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Medicine
There has been much controversy lately over the use of an over-the-counter stimulant called Ephedrine; which, comes from the plant Ephedra. It was originally used for three medical purposes: to open up nasal passages, suppress appetites, and constrict blood vessels. Later on it had been discovered that ephedrine could be taken for other purposes, such as, weight loss and increased energy output. It became widely known as a performance enhancing drug that could have an impact on people's competitive edge. Today, it primarily can be found in supplements like fat burning pills (Rippedfuel, Xenedrine, etc...) But the number of performance enhancing supplements ephedrine had been added to is slowly dwindiling, because, of the controversy surrounding the harmful affects it could have on a person who isn't that knowledgeable or isn't taking the product correctly. This issue has escalated lately after the death of a MLB (Major League Baseball) pitcher, who, (after a coroner's examin) found ephedrine within his system. Now the FDA (Food Drug Administration) is investigating whether ephedrine should be banned from MLB. In my opinion ephedrine shouldn't be banned for three reasons: The amount of money that is made off ephedrine, The medical uses it can be used for and if taken in moderation it is safe. The sell of ephedrine in supplemental products is a billion dollar industry in a world where looking good and having that perfect physique is very important. I know people will say "no amount of money is worth a person's life." That is true, but, that person should also know what he or she is doing or putting in their body, but more about that later. The money that is made off ephedrine is put toward medical research for other drugs that could help cure diseases or make other drugs better. While regulated ephedrine...
pages: 3 (words: 737)
comments: 0
added: 01/02/2012
Why was the Armenian Genocide Forgotten? GENOCIDE By definition genocide is the organized killing of a people for the express purpose of putting an end to their collective existence (Webster,s dictionary). As a rule, the organizing agent is the nation, the victim population is a domestic minority, and the end result is the near total death of a society. The Armenian genocide generally conforms to this simple definition. FORGOTTEN The Armenian genocide is a hidden, almost lost part of world history, pretty much eclipsed by the more publicized genocide of the twentieth century, the Holocaust. The question is why. I could take a poll of this room and I am willing to bet that 95% of the students have ever even heard of the Armenian Genocide and those who have couldn,t tell me more than a couple sentences about it. This is pretty scary, considering the statistics of the Armenian Genocide. The Ottoman Empire was ruled by the Turks who had conquered the land from across West Asia, North Africa to Southeast Europe. The Ottoman government was based in Istanbul and was headed by a sultan who was given absolute power. The Turks were Islamic and were a harsh disciplinary civilization. The Armenians, a Christian minority, lived as second class citizens subject to legal restrictions (Graber 119). These restrictions denied them normal safeguards. Neither their lives nor their properties were guaranteed security. As non-Muslims they were also obligated to pay discriminatory taxes and denied participation in government. In its prime of the sixteenth century the Ottoman Empire was a powerful state. Its minority populations really benefited with the growth of its economy, but by the nineteenth century, the empire was in serious decline (Graber 121). It had been reduced in size and by 1914 had lost virtually all its lands...
pages: 6 (words: 1528)
comments: 0
added: 11/18/2011
Aromatherapy is the ancient art and science of using volatile plant oils including essential oils for a persons psychological and physical well-being (zuzuspetals.net). It is a form of herbal medicine that uses the essential oils to heal, relax, and increase energy levels through skin penetration or inhalation (Fischer-Rizzi, 1990). Aromatherapy is known as being a very gentle alternative form of therapy for a variety of common ailments or symptoms, such as assisting with cuts, wounds, bruises, inflammation, indigestion, acne, skincare, hair care, hygiene, and PMS. It also provides mental and emotional assistance with such issues as stress, fatigue, anxiety, and fear (aromaweb.com). Essential oils work on five levels. The first level is physical, because essential oils have antiseptic and immune-stimulating effects. The second level is emotional because the oils can stimulate memories and can aid the treatment of depression, stress, and grief. The third is the energy level because the oils can be used on various energy points on one's body or on acupuncture meridians. The fourth level is cellular. Essential oils help heal wounds and regenerate skin tissue. They can also maintain a moisture level in the skin and protect against infection. The last level is the spiritual level. Various cultures have used essential oils for prayer, meditation, rituals and purification processes (ivillagehealth.com). Essential oils are the vital components of the plant; plants use their essential oils as part of their immune and defense systems (LesHerbes.com). The concentrated volatile oils are extracted from the flowers, seeds, buds, leaves, roots, bark and resins of plants, herbs and flowers (Simpson and Ogorzaly, 2001). These oils must be extracted from the plant through procedures that do not alter the natural smells. Traditional methods of distillation include scarification, steam distillation, oleoresin, and enfleurage. Scarification is done by pressing the outer rinds of citrus fruits to...
pages: 6 (words: 1553)
comments: 0
added: 10/25/2011
Classical Style (art and literature), a descriptive term for art and literature of ancient Greece or Rome, or similar in style or quality. Classic, Classical, and Classicism are terms describing the style, historical period, or quality of a work of literature, art, or music. The terms were originally associated with the artistic achievements of the ancient Greek and Roman civilizations. However, they have come to have much broader meanings and applications. Classic is a term used primarily to denote and characterize a type and style or period of creative work. In a strict sense, a classic is any ancient Greek or Roman literary work of the highest quality, such as the works of the Roman poet Virgil or the Greek dramatist Sophocles. In a broad sense, the term classic is applied to any work accepted either as a model of excellence or as a creation of enduring cultural relevance and value. Classical, in the strictest sense, is a term used to characterize the art, literature, and aesthetics created by the ancient Greeks and Romans. In its wider sense, the term classical is applied to any style or period of creative work distinguished by qualities that are mainly suggestive of, or derived from, classical Greek or Roman art, literature, and aesthetics. Chief among these qualities are a sense of conscious restraint in the handling of themes and a sense of rational ordering and proportioning of forms. In architecture the classical orders are the three Greek orders-the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian-and the two Roman additions to them-the Composite and the Tuscan (seeOrders of Architecture). In ancient Greece the classical era ran from 500 to 320 BC, and in ancient Rome the Golden Age lasted from c. 70 BC to AD 18. French literature in the second half of the 17th century is also considered classical,...
pages: 2 (words: 468)
comments: 0
added: 01/30/2012
This article is about a study done in the United States, on nurses and malpractice and negligent issues. This article covers how this study defined and tracked the malpractice cases in the states. It then gives you a brief description of what is classified as negligence and malpractice. It then explains possible things or concerns that may have contributed to these malpractices occurring. They then went into explaining the areas of nursing that have the highest cases of malpractice and negligence and which ones have the least amount. It then also explains six major categories of negligence that result in lawsuits. I found this article very interesting as I feel it is important to be aware of theses issues occurring in nursing , so that I can make sure and help prevent this from occurring with my generation of nurses. I found the article informative and to the point. I found it interesting that I never would of thought that negligence would occur in the highest in an acute care setting. I would of thought long term care. However, this is why I enjoyed this article. It opened my eyes to what I never knew. It also opened my eyes to the need for accountability in our practice. This is why I chose to put this article under the accountability standard. I feel that the issues discussed in this article counteract with the indicators under accountability. I will take this information from this article and use is as a nurse and in the future as a reminder to make sure I am fully aware of how I treat a patient and to make sure I am accountable and know I am accountable for what I do....
pages: 2 (words: 286)
comments: 0
added: 02/20/2012
Blacks are disproportionately affected by stroke, yet they have been underrepresented in clinical trials. Recommendations for stroke prevention in this population have been based largely on trials that have included few black participants. This may not be an optimal practice because blacks are among those with a higher prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors, a different distribution of atherosclerotic occlusive cerebral vascular lesions, vascular biological differences such as low renin hypertension, and a different pattern of use of medical procedures and access to care that could influence outcome. A subgroup analysis of the Ticlopidine Aspirin Stroke Study (TASS)suggested a more favorable risk-benefit profile for nonwhites than whites. Specifically, among the 495 black and 108 nonwhite and nonblack study participants, there was a 24.1% relative risk reduction (RRR) for stroke and death at 2 years favoring ticlopidine (500 mg/d) over aspirin (1300 mg/d), and 10% fewer serious adverse events (SAEs). Overall in TASS, there was a 12% RRR for nonfatal stroke or death from any cause (P = .05) favoring ticlopidine at 3 years. The current study was designed in 1993, with the belief that a targeted recurrent stroke prevention study for blacks was justified given their disproportionate stroke burden, promising data for ticlopidine as a recurrent stroke preventive treatment in nonwhites, and the lack of previous substantial representation of blacks in stroke clinical trials. The primary outcome of the African American Antiplatelet Stroke Prevention Study (AAASPS) was the composite end point of recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, or vascular death. A description of the design and methods of AAASPS has been reported previously in accordance with criteria proposed by the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials. That article16 included a discussion of barriers to black participation in clinical trials and how they were overcome, the rationale for study drug selection, relationships established with primary care...
pages: 3 (words: 718)
comments: 0
added: 02/02/2012
The purpose of this assignment is to discuss the knowledge that underpins assisting a client with eating and drinking. I will begin by introducing a service user, who in order to maintain confidentiality and anonymity will be referred to as Dot. An attempt will be made to look at different factors that can influence the nutritional requirements of the individual. I will then discuss the principles applying when assisting a client with eating and drinking with references to experience gained during a practice placement. Dot is a fifty-year-old female with severe physical and learning disabilities. She lives in the nursing home for people with learning disabilities. Dot depends on others to assist her with all daily tasks and activities. Roper at al (2001:26) defined nutrition as ‘the study of food and related physiological processes of growth, maintenance and repair of body tissue., Food is a main source of energy needed for all bodily activities and metabolic processes (Roper at al., 2001; Malik at al.1998). Energy balance depends on individual,s energy expenditure and determines the amount of food required. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the energy needed ‘to maintain the basics for survival - heartbeat, circulation, breathing, body temperature and muscle tone, (Sandy,1997:102). It can be affected by various factors such as age, growth, height, sex, body temperature, stress, exercise, food intake, environmental temperature, fasting, malnutrition, hormones (Malik at a1, 1998). In general, irrespective of client,s physical or mental ability, nutritional needs will always be determined by age, gender, life style and state of health, and depending on ability, disability or long term illness the level of nutrients required will differ (Sandy, 1997). Nutrients responsible for maintaining body,s normal functioning are extracted from the food and absorbed from the alimentary tract. They can be divided into six classes: water (which accounts for about 60% of total...
pages: 23 (words: 6300)
comments: 0
added: 02/10/2012
"Follow-up of Children Born After Assisted Reproductive Technology." Assisted reproductive technology refers to the procedures in which the oocyte is handled or manipulated in the vitro before fertilization either as an oocyte or an embryo. The most common techniques used in assisted reproductive technologies are in vitro (IV) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Recent studies show that there is a greater risk of birth defects and malformations in children born as a result of assisted reproductive technologies as opposed to those conceived spontaneously. Frequently, as a result of ART, mulitple pregnancies are highly common. Since multiple preganices cause the mother to deliver the babies premnaturely, babies resulting from ART, have the same risks as any other baby born prematurely. Among the common birth defects as a result of assisted reproductive technologies are low birth rate and undeveloped organs. This also raises the cost of delivery of the babies. Since most are under normal birthweight and are not completely developed internally, they are often kept at the hospital until they have reached a more nomal birthweight. Also, they are kept in incubators. Not all babies resulting from ART survive after birth because of the premature risk factors. Even though there is a greater risk of birth defects and abnormalities in children born as a result of assisted reproductive technologies, there are still studies being performed as to be able to identify these defects earlier in the pregnancy. Ludwig, Michael, Klaus Diedrich. "Follow-up of children born after Assisted Reproductive Technologies." Reproductive Biomedicine Online Nov/Dec 2002 16 Sept. 2003. Vol. 5 Issue 3, p317, 6p. http://web24.epnet.com Ludwig, Michael, Klaus Diedrich. "Follow-up of children born after Assisted Reproductive Technologies." Reproductive Biomedicine Online Nov/Dec 2002 16 Sept. 2003. Vol. 5 Issue 3, p317, 6p. http://web24.epnet.com Wright, Victoria C. et al. "Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance—United States, 2000." Center for Disease Control...
pages: 2 (words: 336)
comments: 0
added: 02/10/2012
Assisted suicide is a widely argued ethical issue. A lot of the debate on this subject stems from either different viewpoints of when this act is appropriate, or what the resulting consequences would be if such an act were ever permissible. The point mostly debated between opposing sides is life-worth. What constitutes a life worth living and who is to ultimately decide this? The main problem with this question is that suffering cannot be measured unless one is to endure that same suffering themselves. The view that life is a special gift bestowed by God is held highly by many religions and it is of most importance to them when the debate on assisted suicides arises. A gift from God should not be tampered with let alone destructed. Although the number of ethical issues involved is endless I will be focuses on three points. The first point in this introduction into the ethics of assisted suicide will involve the psychologically vulnerable and the elderly. The second ethical issue to be mentioned will be the presence and/or lack of a definition for a terminal illness. The last point is concerned with the human will to power and how this creates a problem should assisted suicide be permissible. These ethical issues, although strong convictions on their own, can lead to slippery slope arguments and must be looked at very carefully. In addition depending on the standpoint that one would take, these arguments have both strengths and weaknesses. Many people fear the process of aging. They become unable to continue the same lifestyle that they once had and they often are more ill and have to be looked after by family or others. The same can be said about the psychologically vulnerable who quite often have to depend on someone else to live as functional...
pages: 4 (words: 989)
comments: 0
added: 04/30/2011
Although Assisted suicide is a very controversial issue, in my opinion, it should be allowed for all terminally ill patients. First of all, assisted suicide should be allow to all terminally ill patients because they are just waiting for the day of death with extreme pain. Death is a compassionate way to relieve unbearable suffering no matter how long patients can live. In a survey two-thirds of the patients are desire to euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide for their agony. (Emanuel, 1996.) All ill terminally patients are having intractable pain, fatigue and breathlessness as symptoms through the last moment of their lives. For example, one patient, 68-year-old Karl Stansell, has terminal throat cancer. He has received chemotherapy and radiation therapy, and is being fed through a feeding tube. His doctors have told him he has less than six months to live as the cancer spreads through his body. Stansell said, ¡°Eventually I will be unable to swallow anything and will die in agony.¡± He has the fear of future suffering and have to deal with intractable pain until he dies. Secondly, assisted suicide should be allowed for all terminally ill patients and their families. Not only patients suffering from the pain, but also their families suffer from emotional and financial burden. Caring for a terminally ill person is difficult for many families; end-of-life care can produce exhaustion for caregivers, and families can experience panic, distress, and financial strain. The patients of terminal ill wish to end of their lives without being a burden to caregivers, and don¡¯t want to give them a great deal of pain. According to servey, ¡° Sixty-three percent of the 27 people whose suicides were legally assisted under Oregon law in 2000 said, they did so because they feared being a burden to family, friends, and other...
pages: 3 (words: 704)
comments: 0
added: 10/03/2011
Proper nutrition and dieting has been quite a controversial topic over the past century. In the past couple decades an enormous amount of effort has been put forth toward infomercials for various products guaranteed to make people lose weight. Some of these products include "abtronics" which shock the abdominal muscles; in theory they are supposed to simulate the movement of crunches. So, a person would be able to watch television with the belt on and fool their body into thinking he were doing crunches. Other gimmick products advertised are pills such as hydroxycut, which promise toned muscles and loss of body fat in only a short period of time. Since many people are anxious to lose weight, these products promise hope. However, gimmick products discourage dieters and often cause people stop making healthy choices. Medications such as Hydroxycut actually do work for a short period of time, but then are less effective. After the results slow down, many dieters lose hope and become discouraged. This frequently leads people back to their old unhealthy habits and actually causes them put on a greater amount of weight then recently lost (O'Brien). It definitely is a fact that as a society Americans are becoming more and more unhealthy. Currently statistics show that over 65% of Americans are overweight (Hall). A figure more astounding is that 30% of Americans are considered obese, almost 10% higher then a decade ago (Hall). According to the American Obesity Association, obesity causes at least 300,000 excess U.S. deaths and an annual healthcare costs of approximately $100 billion (Westman). It is crucial in the next few years that this pattern subsides or it will create a hectic problem for heath care providers (O'Brien). It is almost certain that health insurance would increase dramatically if Americans continue on this track of...
pages: 8 (words: 1993)
comments: 0
added: 12/17/2011
Human Nutrition Cynthia Hayden University Of Phoenix SCI 220 July 14, 2003 During the last decade, Americans have been trying to loose weight through various weight loss programs. A specific program that endured ridicule since the early 70's, but has finally been approved has an effective diet, which is the Atkins Diet, by Robert C. Atkins, a cardiologist who spoke highly on the dangers of sugar and carbs. Dr. Atkins had been called names by peers and even brought before a senate committee, but he refused to go unheard. The Atkins diet is a high protein diet, with a restriction of dietary carbohydrates. The Atkins diet eliminates fruits, cereals, breads, grains, starches, baked goods, dairy products, starchy vegetables and sweets. During the initial two-week induction of the Atkins diet, only pure proteins are allowed. Pure proteins include, meat, fish, shellfish, poultry and eggs, along with pure fats such as butter, olive oil and mayonnaise. A total of 20 grams of carbohydrates are allowed during this initial 2-week period. These carbohydrates include, vegetables as salads, asparagus, broccoli and Kale. Many people has become hook instantly of the Atkins Diets due to this rapid weight reduction within the 2-week period, but as in any diet the first initial weight loss isn't by fat it is water. When the body is deprived from carbohydrates the body runs short on glucose, which breaks down carbohydrates. The body anticipates these situations by storing emergency glucose, known as glycogen in the muscle and liver. If carbohydrates are significantly limited, the body will begin to break down this glycogen to obtain glucose for energy. Also, the reduction in Ketosis is not considered to be healthy according to the American Institute for Cancer Research. The American Institute for Cancer Research (AAICR), inducing ketosis can lead to muscle breakdown, dehydration, headaches, nausea and severe as kidney problems....
pages: 3 (words: 804)
comments: 0
added: 10/31/2011
As I began to think about what I wanted to write my paper about, I thought of all the topics in education that I would like to know more about. I finally choose ADD/ADHD and the use of Ritalin as my subject matter. Not being a parent or an experienced educator as of yet, I see America's propensity to over medicate reaching our youngest population. I think the statement by Dr. Breggin is quite profound, "When we drug millions of children to make them more compliant and easier to manage at home and in school, it says more about our society's distorted values than about our children" (Breggin 1998). I know from my experience in the health care profession, that Americans believe in medication to create a better life for themselves. That can be as simple as getting an antibiotic for the slightest cold or as complex as medicating ourselves to fight a chronic condition. We live in a society that wants everything done quickly. We drive through for our food, banking, prescription pick-ups, and car washes. We develop our pictures in an hour and pay for our gas at the pump. We watch 50 channels of television in a second. Television has learned that it has to be gripping in order to keep up with our wandering minds. We even have televisions that allow you to watch more than one channel at a time. We wonder why our children have trouble paying attention. When do we do anything that requires anything but the most miniscule amount of our attention? How do we expect children to practice the learned behaviors of watching and listening, if we never teach it to them? We spend the first few years of their lives showing them the frenzied world in which we live and then...
pages: 15 (words: 4110)
comments: 0
added: 02/19/2012
Autism-A Parents Perspective 2 The National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities define Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorder as developmental disabilities that share many of the same characteristics. Children usually exhibit evidence of the disability around age three. A neurological disorder, Autism-PDD can affect a child's ability to communicate, understand language, play and relate to others. (FSN 1 August 2002). Although the exact causes are not known, these disorders are more common in boys than in girls. Children with autism or PDD vary wildly in their abilities, intelligence, and behaviors. A common reference is Dustin Hoffman's portrayal of an autistic savant in the movie "Rain Man." Although blessed with an uncanny ability in mathematics, his social skills were on the level of a seven year-old. For an individual in his mid-40's, this presented a host of functional problems. His ability to survive and function in the world was hampered. Autism-A Parent's Perspective 3 However, what was not addressed was the effect his disability had on his family, immediate and extended, and the difficulties that they faced. As a parent of an autistic child, I will try to shed some light on this subject. The diagnosis was shocking, confusing, devastating, and ultimately life changing. As a parent a diagnosis of autism is one of the most difficult experiences they can face. The ramifications on the rest of the family are not immediately evident because they cannot see the depth of the situation at first. It is difficult to put into words just what parents feel when told that their children are disabled. Some health professionals, in their efforts to remain emotionally detached, present the information in a cold and unfeeling manner. Little regard is given to the emotional state of the parents, and empathy is rarely in evidence. My son's name is Alex. When we...
pages: 4 (words: 1088)
comments: 0
added: 08/11/2011
Autism has many prominent characteristics, which help to identify the disorder, but its origin and cause are a mystery to the medical community. How can an ever increasing population of people diagnosed with autism reach a state of independent living when its cause is not yet known? What is known about the disorder has been gathered from observation and theories. With this information people with autism can be treated. Diagnosis According to the Diagnosis and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders an individual must exhibit at least six characteristics of Autistic Disorder to be diagnosed. These characteristics include two impairments in social interaction, impairment in communication, repetitive behaviors, signs of the condition must be seen before the age of three, and the disorder cannot be better explained by the criteria for Rett's disorder or Childhood Disintegrative Disorder. (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Impairments in social interaction can be described as the lack of attention one gives to his/her peers, lack of eye contact, or the child being unattached or indifferent to his/her parents. Impairments in communication can include a total lack of spoken language, selective mutism, and echolalia. Repetitive behaviors include the inability to adjust to change, abnormal interests for objects (such as a spot on an object or the texture of the object rather than the object itself), or repetitive and constant hand twisting (American Psychiatric Association, 2000; Fletcher-Janzen, 2000). Other characteristics of Autistic Disorder, though not recognized by the DSM-IV-TR criteria, include giftedness (musical talent, abilities in mathematics, or an outstanding memory), self-injury (more prominently seen in those who are nonverbal), and irregular sensory sensitivity (Burack, 2001). Tests that have been used to help determine if a person has Autistic Disorder include the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS: 15 item test that has been said to wrongly classify children), the Autism Behavior Checklist...
pages: 5 (words: 1212)
comments: 0
added: 10/13/2011
Karachi Medical & Dental College AWARENESS ABOUT AIDS IN THE SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN OF 9TH & 10TH CLASSES Group Members · Umm-e-Salma · Monis Jaleel Ahmed · Kunwar M. Aqeel . N. Jessani . Quratulain Shahnawaz . Jamshed Submitted to: Dr. Lubna A. Baig Supervised by: Dr. Farhat Jaffri Abstract Objectives: · To find out the level of awareness about Aids in the School going children of 9th & 10th classes. Method: It's a Knowledge-Attitude study. Students were provided with Questionnaires having close ended questions. Sample size was 600 Analysis was done SPSS 8.00. Subjects: Students of 20 school were selected. From each school 30 students were selected 15from each class (9th & 10th ) Results: · 95.8% of the students had heard about Aids. · Only 55.19% of the students were willing to discuss Aids in an open discussion. · 51.8% of the students think that taking care of an Aids patient spreads Aids · 54.2% of the students knew that Aids is a disease · 26.3% said it is a germ · 6.3% said it was a symptom · 9.2% didn't know what it was! INTRODUCTION Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), human viral disease that ravages the immune system, undermining the body's ability to defend itself from infection and disease. Caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), AIDS leaves an infected person vulnerable to opportunistic infections. Such infections are harmless in healthy people, but in those whose immune systems have been greatly weakened, they can prove fatal. Although there is no cure for AIDS, new drugs are available that can prolong the life spans and improve the quality of life of infected people. Infection with HIV does not necessarily mean that a person has AIDS. Some people who have HIV infection may not develop any of the clinical illnesses that define the full-blown disease of AIDS for ten years or more. Physicians prefer to use the term AIDS for cases where a person has reached the final, life-threatening stage of HIV infection. AIDS was...
pages: 9 (words: 2208)
comments: 0
added: 01/23/2012
According to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), back injuries continue to be one of the major health hazards affecting workers today. Back injuries often result in a long-lasting condition requiring medical treatment and often adversely affect a person's lifestyle. The majority of back injury incidents involve lifting, pushing, or carrying. Fortunately, 90% of back injuries are preventable if a person develops and maintains good work habits that avoid placing excess stresses and strains on the back. How the Spine works The spinal system is composed of Each of these structures is subject to injury depending on the type of manual work a person performs and the resulting stress. Disc and spinal cord injuries tend to be the most serious, but ligament sprains and muscle strains can also be painful and debilitating. Risk Factors for Back Injuries · Repetition: The number of stressful back motions made per workday. Most back injuries are considered to be cumulative trauma injuries that are based on the person's overall history of risk factors. · Force: The weight of the load to be lifted, pushed, or pulled. · Posture: The degree to which the back's normal curves are "out of alignment" during lifting. · Load: The size, stability, place to grip, slipperiness, and center-of-gravity of an object. · Distance: The horizontal distance of load from the body, the vertical distance to be lifted, and the distance to be moved. · Personal: Size, strength, age, flexibility, lifting habits, and physical condition of the individual. Fortunately, almost 80% of back injuries are attributable to poor physical conditioning. You can take control to improve your physical conditioning and improve you back health! How to Prevent Back Injuries Before the Lift ü Exercise. Keep yourself physically fit by developing a good exercise program appropriate for your age and overall health. Be sure to check with your health-care professional for advice on...
pages: 3 (words: 765)
comments: 0
added: 02/07/2012
Genetics is the study of genes and what they do. Genetic engineering provides ways of altering these genes to make them function differently in some way. There are those who believe that genetic engineering is morally and ethically wrong, others believe that it can be used as a great tool for the benefit of mankind. Genetic engineering is already being used in providing treatments for certain types of illnesses. The food industry is also utilizing genetic engineering in the production of food, making more nutritious foods that are resistant to herbicides. Other industries like mining and waste management use genetically engineered bacteria. Therefore, genetic engineering should not be banned because it has many practical uses in medicine, food production, and industry. Genetic engineering was first experimented with in the early 1970's. The first to do experiments of this sort was scientist Paul berg. Berg found that by chemical means he could take a gene from a monkey virus that has the ability to cause cancer in mice and insert it into an entirely different strand of DNA (Yount 6). Later, there were other scientists who found means of doing this on a mass scale. With experimenting in genetic engineering, it came to be known that any kind of DNA could be inserted into any other kind of DNA, even plant DNA with animal DNA. From these experiments is where today's genetic engineering evolved. The main reason not to ban genetic engineering is because of the possible advancements that can be made in the field of medicine. Genetic engineering has already been used to treat and prevent certain illnesses, and many more many have the potential to be cured in the future. Genetic engineering has the possibility to eliminating most all human diseases that have genetic origin, like cancer and AIDS. And many...
pages: 7 (words: 1863)
comments: 0
added: 01/24/2012
Behavioral genetics is the study of the interaction between the environment on is in and his/her genetic makeup. With roots in the study of human behavior and heredity by Sir Francis Galton, the relatively new field of behavior genetics seeks to identify the correlations between nature and nurture by the study of human DNA and different environmental variables. This task is confounded by certain obstacles such as the difficulty to define certain traits in a human being, such as intelligence, maintaining validity and reliability in test results, discovering the multiple genes that interact in behavior, and completing in-depth studies of populations and families involved in the study, determining the habitability, which can change with populations/environment modifications. The biological basis of behavior is the study that Galton started in the late nineteenth century. Through the years evidence has been found to indicate that behavior does in fact have a biological basis. Such findings include the discovery that behaviors are often species specific, meaning that certain species behave in the same manner today as they have found centuries. Such behaviors are relative to eating, mating, and hibernating patterns. Humans, too, have biologically carried characteristics, such as mental illness, that travels through family lines. Additionally, behaviors can change when damage or alteration has taken place in their biological structures/processes, thus indicating that the biological factors have control. When modification is made to the factors, results are evident in the human. Finally, behavior has a history that carries across different species, such as from chimps to humans. The relatively close DNA structures as well as the similar behaviors that cross-over reveal the evolutionary past and genetic similarities across species. Traditional studies of behavioral genetics have included twin and adoption studies to try and differentiate environment from heredity but new technology has allowed for further in depth...
pages: 3 (words: 685)
comments: 0
added: 01/07/2012
I am pretty confident that I am a healthy person; I always keep myself active about 3-4 days a week in many activities such as basketball, weight training and other, activities that keep my heart rate elevated and working at or close to my predicted max heart rate. As an athletic individual I try to eat healthy and working at different intensities and levels but to be accurate of how hard you are working a polar heart rate monitor will give me a clear outlook at heart rate during activity or exercise and that will be a great self assessment test. The positive factors of the results from the polar graph were that I had an accurate graphing of what my maximum heart rate was at the moment of activity. It gives a precise measurement of exercise intensity, you can train at your own pace with a heart rate monitor, and it is a good tool for regulating frequency and intensity of workouts. I was able to allocate the average heart rate, any increase or decrease that can help as a starting point for determining whether I need to change my exercise to increase and strengthen overall health and how prescribe exercise to help develop a better way to increase cardiovascular health. While reading the graphs the heart rate had a sudden drop during the run because of the polar heart rate monitor and its ineffectiveness at times. I was surprised that my heart rate didn't elevate past the maximum heart rate, because I thought I was working harder then the output of the graph, I thought that I was well at or above the level because of the heart rate I took through the pulse rate at my neck. And the values didn't correspond to what I thought was the rate but...
pages: 2 (words: 342)
comments: 0
added: 01/16/2012
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