Robert F. Bragg NCAC II, LAT A Therapeutic Look into Thunder Child Treatment Center The Philosophy of treatment at Thunder Child does not parallel the Cognitive Behavioral approach utilized in many treatment centers today. It does not rely solely upon the well know Hazleton / 12-Step approach to help addicts and alcoholics achieve a state of balance. Our philosophy is one that utilizes the best practices of Traditional Native American Culture, the Red Road Path to Recovery along with sound therapeutic principles of Addictions Therapy and Mental Health Therapy. We Educate, Stimulate and help them Formulate their own Recovery Plans. The mainstays of our treatment approach are: 1. Compassion for the individual coupled with treating each person with dignity and respect simply because each human being deserves it. 2. Honoring of the trauma. Every person coming in to our treatment setting is wounded. They may have caused trauma to others but they themselves have suffered greatly and been traumatized by the disease of addiction, the dysfunction in families and from prejudicial dominant culture abuses. 3. Spirituality. Each person coming to treatment benefits from our Cultural, contemporary and traditional approach to Native American Healing. The Creator is for all not just the chosen few. Each person finds their own path and is supported in doing so through Sweatlodge ceremonies, singing, smudging, talking circles, prayer breakfasts and solitude time. We believe that addicts and alcoholics have had spiritual crisis in their life and that treatment is a time of healing mind, body and spirit. Each person is allowed the dignity to call their spirit back in a way that satisfies their cultural and traditional beliefs. This may include talking and praying with a traditional healer or medicine person from one of our neighboring tribes. It could include expressing themselves in the form of creativity in arts and crafts, writing...
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"Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome" (SARS) is a mysterious atypical pneumonia disease due to one or more viruses that started in Southeast Asia in February 2003. (1) SARS appears to be a respiratory disease, spread by a corona virus. (3) It is believed that the virus jumped from animals to humans in southern China. SARS has also affected many other countries including North America and parts of Europe. (1) Many people have already died from SARS. As of April 21, 2003, there have been more than 4,000 cases of SARS and 217 deaths reported worldwide. The "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention" (CDC) and the "World Health Organization" (WHO) are taking the matters into their own investigations. (2) The symptoms of SARS begins with a slight fever greater than 100.4°F and my include headache, shortness of breath, low blood oxygen level and sore throat. Other possible symptoms include loss of appetite, confusion, rash, and diarrhea. After two to seven days, SARS patients may develop a dry cough and have trouble breathing. Symptoms of SARS, is less severe towards younger teens and children. They appear to suffer milder symptoms than adults and older teenagers and they may also be less infectious to other people. (1) In a study conducted by Professor Tai Fai Fok of the Department of Pediatrics at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Fok studied the first ten children who received treatment for SARS during the early phase of the epidemic there. The young teens, age's betweens 13-16, had symptoms similar to the adult cases, with muscle aches, headaches, chills, and respiratory distress. Cases with the children ages range between 18 months and seven years of age suffered the typical SARS symptoms of fever, coughs and runny nose. (9) SARS is very contagious disease that spreads from one person to another,...
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I am wounded, I am broken, my relationships all end in disaster-WHY??? As with any personal, spiritual journey it stands to reason we must begin at the beginning. Our relationship building skills were learned from our earliest teachers, those responsible for our physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual well-being, specifically, our parents/mentors. The result of earliest personal interactions, excluding inherited mental illness,will determine the outcome of our adult adaptations and the results thereof from our childhood lessons on how to function in life and on life's terms. We become as well or as sick as our teachers because we learned to rely and act upon our earliest recollections, lessons learned during our formative years, whether healthy or unhealthy will follow us to our dying breath. If our most basic human needs were not properly met by our families/mentors, chances are horrifically great that we will arrive at adulthood as a wounded child within the adult. Until we allow ourselves to acknowlege, appreciate, love, and release our wounded child within, our attempts at healthy relationships will be grossly handicapped at best. Finally we come to that place in our lives we are willing to take the necessary action to achieve and maintain healthy interactions with our loved ones as well as society as a whole. We become exhaustingly tired of one failed relationship after another and finally decide to take the necessary action to be healed of our grosser emotional handicaps. For this process to be of the greatest success, one must first examine oneself for any and all addictive disorders; namely, drug addiction & alcoholism. This is necessary because until we can stop the use of any and all mood altering substances, we haven't a chance of starting our inner-child work because the drugs and alcohol needs will far out weigh the urge for...
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'Such incredulity about a 'gene for crime' – the label that has, inevitably, attached itself to an inborn tendency to offend – is surprising, as nobody denies that crime is inherited.' (Jones, S (1996))* In the passage above Jones suggests there is a societal disapproval for the notion that crime can be reduced to a single gene (a purely biological explanation for crime). This disapproval of a biological cause for crime is contrasted against Jones' own view that nobody denies that crime per se is inherited. It may be reasonable to assume that the acquisition of a criminal lifestyle is preferably seen to be social rather than biological. Discuss the above statement with respect to the psychobiological evidence and social factors. From Jones, S. (1996). In the blood: God, genes and destiny. Flamingo The controversial field of behavioural genetics has been researched into thoroughly, with supported claims for a genetic base of behavioural attributes such as aggression and impulsivity. A growing scientific focus on genes and behaviour has contributed to the recovery of genetic determinism, the belief that genetics is a major contributing factor in determining behaviour. This biological approach can be substantially invalid by the likes of B. F. Skinner. The behaviourist would lead you to believe that the environment was the predetermining factor in the origins of behavioural characteristics. This highly contentious subject can be argued for eternity but each side of the debate puts forwards some interesting findings, suggesting that maybe this field can be explained by a correlation between genetic and social factors. Men, in general, are far more aggressive than women, which leads to the question, are males born that way or do environmental factors contribute? A study by John Toot on rats established that nature, not nurture holds the answers. The levels of neurotransmitters in various brain regions of...
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Research Critique Part I The ultimate goal of nursing research is the generation of an empirical knowledge base to guide nursing practice (Burns & Grove, 2003). With this goal in mind, Koniak-Griffin, Lesser, Uman, and Nyamathi, in their article "Teen Pregnancy, Motherhood, and Unprotected Sexual Activity" (2003), conducted a research study that examined the sexual behaviors and attitudes toward condom use of adolescent mothers from ethnic minority backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to critique the above research article, which will include a preliminary overview, an analyses of the title, abstract & credentials of researchers, significance of the study and its relevance to nursing, and the ethical framework. Preliminary Overview The research is a quantitative type of study which uses quasi-experimental method in collecting baseline data examined in the article and in examining the influence of theoretical variables and selected psychosocial,behavioral, and demographic factors on condom use among predominantly Latina and African American adolescent mothers (Koniak-Griffin et al., 2003). Koniak-Griffin et al. (2003) found that a number of variables from previous research studies "have been hypothesized to influence condom use in samples comprised mainly of adults and youth," however little is known about factors affecting condom use of adolescent mothers of minority background. This is a major issue in health care due to the fact that vulnerable ethnic/racial groups and women comprise 77% of the cumulative reported Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) cases (CDC,2001). This only shows that there is an urgent need for broad-based HIV/AIDS prevention efforts for adolescent mothers. The report is well-written and well-organized. The purpose of the article was clear from the beginning. There is an orderly and logical presentation of ideas with smooth transitions. Diction or word choice is also appropriate. Although all content sections of an article are present and follow correct sequencing,I thought the authors provided an extensive...
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In Hey Men, Get Healthy! by Holly McCord, RD (McCord holds a bachelor's degree in journalism from Northwestern University in Evanston, Ill. and a master's degree in nutrition from Immaculata College. She completed her dietetic training at Bryn Mawr Hospital in Bryn Mawr, Penn. ) and Gloria McVeigh (Assistant Nutrition Editor) authors of such other articles as "Way Beyond Low Fat" and "Fast Tips for Savvy Eaters", the authors challenge Men to improve their diet and lifestyle to prolong their life as well as well as maintain health. Men were "significantly less likely than women to believe that widely recommended changes in diet and lifestyle could actually reduce their risk of disease"(McCord and McVeigh, par.1). Therefore these two ladies set it upon themselves to attempt to educate men on four simple and widely recommended changes to lifestyle that could improve lifespan and reduce risk of disease. These four simple steps of reducing fat intake, eating more fiber, staying fit, and quitting smoking are outlined as important solutions to assisting maintaining a healthier lifestyle. This article is a basic guideline for Men to improve their health with easy methodology that can be substantiated with evidence from many periodicals and research literature. The first step outlined in the article is the reduction of fat intake in the diet. In the article Dietary Fat - How Much, What Kind There is an outline that presents the results of increased dietary fat including the increase in cholesterol levels which results in atherosclerosis. McVeigh and McCord present an important point that fat in the diet especially in those men that consume 40-45 percent of their diet in fat are highly susceptible to being overweight, developing cancer, and heart disease. In an article entitled 5 WAYS TO FIGHT FIVE BIG HEALTH RISKS the authors concur that the...
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A Biochemical Illness Everyone experiences variations in moods. Many people at some point in life feel disappointment, grief that accompanies the loss of a loved one, or just the simple blues. Severe or prolonged depression that interferes with one's ability to function, feel pleasure or maintain interest is not a mere case of the blues. It is an illness. Researchers have demonstrated that it results from a biochemical imbalance in the brain called depression. Depression is a major unrecognized health problem and is among the most common and destructive of illnesses in the United States today. In addition, many people suffer from Manic Depression (Bi-Polar) or Major Depression. Both characterized by radical mood swings and extreme behavior. In "What causes depression", (2002) Depression sourcebook, first edition. The brain is the control center for every part of the body. It controls our conscious behavior (walking and thinking) and our involuntary behavior (heartbeat and breathing). The brain also regulates our emotions, memory, self-awareness and thought processes. The brain receives information via the neurons. Each one communicates with the cells around it through electrical signals. When a nerve signals reaches the end of one cell, it must pass over a gap to reach the other one. The nerve causes a release of chemicals called neurotransmitters. The improper relay of signals may be partly responsible for depression. The underlying causes of depression are not well understood; although there are, many clues suggesting various systems in the brain may cause depression or be affected by it. For example, major depression is characterized by excessive sleep. So, it is very likely that the brain stem, which controls sleep, plays a role in depression. Similarly, abnormalities in the cerebral cortex, which controls thinking, probably have something to do with inability to concentrate and the negative thoughts that can be characteristic...
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The re – classification of ampalaya from one of the ten herbs with medical benefits to being totally folkloric and tradition – bound herb with no medicinal properties by DOH Secretary Manuel Dayrit is unjustifiable for he rejects countless researches done by previous secretaries of the agency and even private scientists. During then secretary and now Senator Juan Flavier's term, he classified ampalaya as one of the ten herbs that has scientific and medical benefits after countless experiments forwarded by private scientists and even after the experimentation of the department itself. Since then, the Philippine medical community has depended upon this herb both as an alternative medicine for diabetes mellitus and as a food – supplement for elders. For many years, taking of ampalaya pills and teas has garnered support especially from the poor masses that cannot meet the prices of laboratory drugs like insulin injections. The recent Circular 165 – A series of 1995 issued by Manuel Dayrit however has disregarded all experiments conducted during Juan Flavier's time and even rejects all recent developments of the ampalaya food – supplement. To make it worse, Dayrit has been reported to lack necessary evidences and proofs that ampalaya is indeed ineffective to declare Circular 165 – A that is totally against the Traditional and Alternative Medicine Act of 1997. In Article II, Section V of the said act, the Philippine Institute of Traditional and Alternative Healthcare (PITAHC) is the experimenting and researching body connected with the Department of Health in the advancement of alternative medicine. Then, why do the findings of the PITAHC and the DOH differ? It is also surprising that Manuel Dayrit has taken specific experimentations on ampalaya than the other 9 herbs. The ampalaya food – supplement raked in about Php 700 million which accounted for 26% of the total market....
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Human cloning has many implications. "Cloning refers to copying genes and other pieces of chromosomes to generate enough identical material for further study". Many people opposed to cloning argue that it is risky. In this respect, cloning is no different from any other new medical technology. "Research is required in order to quantify and reduce the risk of the procedures involved with any new medical treatments. Doctors have been tinkering with the human body for a long time. They insert pacemakers and artificial joints and heart valves and whole artificial hearts. They do cochlear implants and test-tube babies and they do organ transplants". All of these procedures were "risky" when they were first begun. But thankfully, researchers continued their work and have saved many lives. Another argument is that cloning is playing God. This argument assumes that we know God's intentions. "There is no exact biblical statement on the ethics of human cloning. Who is to say that it is not God's will that we clone ourselves? It is possible that God intended for medical researchers to use the knowledge he endowed on them for the purpose of healing and improving the lives of many people. Moreover, every time that a doctor performs life-saving surgery or administers drugs he is changing the destiny of the patient and could be thus be seen as assuming the role of God. We should be very wary of banning something without being able to say why it is wrong. This type of thinking is where all sorts of irrational superstitions and extremism originate". Proponents of the family argue that reproductive cloning harms the integrity of the family. They argue that single people will be able to produce offspring without even the physical presence of a partner, more specifically without the father. "Society should not pretend that...
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When she came to UK to work, she was on a rollercoaster of emotions-- scared, excited, confident, insecure, homesick... Scared of what she will be encountering—culture shock, different nursing style, language barrier (multiple accents), state-of-the-art equipment (touch screen monitors, arterial lines, swan ganz catheters, intra-aortic balloon pumps, ecmo- a lung bypass machine, nitric oxide, continuous veno-venous hemofiltration-a dialysis machine, cpap machine-continuous positive airway pressure).....so scared that she was having doubts whether she would be able to prove my nursing competence… So scared that she did not want to go on duty... so scared that she wanted to go home. Excited to be independent and detached from the safe and secure bosom of her family... Excited to be free to do what she want as long as she is aware of her limitations... excited to learn new things.... excited to be working on a specialized unit. Confident that she will be able to prove that she will be a well-motivated and competent nurse.....confident to be recognized as an effective and efficient nurse....this so-called inspiration may be attributed to the presence of Filipinos in the cardiac unit who are doing very well. There was a tiny spark of hope that she will also make it. Insecure because she came from a third world country with limited medical and technological experiences when it comes to equipment. And not to mention that she come from a private hospital in the province. This will indicate that she will have limited experiences when it comes to cardiac patients. As we all know, there are limited medical cardiac procedures done in the province...even almost nonexistent. Homesick for her family's support and presence, encouraging words, sense of security, in spite of these bizarre emotions, she is proud to say that she can level with the British nurses. It took a lot of hard...
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Did you give your friends valentines and little heart-shaped candies on Valentine's Day? Do you turn on the radio to hear a guy singing about his broken heart? The heart is much more than candy and songs. It is a puzzle, and it has taken man many years to try and fit the pieces together. Each year more medical technology is discovered, and more pieces are added. Over the years doctors and researchers continue to study the heart in hopes of better understanding how the pieces fit. According to the Merriam Webster Dictionary the medical study of the heart and its diseases is called cardiology (Cardiology). Since the study of the heart began, remarkable technological advances have been made, and future technological advances promise an even more relentless pace of technological advances. Those who work in the field of cardiology include doctors, surgeons, and nurses. A doctor or surgeon must obtain a medical degree, and study for several years in cardiology. Nurses are required to have a degree in nursing, and usually some additional training in the study of cardiac nursing. These two groups use many skills and technology everyday to treat sick patients with heart problems. They must first diagnose the problem, and then attempt to correct the problem. Often technology plays a very important part in diagnosing and correcting the problem. In her article "The Beat goes on", Adrienne Drapkin explains how cardiac technology began with an invention that some call the most important discovery in the history of physical diagnosis, the stethoscope. With the invention of the stethoscope, doctors began to look at and study the heart in a new light (Drapkin, para 1). This was just the first of several innovations still used today in some form or another to study and treat the heart. According to Dean...
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It was only about one year ago when I was diagnosed with type II Bipolar disorder. However, I've had the symptoms for as long as I can remember! I am consistently reminded of all my childhood 'outbursts,' and I recall sitting in my room at the age of eleven tying a rope around my neck wanting to commit suicide. Everyone was quick to call me a drama queen, and write it all off as cravings for attention. Attention was not what I wanted or needed, then or now. Dealing with Bipolar disorder is a chore that most the time seems impossible. When an individual is battling with Bipolar, they are battling a personal war that has been waged inside of them. It is like waking up in the morning and not knowing who you are going to be! I really do enjoy being happy, and I like my life and love all the people in it. Nevertheless, depending on the day of the week that may not be how I'm feeling. As a sufferer of this disease, I have no control over my attitude, my emotions, or my moods, and not having control is the worst of all. For a normal person, or someone not suffering from Bipolar, having their boss give them a little constructive criticism could be a good thing. For me, I would be totally devastated and have a hard time holding back tears. Has someone ever cut you off, no big deal right? Well, my take on it would be that the world was out to get me and that person was the conspirator. Can you see the distortion? Manic-depression is the common term for Bipolar disorder. Full-blown cases of manic-depression are characterized by episodes of uncontrollable hyperactivity, often accompanied by grandiose delusions, and longer periods of incapacitating, and often-suicidal...
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Asthma affects approximately 10.1% of children living in the United States, and continues to be the most common chronic childhood illness ("Strategies," 2002). Some risk factors that account for this startling percentage of children with asthma include age, heredity, gender, children of young mothers under age twenty, smoking, ethnicity (African American are at greatest risk), previous life threatening attacks, lack of access to medical care, psychological/psychosocial problems, underdiagnosis, and undertreatment (Hockenberry, 2003). The nurse plays a vital part in identifying modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors, and educates both parent and child on effective ways to control unwanted asthmatic attacks through self-care education and participation in asthma management programs. The responsibility of caring for a child with asthma should be shared equally between the adult caregiver (i.e., parent, relative, or teacher) and child. The overall objective is to avoid or reduce exposure to triggers that tend to precipitate or aggravate asthmatic exacerbations; however, these precautions should not sacrifice the child's normalcy in development and socialization. At present, nurses are given the opportunity to fully enact their roles in terms of case management; client advocacy in both school and health care systems; education of children, parents, teachers, and support for children and families as they learn to master the complexities of managing a chronic illness (Horner, 1999). For the child, there are six themes that need special attention upon initial diagnosis: worries, asthma knowledge, school issues, medications, parental support, and the desire to be normal (Ming & McConnell, 2002). The ability of the nurse to address initial and ongoing parental concerns, as well as those of the child, will foster an effective nurse, parent, and child partnership in managing childhood asthma. Assessment A school age girl (7 years-old) is brought in to the emergency department (ED) with the following symptoms: Wheezing and dry cough; prolonged...
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Subject: The Evolution of Theoretical Knowledge A PERSONAL PERSPECTIVE ON THE FOUR CONCEPTS OF THE NURSING METAPARADIGM Introduction The four concepts of the nursing metaparadigm as described in Orem's theory are: Person Environment Health Nursing My perspective of the four concepts has changed somewhat after studying Orem's theory. My thoughts of the "Person" have become more focussed on to one that is the recipient of nursing care only when they cannot administer self-care. My view of the "Environment" now includes a developmental environment. My previous understanding of "Health" did not include such emphasis on health promotion and health maintenance. My view of "Nursing" now includes the understanding of the importance of nursing theory as applied to practice settings and in the development of nursing as a profession. Person Orem describes the person as a patient; an individual functioning biologically, socially and symbolically. She describes the person as having the capacity to learn and develop, has the capacity for self-knowledge and is capable of engaging in deliberate actions to meet their self- care requirements for the maintenance of health. She also states that if the individual is incapable of taking care of him / herself, then others must provide the care. The others in this case can be the nurse or a family member. She states that individuals are subject to the forces of nature. Orem through her theory self care deficit has put forth the idea that people can benefit from nursing because they are subject to health related limitations that render them incapable of continuous self-care. Wesley (1992). In other words when the individual's health breaks down for whatever reason, the nurse is there to come to the rescue by doing what is in her power to help the health related problem either on her own or with the collaboration with other health care professionals. Orem's definitions have crystallized my...
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I. History of London Between 10-40 A.D. Emperor Claudius conquered Britain and integrated it into the Roman Emperium. The Celtic fortress Londinium was conquered by the Romans in the year 43 A.D. With the construction of the first bridge over the Thamse, BILD Londinium got the importance of a junction, and not just the Romans used this bridge on their way up to the north but also local traders. Thus the small settlement developed to a city after Roman pattern, to a centre of culture, administration, military and trade.In 286/287 A.D. Carausius, commander of the Roman Marine rebelled against the Emperor and appointed himself as ruler of Britannia. Londinium became his capital. Then in 449 A.D. ,with the decay of the Roman Empire the Romans were driven out of Britannia and Londinium lost its importance for a long period of time.In 604 A.D. Londinium got the capitol of the Anglo-Saxon empire „Essex" and changed its name to Lundenwic. Later, 796 A.D., it became the royal residence of the Anglo-Saxons. Between the years 839-1035 London was besieged, conquered and destroyed by the Danish vikings a several times. These attacks stopped one year later whenWilliam the Conqueror conquered Britain and was crowned king in Westminster Abbey which was inaugurated in 1065 BILD.A few years later William signed a Charter which granted London city liberty and self-administration and also The Tower of London was built on his behalf. BILD. Since William, London is regarded as the real capitol of whole Britain.From 1176-1209 A.D. the first bridge of stone in London, the "Old London Bridge" was built BILD. It lasted up to 1832. Then, in the next century, London revolted against the rule of the monarch and strived after political independance. About the end of the 12th century a own Lord Mayor was elected ,...
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Euthanasia and assisted are usually done with a motive of love or compassion and with a od as painlessly as one can fathom, it is nothing more than a peaceful . A lot of people think that euthanasia is the most humane way to help someone reach an unavoidable unpleasant . Why is this humane? Why could the physician not alleviate some of the person's pain with medication and help them through their illiness, not help them by them or assisting them with their ? Modern medicine has the ability to control pain. The patient who is seeking to kill him or herself to avoid pain does not need assistance in but a doctor better trained in alleviating pain (NRLC 1). Jack Kevorkian, better known as "Dr. ", invented the most famous machine ever used (Humphry 160). In his essay," A Case Of Assisted ," he attempts to explain his morality. He describes his first case of assisted . He speaks of his first patient, Janet Adkins, describing her as "a remarkable, accomplished, active woman-wife, mother, grandmother, reverend friend, teacher, musician, mountain climber and an adorable person- who for sometime, had noticed (as did her husband) subtle and gradually progressive impairment of her memory" (Kevorkian 643). Mrs. Adkins had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease several months earlier and decided that she did not want to live through the difficult obstacles that this horrible disease would force her to encounter. She and her husband had contacted Kevorkian for his assistance in her . After only five months of treatment and two telephone conversations, Kevorkin felt his assistance would be acceptable. Kevorkin describes Mrs. Adkins as " a qualified, justified candidate if not "ideal"- and well aware of the vulnerability to critics of picayune and overly emotional critics (Kevorkian 644). A request of assisted...
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The current number of world-wide cases of HIV infection is estimated at 20 million. In the United States, 362,000 people have died because of AIDS or AIDS related illnesses, while over 581,000 are currently infected. These numbers are startling, but in the United States alone, a country often recognized as the supposed world-leader in health care, between 40,000 and 80,000 new cases of HIV infection are reported each year. This statistic moves beyond startling and into the realm of frightening. The consensus among most physicians, and indeed among most Americans is that AIDS rapidly approaches or has already attained the status of a health crisis. These same people often agree that not enough action is taken to resolve this crisis. Seemingly, a widely recognized crisis of this sort should receive its due attention from all aspects of society, including medicine, biological research, and the government. Unfortunately, AIDS remains an overwhelming crisis because it in fact does not receive its due attention. The reasons behind the lack of attention brought to bear upon the AIDS health crisis involve a number of invariably linked problems in the response to AIDS when it was first discovered. Essentially, the response to AIDS was not unified, and therefore weakened. This early weakness has plagued the entirety of the struggle against the spread of HIV and AIDS since that time of initial discovery. The response to the AIDS crisis was disjointed because of an early lack of knowledge and interest in the disease; because of ethical and political problems concerning the research, diagnosis, and spread of the illness; and, most importantly, because of the flaws inherent in the structure of the public health care system. These difficult issues, present in the early struggle against the disease, have shaped and molded the character of the struggle that was...
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The psychological disorder is the dyscontrol or any dysfunction of the individual. These psychological disorders can be associated with the stress or impairment. The psychological disorder is seen in individuals that have behaviors or dysfunctions that identifies of the essence of abnormality. However we are not including the behaviors that are appropriate for the individual's culture. Many psychological disorders first diagnosed involve physiological and/or genetic components. The psychopathology is the field that concerned with the studies about psychological disorders and abnormalities. In that field we can find different professional levels of training and education. These professionals have to be able identify and describe the abnormal behavior and provide treatment. It is true to say that psychology studies of disability have largely focused on the association between psychological factors and disability. For instance, psychologists typically evaluate the psychological impact of a particular disorder and how it influences coping and adjustment. They would typically measure cognitive and behavioral factors such as personality, attitudes, perceptions, coping behavior, relationship behavior, and so on. Furthermore, psychologists over the past years have begun to emphasize the importance of evidence based health practice, and so there have been a number of recent studies that have scientifically investigated the efficacy of psychological treatments designed to improve the quality of life of those with a disability. Unfortunately, consideration of social factors (such as the social context, cultural factors, financial matters, living skills, etc.) does not always figure highly in these psychology studies. To identify that the person has psychological disorder psychologists looks for some abnormalities in individual behavior. To be able to tell what is abnormal you have to know the culture, environment, and person as an individual. The cases of abnormality are complex and sometimes fascinating. The abnormality can be caused by biology or by psychosocial factors. Moreover abnormality...
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Since 1967, abortion in the state of California has been legal. This all began with the Therapeutic Abortion Act which was signed by, then governor, Ronald Regan. The California Abortion and Reproductive Rights Action League states: "[The law] expanded legal abortion in California under very restrictive criteria [. . .] it requires the procedure must take place in a hospital, within the first twenty weeks of pregnancy, and only in cases of rape, incest, or if the life or mental health of the mother is at risk" ("California"). To this day, the Therapeutic Abortion Act is still in effect throughout California. Fortunately for people who are pro-life and do not agree with the current abortion act, Governor Gray Davis has recently proposed more condense, specific abortion bills which should be passed. These bills will change the way the government of California is perceived from now on. Mark Sappenfield claims the four bills being introduced are "The most ambitious package of abortion-rights bills in U.S. history" (94: 204). The first bill proposed to "shield clinics and their employees and patients from harassment by blocking public access to names and addresses of the clinics themselves and all those associated with them" (94: 204). This provides women with comfort during a stressful time. It also provides women who are unsure of what they are doing the security that people will not be around pressuring them to change their mind because the abortion will be fully anonymous. The second bill "requires all medical-residency programs for obstetricians and gynecologists to give abortion training, though institutions and individuals can opt out for reasons of religion or conscience" (94: 204). The training allows women the knowledge that their doctor is performing a safe surgery and the woman does not have to worry about infertility or death. A third...
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Do you consider something with a beating heart a living creature? A babies heart forms and starts beating in the fifth week of pregnancy, therefor, that would make abortion murder. The baby that is growing inside of you is depending on you, so when you make the choice to end that life, you are making the choice to murder another person. Someone that believes in the pro-choice theory would say that the decision is up to the woman, but the person with the pro-life theory would say that it is murder no matter what the situation. Would you consider it murder to kill a baby the day after it is born? Then why would it not be murder to kill it before it is born? "If it is impossible to abort a baby in the ninth month, then what makes it ok to do in the fifth or sixth month." (Carl Sagan & Ann Druyan). Many abortions are perormed each year in the United States. 75% of all abortions in the U.S. are performed on women over 20 years of age, but the lawmakers try to concentrate on the 186,000 teens that have an abortion each year. In 1990, there were nearly 400 abortion bills were introduced to 41 legislatures. So far, as many as 20 states have passed laws that requires a teenager to have a parents consent before having an abortion. This may help reduce the number of abortions each year, the people that passed these bills feel that maybe the parents will feel differently about the situation and be able to talk their child out of it. 20% of teens that are sexually active do not use any form of birth control, these are the teens that end up getting pregnant and getting an abortion. If these girls would...
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