy and safety of bee pollen. Clinical tests show that orally ingested bee pollen particles are rapidly and easily absorbed-they pass directly from the stomach into the blood stream. Within two hours after ingestion, bee pollen is found in the blood, in cerebal spinal fluids, and in the urine Several nutrients in bee pollen, such as proteins, beneficial fats, vitamins B, C, D, E, and beta-carotene, calcium, magnesium, selenium, nucleic acids, lecithin, and cysteine, are scientifically well documented for their ability to strengthen immunity, counteract the effects of radiation and chemical toxins (which are the two most severe stressors to your immune system), and generate optimal health and vitality. Bee pollen proves to be quite useful for activity enhancement and sports nutrition. It produces an accelerated rate of recovery, including a return to normal heart rate, breathing, and readiness for the next event. Bee pollen improves second and subsequent performances. Humans not receiving bee pollen show declining performances. It provides energy, stamina, and strength, and enhances performance levels Many people with allergies and hay fever safely and effectively ingest bee pollen. 73% of patients with hay fever averaged a 75% improvement when given bee pollen orally. 78% of asthma patients averaged a 75% improvement in taking the product orally. 17.8% of hay fever patients and 33.3% of asthma patients showed a complete, 100%, improvement...
pages: 3 (words: 559)
comments: 0
added: 02/03/2012
AMELOBLASTOMA: Ameloblastoma is a benign odontogenic tumor that has been known for many years. Gorlin stated that it was first recognized by Cusack . Credit for the first histopathological description is given to Wedl (1853) although his book was not published till 1870. Wedl suggested that the tumor could have arisen from a tooth bud or dental lamina. He called it "cystosarcoma or cystosarcoma adenoids". Ameloblastoma is usually recognized early due to its persistent local growth in the maxillofacial area and its ability to produce marked deformity before leading to serious debilitation . This neoplasm originates within the mandible or maxilla from epithelium that is involved in the formation of teeth. Potential epithelial sources include enamel organ, odontogenic rests (rests of Malassez, rests of serres), reduced enamel epithelium, and the epithelial lining of odontogenic cysts especially the dentigerous cyst. The stimulus for neoplastic transformation of these epithelial structures remains unknown. Ameloblastoma rarely affects children. It is a lesion of adults, and occurs predominantly in the fourth and fifth decades of life. Worldwide, the median age was found to be 35 years with a range of 4-92 years. Males accounted for 53% of cases and females 47%. The rare lesions occurring in children are typically unicystic and appear clinically as odontogenic cysts. Ameloblastoma may occur anywhere in the mandible or maxilla the most favored site being the mandibular molar-ramus area. In the maxilla the molar area is affected more commonly than the premolar or anterior regions. Ameloblastoma are usually asymptomatic and are discovered either during routine radiographic examination or because of asymptomatic jaw expansion .Occasional tooth movement or malocclusion maybe the initial presenting sign. Rarely extraosseous peripheral ameloblastomas are found in the gingiva. These are seen in the older adults. They may arise from overlying epithelium or rests of serres and exhibit a benign, non aggressive course....
pages: 2 (words: 317)
comments: 0
added: 01/31/2012
Ameloblastoma is a benign odontogenic tumor that has been known for many years. A detailed description of it was given by Falkson and its early history has been discussed by Baden .Credit for the first histopathological description is given to Wedl (1853) although his book was not published till 1870. Wedl suggested that the tumor could have arisen from a tooth bud or dental lamina. He called it "cystosarcoma or cystosarcoma adenoids". Mallasez has been given credit for the introduction of the term admentine epithelioma . The first people to encourage the adoption of the term "ameloblastoma" were Ivy and Churchill. Ameloblastoma is usually recognized early due to its persistent local growth in the maxillofacial area and its ability to produce marked deformity before leading to serious debilitation . This neoplasm originates within the mandible or maxilla from epithelium that is involved in the formation of teeth. Potential epithelial sources include enamel organ, odontogenic rests , reduced enamel epithelium, and the epithelial lining of odontogenic cysts especially the dentigerous cyst. The stimulus for neoplastic transformation of these epithelial structures remains unknown. Ameloblastoma rarely affects children. It is a lesion of adults, and occurs predominantly in the fourth and fifth decades of life. Worldwide, the median age was found to be 35 years with a range of 4-92 years. Males accounted for 53% of cases and females 47% . The rare lesions occurring in children are typically unicystic and appear clinically as odontogenic cysts. Ameloblastoma may occur anywhere in the mandible or maxilla the most favored site being the mandibular molar-ramus area. In the maxilla the molar area is affected more commonly than the premolar or anterior regions. Ameloblastoma are usually asymptomatic and are discovered either during routine radiographic examination or because of asymptomatic jaw expansion .Occasional tooth movement or malocclusion maybe the initial presenting sign. Rarely...
pages: 2 (words: 349)
comments: 0
added: 02/12/2012
Since the 1950s athletes have been using many different assortments and variations of anabolic steroids in order to increase their muscle mass and athletic performance. Yet, only recently over the last ten to twenty years has the general public also began to indulge in anabolic steroid use. The main sect of the population that has allowed anabolic steroids to become so widespread over the years has been athletes at all levels of competition. From paid professional athletes to high school and junior high school performers, anabolic steroids has become a recent epidemic in all facets of athletics. The only way to prevent anabolic steroid use from growing is by defining what an anabolic steroid is, by discussing reasons for potential use, through teaching others about the physical and physiological effects of anabolic steroids, and some recent programs to prevent steroid use. The origin of anabolic steroids comes from the male sex hormone taken in order to increase growth and weight gain. They work by increasing the metabolic process during protein synthesis. The world was first introduced to this sex hormone during the late 1930s where most steroids were used to treat hypogonadism, which is a condition when a male does not produce sufficient testosterone for normal growth, development, and sexual functioning. Also during the 1930s it was discovered that anabolic steroids increased the skeletal growth of laboratory animals, which subsequently led anabolic steroids to be used by body builders and weightlifters. The use of anabolic steroids in these athletic fields were soon banned from the sports because habitual use of the drug often affected the outcome of these contests. This is why today most steroids are illegal and the only way to acquire them is through illegal smuggling of the product. Besides true anabolic steroids there are steroid supplements that can be...
pages: 11 (words: 2994)
comments: 0
added: 10/06/2011
Anaphylaxis is a rapidly developing and serious reaction that affects a number of different areas of the body at once. Severe anaphylaxis shock can be fatal, although most people only experience allergy symptoms as a major annoyance. A small number of people are susceptible to a reaction that can lead to shock or death. Anaphylaxis rare and only one out of 2.5 million die annually. The term anaphylaxis goes back almost a hundred years. It began on Prince Albert I of Monaco's ship. Prince Albert I had invited two scientists to perform studies on the toxin produced by the tentacles of jellyfish. Charles Richet and Paul Portier were able to isolate the toxin and tried to vaccinate dogs in hope of obtaining "prophylaxis" or protection from the toxin. To their dismay, they found that very small doses of the toxin resulted in a new illness that involved the rapid onset of labored breathing that resulted in death. Richet and Portier termed this anaphylaxis or "against protection". Their conclusion was that the immune system became sensitized to the allergen over a period of weeks. Then upon re-exposure, a severe reaction occurred. Richet suggested that the allergen must result in the production of a substance which sensitized the dogs to react severely upon re-exposure. This substance turned out to be immunoglobulin E (IgE). In the early 20th century, anaphylactic reactions were most commonly caused by the tetanus vaccination. The vaccines were made from horse serum; today, human serum is used. Presently the most common causes of anaphylaxis are foods (eggs, seafood, nuts, grains, peanuts, milk), Drugs (penicillin, cephalosporin group), insect stings (bees, yellow jackets, wasps, hornets, fire ants), injected anesthetics (procaine, lidocaine), dyes (used in x-rays and scans), industrial chemicals (latex and rubber products used by healthcare workers) and allergy shots (immunotherapy). Peanut and...
pages: 8 (words: 1959)
comments: 0
added: 02/14/2012
Analysis: B) The magnesium strip had turned into a powdered form in which it has degenerated C) 37.9 grams D) Mg – 50 / 34.31 = 1.45 - 1 O – 50 / 16.0 = 3.12 – 2 Therefore the ratio will be 1 to 2: MgO2 E) Based on the evidence the answers are of the ones shown on the above Evaluation: F) The mass of the magnesium oxide would be far too low if there was any magnesium oxide escaping during the experiment as it causes for less particles therefore less mass to be in the container causing a lower calculation of the magnesium oxide levels. G) The magnesium composition would have increased if it would have reacted with something else in the air as it would have spread its molecules though out a greater radius and be able to do have more molecules of magnesium which would make it heavier. H) This is necessary in order for the ribbon to be easily reachable with the heat and make the experiment both be more efficient and faster reacting. I) we can place the reaction within a large enclosed box in order to ensure not any of the mass of the oxygen or the magnesium be burned in the air without being known. Therefore at the end all of the mass will be once again retrieved to be weighed. J) The law of definite proportion is completely valid and is not broken as the experiment required oxygen and was not a closed environment experiment, needed to find exact stating mass in the end. Since the reaction took place in an open environment therefore the experiment is valid a...
pages: 2 (words: 279)
comments: 0
added: 12/30/2011
People all over the world have different opinions on whether animal lab testing is a sufficient way to test products. Well, the fact is animal lab testing does not harm animals nor does it humans. This happens because animals in laboratories are not in pain. The animals' rights are not harmed during the testing. Lastly, the numbers are decreasing for animal research. All of these reasons are supporting why animal lab testing is a decent way to test products. To begin with, animals in testing and research are strictly controlled to any pain the animal may have. According to fbresearch.com, the Public Heath Service Act, Federal laws, and Animal Welfare act controls the removal of pain." Moreover, each institution must make an animal care and use committee that involves a veterinarian and an outside member of the public to make sure that the testing is moving smoothly. This committee inspects the every move of the scientists in the laboratories the help ensure the animals are in good care. The scientists advocate the highest amount of animal care for two main reasons. First, according to fbresearch.com, "the use of animal research is a privilege and those animals that are helping us to find the cures for the diseases deserve our respect and the best possible care." In addition, "second, a well- treated animal will provide more reliable results." This is the main goal for all researchers. Next, while testing on animals in laboratories, animals' rights are still protected. The use of animal research is a privilege so animal must be protected and not abused. Nearly every major advance in medicine of the 20th century has depended largely on research with animals. According to fbresearch.com, "research in animals will hopefully someday help scientists find the cure for diseases like Alzheimer's, AIDS, and cancer". Animals...
pages: 2 (words: 519)
comments: 0
added: 02/17/2012
Anorexia Nervosa is a serious, life-threatening eating disorder defined by a refusal to maintain minimal body weight within 15 percent of an individual's normal weight. The term anorexia literally means loss of appetite, but this is not true. In fact, people with anorexia nervosa ignore hunger and thus control their desire to eat. They begin to diet, and then the dieting turns to an obsession. Like all eating disorders, anorexia nervosa tends to occur in pre- or post-puberty, but can develop at any major life change. Anorexia nervosa predominately affects adolescent girls and young adult women, although it also occurs in men and older women. One reason younger women are particularly vulnerable to eating disorders is their tendency to go on strict diets to achieve an "ideal" figure. This obsessive dieting behavior reflects today's public pressure to be thin, which is seen in advertising and the media. Others especially at risk for eating disorders include athletes, actors, dancers, models, and TV personalities for whom thinness has become a professional requirement. One of the most frightening aspects of the disorder is that people with anorexia nervosa continue to think they look fat even when they are bone-thin. Their nails and hair become brittle, and their skin may become dry and yellow. Depression and obsessive-compulsive behavior is common in patients suffering from this disorder. People with anorexia nervosa often complain of feeling cold (hypothermia) because their body temperature drops. They develop strange eating habits such as cutting their food into tiny pieces, refusing to eat in front of others, or fixing meals for others that they themselves don't eat. They even become obsessive with exercising to try to maintain an image to their family that they are indeed healthy. Bulimia nervosa, often simply called bulimia, is an eating disorder. People with bulimia consume...
pages: 4 (words: 834)
comments: 0
added: 02/20/2012
I don't have a paper that I can submit but when I finally get it written I will defintley submit it so that I can help all of my fellow class mates in writing these dreadful 20 page english papers. But my topis is on Anoerxia and how it seems that the upper class girls get Anoerxia than the lower class. My mother than made a comment, She said " only in America are girls rich enough to starve themselves". This is comming from a women that lived in El Salvador. Also my arguement is that if these girls didn't get so much special attention, maybe if we would send them for let's say 2 weeks to a 3rd world country where their is no decison to eat. where they have to help each other and the people that actually live there out. I wonder what would happen then...ya know? ther than made a comment, She said " only in America are girls rich enough to starve themselves". This is comming from a women that lived in El Salvador. Also my arguement is that if these girls didn't get so much special attention, maybe if we would send them for let's say 2 weeks to a 3rd world country where their is no decison to eat. where they have to help each other and the people that actually live there out. I don't have a paper that I can submit but when I finally get it written I will defintley submit it so that I can help all of my fellow class mates in writing these dreadful 20 page english papers...
pages: 1 (words: 271)
comments: 0
added: 02/01/2012
Anorexia is among over 100,000 teens in america today. Its quite sad. The teen girls just try to portray the image that all the magazines have in their models. Its quite sad when girls have to be a size 2 to be accepted. You should just be your self. Its important to have your own self image. YOu dont always have to look like the models in the magazines. Its very very sad about those kinds of things. The binge-purge cycle is a cycle where the girls eat alot of food and throw it up. That is also a part of bulimia. Anorexic girls look in the mirror and see themselves as fat, when they are groteskley skinny. It is so sad. It is so sad. It is so sad. I think there is something we could do. Maybe put more size 6's in the magazines than the size 0's its so scary to be in their situation. They are human too...they cant always have that grotesk look. They cant be contained. They have to give up or they will die. They are scared to be fat. They are scared to eat. They are just plain scared. Just just just just just just just just just just jsut just jsut just scared scared scared scared scared scared to to to to to to to to be be be ebe eb eb be be fat fat fat fat fat fat fat fat it is just scary and frightening. Just scary for those lil girls in high school or even junior high....
pages: 1 (words: 260)
comments: 0
added: 11/06/2011
Anorexia nercosa is a life-rhreatening disorder described by extreme body malnutrition or self-starvation. This illness usually affects young women ranging from pre-teens to collage females (only ten percent of anorexia sufferers are boys). An estimated one-half of females in the United States develop anorexia. Although mostly common only in adolescet females, there have been diagnosis of anorexia in children as young as seven and in women as old as eighty. Anorexia is significantly more common among the white population than in any other race. The cause of anorexia nervosa is unknown. Both biological and social factors play a roll in the illness; nevertheless anorexia nervosa may be brought upon by internal conflicts such as stress, anxiety, and low self-esteem. It may also be attained by external conflicts like physical apppearence. Anorexia can also be provoked through a broken home or troubled household. Anorexia can also run in families. For instance, a girl has ten to twenty percent higher risk of developing the disorder if living with a sibling who has the disease. Anorexia is the exact opposite of obesity and can be detected mostly in wealthy societies where food is taken for granted. Before the weight loss anorexia sufferers are often models of good behavior, achevement, and are often poplar. Ther average teenage girl will talk of sliming down and dieting, however anorexia sufferers will not talk about their weight or losing weight. They have an extreme phobia of obesity and perceive themselves as being obese. People suffering from anorxia will have a distorted body image. Thery see themselves in the mirror as fatter than what they really are. The condition starts with the person's voluntary control of food intake in reaction to social pressures such as the acceptance of their peers. Later the illness advances to an extreme phase and...
pages: 3 (words: 680)
comments: 0
added: 11/10/2011
Anorexia Nervosa is a mental disorder in which a person has an intense fear of gaining weight and a distorted perception of their weight and body shape. People with this illness believe themselves to be fat even when their weight is so low that their health is in danger. A person with anorexia nervosa severely restricts food intake and usually becomes extremely thin. People with this disease are sometimes known as anorectics or anorexics. Anorexics have a preoccupation with food, weight, dieting, and body image. They are dissatisfied with their bodies, perceive themselves to be fat regardless of their actual weight, and are obsessed with becoming thin. Many are so focused on outward appearance that they have little awareness of internal sensations such as hunger and fullness. Anorexics usually undertake strict diets, severely restricting food intake and avoiding certain foods they deem taboo. They may also undergo intense, strenuous exercise regimens and weigh themselves frequently. Despite eating very little, many people with anorexia nervosa become overly involved with food by preparing elaborate meals for others or taking over food shopping or preparation for the family. At meals, they may cut their food into tiny pieces, eat very slowly, and dispose of food secretly. The incidence of anorexia is higher among teenage girls and young women than in other groups of Americans. Females account for about 90 percent of eating disorders in the United States.In Western society, the number of people who have this disorder seems to be increasing. Anorexia nervosa may be mild and transient or severe and long lasting. Anorexia nervosa primarily affects people in middle and upper socioeconomic classes. About 30 percent of people with anorexia nervosa also develop bulimia nervosa. This is a type of eating disorder in which individuals engage in episodes of binge eating, or consuming large...
pages: 3 (words: 693)
comments: 0
added: 10/20/2011
"Researchers estimate that about 0.5 to 1 percent of young women in the United States have anorexia nervosa as it is clinically defined -+ by the American Psychiatric Association" (Microsoft 1). Anorexia Nervosa is a national epidemic that is not only exclusive to the females in our society. Anorexia Nervosa is a mental illness where the patient has an intense fear of gaining weight and an imprecise perception of their body size and shape. Someone with anorexia nervosa is going to eat less and often exercise excessively. A person with anorexia nervosa will also will see himself or herself as overweight even when they are so underweight that they are seriously endangering their health. The purpose of this paper is to examine the different aspects of anorexia nervosa and possible treatments and cures, from the psychological standpoint. Anorexia nervosa is predominantly found in women. Although, more than 90 percent of cases involve women, the other 5 to 10 percent are found in men (Microsoft 1). This number is believed to actually be higher, but many would not as easily recognize this disorder in men since the disorder is so associated with women. Many of the symptoms are psychological in origin. One such symptom is the belief that if the patient is thin then happiness, fame, and wealth will come to them. Many of these people look to stars in Hollywood such as the actress that plays Alley McBeal on the hit TV drama, Alley McBeal. The successful lawyer has many friends and is often sot after by men. This is one example of many of how Hollywood places an overemphasis on thinness to be beautiful. This leads many young woman and a few young men to become thin. Through this course, they over exercise and under eat to get the results they...
pages: 4 (words: 1005)
comments: 0
added: 09/26/2011
Anorexia Nervosa Anorexia Nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by a fear of being fat, a distorted body image, radically reduced consumption of food, and emaciation (Tavris and Wade, 2002, p. 477). Anorexia can occur in teenage girls and boys, as well as women and men. There are many different symptoms of this disease, but the most common symptoms of anorexia are physical. Although treatment of anorexia is difficult, there are ways of receiving treatment for the disease. Anorexia Nervosa is a very serious disease that can be extremely harmful and sometimes fatal. "A typical anorexia patient would be a thirteen to fifteen year old white, upper-middle class female" (Gross, 1936, p. 16). Anorexia can also occur in teenage boys and adult men and women (Anorexia Nervosa. para. 1). People with the disease are obsessed with being extremely thin, and see themselves as fat even thought they are excessively thin. The disease is typical among teenage girls because they are most likely to be self conscious about their weight. To deal with emotional problems sometimes people will stop eating because they feel that their weight is one thing they have control over, unlike emotional problems that they cannot deal with or control (Smolak and Striegel-Moore, 2001, p. 60). There are many danger signals with anorexia, including losing a significant amount of weight, continuing to diet even though a person is thin, and fearing weight gain. Someone that may have anorexia may exercise compulsively. People with the disease are also preoccupied with food, calories, nutrition, and cooking. Binging and purging can also be a symptom of Anorexia Nervosa. (Anorexia Nervosa. para. 2). Physical complications are obvious in a person suffering with anorexia. Anorexia breaks down the body and causes hair loss, hollow facial features, shrunken breasts on woman, and dry skin. It can also cause...
pages: 3 (words: 745)
comments: 0
added: 10/20/2011
Anorexia Nervosa generally affects 1% of female adolescence in the United States, which is about 1 in 100 women. The patient's ages range for 10 to late 20's, even though there have been reports of patients as young as 6 and old as 76. Anorexic patients are typically eager to please and strive for perfection. They may fear growing up, often feel stressed, and may have low tolerance for change. Anorexia Nervosa patients' fear weight gain or the idea of becoming fat. They have a distorted body image. They may also go to the extremes of dieting and overexertion in physical activities. They may feel that since they want everything to be perfect that this is the way to be like what society wants them to be, thin. 4% of college age women are diagnosed with Bulimia Nervosa, which is about 4 in every 100 women. Bulimic patients usually have anxiety, a form of depression, and adequately they normally depend on family for help and yet affirm that they are independent. Bulimia Nervosa patients have reoccurring episodes of binge eating the purging (expelling "the waste"). They deprive themselves of food for a period of time, which leads to hunger, and then to powerful cravings that are uncontrollable. All bulimic patients have a lack of control in overeating during their binge eating. Since they feel a loss of control in their life they may feel that this is the one thing that they can control their weight. 10% of males have either bulimia or anorexia. Various types of people that may develop anorexia or bulimia are wrestlers, cheerleaders, runners, entertainers, models and even male homosexuals....
pages: 1 (words: 274)
comments: 0
added: 10/13/2011
Anorexia Nervosa is a severe eating disorder that mainly affects teenage girls, however, it can affect men and women of all ages. There are many factors that contribute to a girl becoming anorexic, including low self-esteem and depression. Common features of anorexia include weight loss and behavior changes. The weight loss is gradual and often starts with a "perfectly normal weight reducing diet."(Rowan) Although the only person who can cure anorexia is the person that suffers from it, there are some treatment options available today. Many factors contribute to a girl becoming anorexic. A main one is an attempt to lose excess weight. Most anorexic girls do not have "excess weight" to lose, they only think they do. In fact, most often they are unhealthily thin. Oftentimes, the girl disregards the opinions of others and focuses on losing as much weight as she can. Attempts to make her stop are often met with hostility and even violence.(Rowan, Shelly) Another key factor that can lead to anorexia is depression. This can be associated with stress/pressure at school, home, or in relationships. Usually, an anorexic teenage girl comes from a family where the pressure to succeed is great. This leads to constant anxiety over big tests such as finals and S.A.T./A.C.T. exams. Because the girl has so much anxiety, problems in relationships often arise. If she has a boyfriend, he tends to feel neglected because the girl is constantly worried about her academics.(Rowan, Shelly) A change in personality is a very common side effect of anorexia among teenage girls. In most cases, she becomes less outgoing and less fun to be with. This leads to her distancing herself from her friends, and she may seem to lose interest in everything except food and academics. In addition, the girl may become more organized and obsessive. She...
pages: 4 (words: 984)
comments: 0
added: 12/13/2011
PROJECT DETAILS: The primary investigators involved in the research of the Meningococcal Disease are Scientists, Doctors, Microbiologists and Pharmacologists from a Melbourne Institute of Medicine. The project is expected to take at least four years and requires $2 Million to assist in the research and prevention of the disease. INTRODUCTION: Meningococcal Disease is a harsh infectious disease that attacks either the brain and spinal tissue or poisons the blood. Either one can kill a person if the symptoms are gone unrecognised or treatment is delayed. Meningococcal can affect anyone, no matter what age, race or gender. However, young children under the age of five years and young adults between the ages of fifteen and nineteen years are more susceptible to the disease. The importance of the research being conducted about Meningococcal Disease will hopefully shed some light on the structure, in particular the coating of the serotype B strain, the most common form of Meningococcal Disease in Australia. This will allow the team of specialists to fuse the coating with the appropriate protein to allow all people susceptible to the disease to be able to take the vaccine, unlike the current vaccines where children no younger than two can have them. BODY: The meningococcal disease is a severe and uncommon disease caused by the germ, 'Meningococcus', and attacks the body from either the throat or nose. The disease occurs in two main forms: Meningococcal Meningitis, when Meningococcus infect the outer lining around the brain and spinal cord, or Meningococcal Septicaemia, when Meningococcus invade the blood stream and poison the blood. (http://www.cpsbc.bc.ca/news/Meningococcal.htm 15/06/03). The disease also splits up into 13 different serotypes, the five most common ones being A, B, C, W135 and Y. When a person contracts Meningococcal Meningitis, meningococci are transferred to membrane-bound phagocytic vacuoles. They then settle on mucosal surfaces which results in infection and...
pages: 4 (words: 1005)
comments: 0
added: 12/30/2011
ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE AND JUDICIOUS USE OF ANTIBIOTICS Antibiotics Antibiotics are chemical substances, many of them derived from microorganisms that suppress the growth of other organisms and sometimes kill them. In clinical practice, the antibiotics are used to treat bacteriologically proven infections and also in the prophylaxis of certain diseases. They are sometimes used in the blind or empiric therapy of presumed infection. A different principle governs the selection of antibiotics for each of the above situations. An antibiotic appropriate for one situation may be absolutely out of context in another situation. The problem is magnified by the availability of increasing numbers of antibiotics and the emergence of resistant strains. The antimicrobial sensitivity varies from country to country, from town to town, hospital to hospital and even in the same hospital, from ward to ward! Thus the choice of an antibiotic need sound clinical judgment, a detailed pharmacological knowledge of the chemical and knowledge of the sensitivity pattern. A close interaction between the clinician and the microbiologist is required to avoid wasteful use of antibiotics. Inappropriate use of antibiotics can cause serious side effects some of which may lead to a fatality or contribute to it. Of late antibiotic resistance is increasing everywhere and, in some areas, is reaching crisis proportions. Some literature already talks about "Post antibiotic era". The problems of resistance are being addressed today through infection control practices to control outbreaks of resistance, the stress on judicious use of existing antimicrobials and the continuing search for new effective agents. It is important for all of us to understand the inside story of antimicrobial resistance so that we can tackle the problem of resistance scientifically. We doctors, however, need not blame ourselves totally for the state of affairs today. For, the causes of resistance are not only within the realms of the doctor's...
pages: 9 (words: 2382)
comments: 0
added: 01/04/2012
Anxiety disorders are the most common mental illness in America. More then nineteen million American adults are affected by these debilitating illnesses each year. Children and adolescents can also develop anxiety disorders. Most people experience feelings of anxiety before and important event, such as a big exam or your own wedding. Anxiety disorders are illnesses that fill people lives with overwhelming anxiety and fear that can grog progressively worse. People with anxiety disorders are tormented by panic attacks, obsessive thoughts, and flashbacks of traumatic events, nightmares, or freighting physical symptoms. Fortunately, through research there are effective treatments that can help. Anxiety disorders come in different forms, one form of anxiety is now as a panic disorder. Panic disorders are repeated episodes of intense fear that strike often without warning. Physical symptoms include chest pain, heart palpitations, shortness of breath, dizziness, abdominal distress, feeling of unreality, and fear of dying. These sensations often mimic symptoms of a heart attack or other life threatening medical conditions. Many people with panic disorders develop intense anxiety between episodes. I t is not unusual for a person with panic disorder to develop phobias about places or situations where panic attacks have occurred. As the frequency of panic attacks increase, the person often begins to avoid situations where they fear another attack may occur or where help would not be immediately available. Panic attacks are caused by stressful life events, biological factors, hereditary and thinking in a way that exaggerates relatively normal bodily reactions. The exact cause or causes of panic disorders are unknown. Studies in animals and humans have focused on pinpointing the specific brain areas and circuits involved in anxiety and fear, which underlie anxiety disorders such as panic disorder. Fear and emotion that evolved to deal with danger, causes and automatic, rapid protective response that...
pages: 6 (words: 1474)
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added: 02/19/2012
Introduction Nuclear medicine is the application of radioactive materials to the diagnosis and management of disease in humans. It is primarily a diagnostic specialty and one of the most challenging and exciting branches of medicine. Nuclear medicine has recently celebrated the 100th anniversary of its first introduction to the medical world. In this note, I will highlight some of the significant developments that have been introduced to the world of medicine by this newly born science. Background The idea of using radioactive materials in human body was first suggested by Alexander Graham Bell in the early 20th century and is still valid and developing. Beginning in the 1980s until today, there has been rapid expansion in nuclear medicine techniques. High-speed computers have made the difference in the ability to image multiple radioactive drugs. The introduction of truly metabolic agents, such as radio labeled sugars, has enabled physicians to study cancer and heart disease in a way not previously available. Patients today can have an assessment to know if their cancer has spread, stopped, or otherwise changed after the treatment. In patients with heart disease, new information is available that permits improvements in clinical management. Radiolabeled antibodies to colon cancer and prostate cancer are in routine clinical use to help in finding early recurrent disease. These same antibodies may be used for preoperative information as well. By using nuclear medicine technology, patients do not have to go under a discomforting surgery and deal with the costly surgery procedures. Thanks to nuclear medicine technologists, experiments are being done using antibodies that are labeled with radioactive materials in order to help us to treat cancer. As we approach the 21st century, nuclear medicine is the heart of clinical procedures. Nuclear medicine helps us to image virtually every body organ system down to the molecular level. We continue to...
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added: 11/18/2011
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