Adolescence is much like a midpoint in ones life; when a person is neither a kid nor an adult. At this period, teens have passed the age when they were called kids but are not yet qualified to be adults. Teenagers want to think like adults, behave like adults and also start to view themselves as independent beings in decision making. All this hormonal changes also come with the negativity of maturity such as drugs and alcohol. The statistics below show that the percentage of teenagers using drugs and alcohol in the last decade has increased. Why is this? The answer is that teenagers are under pressure by their peers, mass media and also the influence of parents. Peer pressure plays a major role in the harmful behavior of teens. Teens who want to fit in among their friends are most especially prone to this. They try to make friends and they get friends as much as possible. Of these friends there are the good ones who give them the knowledge and information you want need or inquire and there are the ones who give them information about not too good things like drug, alcohol, parties, e.t.c. This influential communication between a teen and his/her peer may be directly or indirectly. Directly such as conversations with their friends or indirectly such as listening to classmates discussing of a party which occurred a night before. Then they begin to mention alcohol, drugs and violence obviously from what have experienced they talk about it in a way possible. Then you would like to see how good it is the next weekend you go to that kind of party. If you can not resist such as a temptation you will begin to do harmful deeds that will definitely have adverse results in the future. Let's...
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Alcoholism is perhaps the most common form of drug abuse in America today. Alcohol is a liquid distilled product of fermented fruits, grains and vegetables used as a solvent, antiseptic and sedative for potential abuse. Alcoholism is a primary chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. Alcohol affects every part of an alcoholic's life, heir body, their mind, and their family life. Family obligations and genetic factors cause some people to be especially vulnerable to alcohol. However, a family history of alcoholism doesn't mean that children of alcoholics will automatically grow up to become alcoholics themselves. Enviornmental factors such as peer pressure and the easy availability of alcohol can also play roles. Although alcohol-related disorders can strike anyone, poverty and physical or sexual abuse can also increase the odds. Alcoholics put an enormous amount of emphasis on trying to please others and themselves. They may become painfully depressed or overly aggressive causing family life to deteriorate rapidly. Many families tend to deny the fact that the person is an alcoholic causing the situation to worsen. By allowing an alcoholic's behavior to be controlled by a substance, the abuser, family members, friends and colleagues unknowingly become part of the problem. Substance abusers cannot stop the habit of drinking without the help of others. Abusing alcohol can have several effects on the family. These things can be anything like a lack of trust in other people, difficulty-expressing feelings, working hard to keep things going at home and at school, insecurity, loneliness, anger, frustration, guilt, and fear. However, one should not accept blame for someone else's behavior, have an attitude that makes the alcoholic think that they are less than oneself, use the if you loved me you would stop appeal, make...
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What is alcoholism? It can be defined as a chronic, progressive, incurable disease, characterized by loss of control over alcohol and other sedative drugs. Also, alcohol is carving which is a need for more alcohol. Alcoholism has a generic basis but is not caused entirely by hereditary factors. Researchers theorized that the interaction of several genes, as well as environmental factors may influence whether a person will become an alcoholic later in life. It has been found that "a child with an alcoholic father or brother has a 25% chance of becoming an alcoholic, which is 5-8 times that of the general population, but grandparents should also be consider, said Royce". A study of twins done by a scientist Donald Goodwin, showed that "a larger percentage of identical twins were both alcoholic than fraternal twins". There also appeared to exist to a hereditary character towards the social problems associated with alcoholism (Kinney, Jean and Leaton, Gwen Loosening the Grip. St Louis: Times Mirror/Mosby college Publishing, 1987. In a study done on twins, it was found that if a twin was alcoholic, there was twice the likelihood of the identical twin also being an alcoholic than a fraternal (Royce, James Alcohol problems and Alcoholism. New York: The free press, 1981). It may be okay to assume that a person surrounded by a social and economic conditions under which his father or mother or both became alcoholics might be susceptible than the average person. Evidence for a major gene for alcoholism is not found in most families in which alcoholism is common. Rather, evidence indicates that there are probably multiple genes and other possibly environmental factors that tend to increase or decrease the probability of becoming an alcoholic. A person with alcoholic relatives has a demonstrable higher risk of becoming alcoholic than a...
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"I will never become addicted to alcohol because I can easily control myself!" say both educated men with much hope for the future and teenagers who are overwhelmed with youth maximalism. Do you also have something similar in your mind right now? Then make a cup of tea, settle comfortably in a sofa and read carefully this article, because what we want is to make you completely aware of the fact that everyone including you might already be addicted to alcohol. The primary changes caused by alcohol are invisible because they appear in brains. Addicts do not become addicted with the intention to destroy their lives and to cause upset to those they love, as the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism says. It all starts with changes in brain. It does not matter whether this is only the first bottle of beer – even the first stiffener will cause your brain and nervous system fail to operate successfully for a short time. It is important to remember that, of course, after this first stiffen your brain will be able to resist alien bodies (ethanol) and keep functioning normally again, but if drinking continues in short periods it may result dramatic changes in brains. It is particularly impossible to detect when the addiction starts, but usually it is when drinking becomes regular and body's ability to produce special chemicals is diminished because the alcohol replaces these chemicals. Deprived of its own resources (and the ability to create them) the body perceives that it needs alcohol to function and demands alcohol physical cravings. You do not believe us? Then look at yourself! Can you remember any party or just sitting with friends in a bar where you have not drunk in order to be in a good mood or to have an...
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The continuum of coping responses from self-enhancing behavior to depression , alcoholism , suicide or all three is presented. Variations or fluctuations in mood are a dominant feature of human existence, which indicates that person is perceiving his world and responding to it. This may be reflected in the inability to perform social roles , such as at work , in the family , or at school. ept In "Marriages and Families", Benokraitis defines depression as a mental disorder characterized by pervasive , sadness and other negative emotions and that often also finds _expression in physical symptoms such as diarrhea , chest discomfort , nausea , or loss of appetite for which no physical or physiological cause can be found. Depression can affect people in several ways , 1. One may withdraw from family or friends , 2. May have a personality change , 3. Some may experience a major personality change , 4. Change in sleep pattern , 5. May lead to drug or alcohol abuse , or 6. May lead a person to feel suicidal. Depression does not just affect the person whose is feeling depressed, it also may affect the family , friends or the people in their work place. Stuart and Sundeen stated ,"Despite its prevalence , most people with a depressive illness do not seek treatment because many of them do not know they have a treatable disease". It is estimated that 15% to 30% of adults experience clinical depressive episodes , most often of moderate severity, but some point in their lives , with the onset of depressive illness peaking in the 40's and 50's. A major psychosocial variable of a depressed person is low self-esteem. The person self-conc is an underlying issue, which usually arises from poor role performance , perceived low-level everyday functioning...
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Wrong Assessment, Wrong findings, Wrong Intervention (The applicability of standardised measures to other cultures: case example of assessing individuals with an alcohol problem in Saudi Arabia) Introduction 'Standardised measures' (SM) are tools or instruments that are pre-tested for their validity, reliability, sensitivity and specificity. They can be used by researchers and/or professionals to assess, screen or diagnose problems, events or people. The use of standardised measures in other cultures is widely recognised and acceptable. However, little attention has been given to their efficiency, applicability and/or the validity of their results when applied to different cultures. It is the aim of this paper to draw attention to the limitations of using what I call the cutting and pasting of standardised measures without giving enough consideration to their applicability to a given culture. The misuse of SM can give rise to both methodological and ethical problems, as well as producing misleading results. These problems can be avoided if cultural variables and differences are taken into account. In an attempt to address the issue of applying SM to other cultures, some SM relating to alcoholism are presented and used as an example of how their use can be problematic when applied to Saudi Arabian society. There are more than 70 standardised instruments that can be directly related to alcohol. These instruments can be used to screen, assess or diagnose (Cooney, Zweben, & Fleming, 1995) many alcohol-related symptoms. Some of the most popular measures are the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) (Selzer, 1971), Short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (sMAST) (Selzer, Vinokur, & van Rooijen, 1975), CAGE (Mayfield, McLeod, & Hall, 1974), Munich Alcoholism Test (MALT) (Feuerlein, Ringer, Kufner, & Antons, 1979), and Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) (Babor, de la Fuente, Saunders, & Grant, 1992). These tests are widely used for research and clinical purposes. Other alcohol-related instruments are...
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Alcohol is a huge problem on most college campus's. Twenty one may be the legal drinking age, but some how minors find a way to get a hold of alcohol. People as young as fifteen are able to get their hands on an alcoholic beverage. Alcohol is said to be the chosen drug among college students. College students have a tendency to drink more then the general population. It is said that college students spend approximately $4.2 billion annually an alcohol. This money is spent on 430 gallons of alcoholic beverages, and 4 million cans of beer. The type of college, geographical location, the ethnic and gender makeup plays a role in the amount of drinking that occurs on campus. For example colleges with fraternities and sororities have higher statistics, this is because of their sponsored parties. They drink more often, which contributes to heavier drinking. Studies show that college students drink more when they are in a group, which speaks to peer influences. When it comes to drinking on campus there is no legal age so to speak. When someone goes to a party they don't get carded, they get a cup. Studies show that students between the ages of 18-21 drink more then those that are over 21. Statistics show that the younger the person the more he or she drinks. Forty one percent of college students report to binge drinking, and nearly four percent drink daily. Binge drinking is defined as four drinks for a women in one sitting, and five drinks for a male in one sitting. Students that binge drinker have even more problems then students who don't. Binge drinkers are more likely to have hangovers and engage themselves in unplanned sexual activity. There are endless consequences that come with drinking. A range of problems occur...
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Reviews of collegiate drinking practices consistently have noted the high prevalence of persistent alcohol use and abuse on college campuses. Nearly half of all college students engage in gbingeh drinking. (four or more for women and five or more for men), and about one in five report frequent binge drinking (H. Wechsler et al., 1994). Such heavy consumption patterns are associated with poor academic performance, reflecting lower course grades, being placed on academic probation, and spending fewer hours studying, as well as health problems (H. Wechsler et al., 1994). Some research suggests that excessive exposure to alcohol is related to cognitive test performance deficits, even for such relatively high-functioning subpopulations as college undergraduates. Parsons and Nixon (1993) noted that impaired performance has been observed across varied cognitive skills involving perceptual-motor, visuospatial, problem-solving, and learning abilities. The current study represented as an attempt to address two classes of hypotheses regarding the effects of cognitive abilities in a college-aged sample. First, alcohol abuse during the college years may result in specific performance deficits for those abilities associated with a college education (e.g., critical thinking reflecting judgment, and formal operations), because alcohol involvement reduces optimal engagement in the in the tasks and activities that promote the development of higher cognitive functions. Second, AUDs during this time may result in deficits on more neuropsychological measures, particularly visuospatial ability, because of the direct, neurotoxic effects of alcohol. In addition the researchers hypothesized that AUDs during the college years may result in smaller gains in cognitive development as a function of baseline performance. Method: The participant for this experiment were drawn from an ongoing, prospective study of offspring of alcoholic that began in the 1987-1988 academic year, when the participants were 3,156 freshmen at a large midwestern university. They were screened for the presence of family history of alcoholism with...
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Concepts of Wellness 08/04/2003 Alcoholism Alcoholism is a disease that affects many people in the United States today. It not only affects the alcoholic, but also their family, friends, co-workers, and eventually strangers. The symptoms are many, as are the causes and the effects. Alcoholism is defined as a pattern of drinking in which harmful consequences result for the drinker, yet they continue to drink. There are two kinds of drinkers. The first type, the casual or social drinker, drinks because they want to. They drink with a friend or with a group for pleasure and only on occasion. The other type, the compulsive drinker, drinks because they have to, despite the adverse effects that drinking has on their lives. The symptoms of alcoholism vary from person to person, but the most common symptoms seen are changes in emotional state or stability, behavior, and personality. Alcoholics may become angry, argumentative, quiet, withdrawn or depressed.. They may also feel more anxious, sad, tense, and confused. They get relief by drinking more. Time and amount of drinking are uncontrollable, the alcoholic is likely to engage in such behaviors as breaking commitments, spending more money than planned, continuing to drink when already drunk and than drinking more, making rude comments to friends and family, and arguing along with fighting.. The alcoholic would probably never do such things, nor approve of them under other circumstances unless drinking. The cause of alcoholism is a combination of biological, psychological, and cultural factors that may contribute to the development of alcoholism in a individual. Alcoholism seems to run in families. Although there is no conclusive indication of how the alcoholism of families members is associated, studies show that 50 to 80 percent of all alcoholics have had a close alcoholic relative. Children of alcoholics may be affected by the parents alcoholism in...
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Alcoholism is a chronic illness characterized by the habitual consumption of alcohol. Some alcoholics drink daily. Others drink less often, but the drinking becomes out of control. Alcohol use is to the degree that it interferes with physical or mental health or with normal social or work behavior. Alcoholics who do not quit drinking decrease life expectancy by 10 to 15 years. Alcohol produces both physical and psychological addiction. It is a central nervous system depressant that reduces anxiety, inhibition, and feelings of guilt. It lowers alertness and impairs perception, judgment, and motor coordination. In high doses, it can cause loss of consciousness and even death. Chronic alcoholism damages the brain, liver, heart. Alcohol also can impair vision, impair sexual function, slow circulation, cause malnutrition, cause water retention (resulting in weight gain and bloating), lead to pancreatitis and skin disorders (such as middle-age acne), dilate blood vessels near the skin causing "brandy nose," weaken the bones and muscles, and decrease immunity. Liver disease The liver is particularly endangered by alcoholism. Alcoholic cirrhosis is the primary cause of cirrhosis in the US. It is estimated to be responsible for 44% of deaths from cirrhosis in North America. Some experts believe this estimate is low; one Canadian study found alcohol to be the major contributor to 80% of all cirrhosis deaths. Alcoholic cirrhosis usually develops after more than a decade of heavy drinking. The amount of alcohol that can injure the liver varies greatly from person to person. In women, as few as two to three drinks per day have been linked with cirrhosis and in men, as few as three to four drinks per day. Alcohol seems to injure the liver by blocking the normal metabolism of protein, fats, and carbohydrates. The relationship between alcohol and cirrhosis is generally as follows: • Alcohol is absorbed from the...
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Step 5. Admit to God, ourselves and to another human being the exact nature of our wrongs. Dear The family of Sarah Folliard, The disease I have is alcoholism. I got this disease before I moved to the United States, when I was a child growing up in France. It is a French tradition to drink wine at every meal, as did my family. I soon became addicted to the taste, and when the bottles disappeared my family never suspected me. As soon as I became old enough I misused my privilege to possess alcohol. I, a married 29 year old became an alcoholic and I spent my evenings at the bar. During all this I used my small families money to buy alcohol for myself, and we soon started to have money problems, and then my husband and 2-year-old daughter left. I then got fired from my job and my house was taken away. Instead of solving my problems I drank them away. I then went to go live with my parents, who soon realized I had a problem, and signed me up for Alcoholics Anonymous. I went to the first few meetings, but it didn't work out. I soon started to skip the meetings and go to the bar. My parents once again found out and we had a fight. I left the house with their car, and went to the bar. Since drinking had seemed to solve my other problems, I drank more than ever. Being irresponsible I left the bar driving my own car, not having a designated driver. I drove to what I thought was the way home; little did I know I was on the highway heading North. After driving around crazily, I passed out swerved into the southbound lane and hit your daughter, Sarah's car....
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Alcohol's importance in our social history is significant. Even more significant is the abuse of alcohol and the how alcoholism has effected modern society. However, before the word "alcoholism" was ever spoken, alcohol was used for many purposes such as settling battles, giving courage in battles, celebrating festivals and wooing lovers. The history of alcohol can be traced all the way back to the Egyptians. In Egyptian burials, it was used to help the dead's journey to the afterlife. There is also evidence that the Babylonians, around 1600 BC, knew how to brew 20 different types of beer. It was also around this time that alcohol was tied to abuse. The Babylonians made their laws include punishments against drunkenness. The Greeks and the Romans drank mostly wine, and they loved it so much that they worshipped Dionysus, the god of wine. When they worshipped, the Greeks and Romans would become extremely intoxicated. Their writings are full of warnings against drinking too much. In 55 BC, the Romans introduced beer, right before alcohol become important in religious cultures. The Old Testament refers to alcohol numerous times, and wine plays an important role in the rituals of many religions. Wine was sanctified by Jesus in the New Testament, and many Roman Catholics still drink wine today as part of their worship. Some religions, like Judaism and Christianity, wanted to keep alcohol sacred, so they made drinking too much alcohol into a sinful act. But alcohol's popularity grew fast, and by the Middle Ages, many monasteries were making beer to give to the monks and to sell to pilgrims. Soon, home breweries were showing up, and they became taverns and other public places where people could gather to drink. The making of alcohol, specifically beer, was not modernized until the time of the Renaissance. Science played...
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When people hear the word "drug," they usually think of an illegal substance such as cocaine, heroin, marijuana, or any other drug that can be found on the street. Most people never consider the fact that consuming alcohol can be just as harmful as illegal drugs, not only on the body, but on the mind and spirit as well . If constantly abused, alcohol can be even worse for one than taking illegal drugs Irresponsible drinking can destroy a person's life as well as the lives of those around them. When people become both physically and psychologically addicted to alcohol, they become an alcoholic and suffer from a disease called alcoholism. Alcoholism affects the individual, the family and even the society. Alcoholism is a primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by continuous or periodic: impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Alcoholism is a disease that persists over time and that physical, emotional, and social changes are often cumulative and may progress as drinking continues. Alcoholism causes premature death through overdose, organic complications involving the brain, liver, heart and many other organs, and by contributing to suicide, homicide, motor vehicle crashes, and other traumatic events (National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence, Inc.). Alcoholism is craving, a strong need, or urge to drink, loss of control, as if one can not seem to stop drinking, it is also a physical independence. Alcoholism is a serious subject It affects millions of Americans each year. Not only does alcoholism affect the individual but also the family and even the society. There are studies and research done on alcoholism. Studies show that nearly...
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A. Introduction . Many American view alcohol as one of the "good things" of life, while others advocate total abstinence. Although most Americans have a negative view of drugs such as heroin, they consider a drugs a benefit. Many people believe that consuming drugs or alcohol they will feel warm and relax but the use and abuse of other drugs affect nearly all American people directly or indirectly. Moreover, some Americans began to warn about the dangers of addiction. To know how alcohol and drugs is dangerous, people need to understand the terms addiction, abuse, and alcoholic. Firstly, a person who is dependent on alcohol is called an alcoholic. Secondly, abuse is defined as the improper use of alcohol and other drugs to degree that the consequence are defined as detrimental to user or to society. Finally, addiction has been called a "brain disease" because continued abuse of a drug causes changes in bran function that drive the addict to compulsive seeking and use of the drugs.(Leshner 1998). Our focus in this assignment or research paper will be on abuse, which include addiction. We will look at the different types of drugs and their effects (including alcohol, which is a drug itself). We will the examine alcohol and other drugs, looking a pattern of use, types, effect on the quality of life, and ways people and government have attempted to cope with these problem. Types and effects. There are different types of alcohol and drugs. All alcoholic beverages contain the same drug, ethyl alcohol or ethanol, but the proportion varies in different beverages. Also, there are five main types of nonalcoholic drugs such as Narcotics, Depressants, Stimulants, Hallucinogens, Cannabis. A small amount of alcohol can result in changes in an individual's mood and behavior, and as the concentration of alcohol in the blood increases, there are corresponding...
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Drug and Alcohol Programs in American School. Are they effective? Drugs and kids, It's a reality that every parent must face. You can not deny it .You can not ignore it. But as parents and other concerned caregivers, you are your children's greatest resource. Drug and alcohol use is widespread among American children. Despite the fact that it is illegal for virtually all high school students to purchase alcohol beverages, nearly all high school seniors have tried alcohol. The implementation of formal drug policies and programs is absolutely essential for our schools. The overall drug use by American teens is down significantly since 1997. But according to the 2002 partnership Attitude Tracking study, an estimated 23.6 million teens are in grades seven through 12 in America today. Of them 11.3 million (48 percent of the teen population) have tried illegal drugs, 8.5 millions (37 percent) have used illegal drugs in the past year and 5.4 million (24 percent)-nearly one out of every four teens in the nation have used illegal drugs in the past 30 days. So the question that arises now is what measures should be taken to establish a safe and disciplined school without militarizing the learning environment? Are the drug programs that are offered at school effective? What should be the role of parents in the development of safe and drug free school policies? During the 2000-2001 school year, Times-News correspondent Jessica Rivelli (2002) revealed that the administrators from the North Carolina school caught 70 students in possession of a controlled substance. That was a 40 percent increase from the 42 incidents reported in the 1999-2000 school year. Nationwide, one in three high school students say students smoke and drink at their school. This statistic is just one of the many reported in a 117-page study," Malignant Neglect: Substance Abuse and America's...
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Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is known as alcohol. It is made by fermenting starch or sugar into different fruits and grains. Beer (usually about 5% alcohol), wine (usually 12 to 15% alcohol), and hard liquor (which is about 45% alcohol), are alcoholic beverages that are made by fermentation and distillation(1). Alcohol can lead to serious physical damage in all systems of the body, the most serious in the cardiovascular system, the nervous system and the liver. In these three areas the damage may eventually prove fatal(5). Alcohol use can start to put a strain on family life. Situations or issues that were once important often times lose there value once alcohol enters the family. Children are especially at risk of being neglected. Alcoholism is a disruptive element in the family environment: partner and children are inevitably subjected to its consequences (10). There is a strong correlation between parental alcoholism and their children's conduct disorders. Disorders such as delinquency, hyperkinetic disorders, substance abuse, anxiety or depression and somatic problems are often times related to parental alcoholism as well. However, only a minority of all children of alcoholic parents are affected with such disorders (10). Children living with alcoholics are at increased risk of problems because of genetic and/or environmental issues (6). They may be at more risk for alcoholism as well, just as children of diabetics are at higher risk for diabetes, and also because they have more exposure to alcohol. Children living with alcoholics often develop unhealthy living patterns because alcoholic parents often lack the proper parenting skills. They may not learn how to trust themselves or other people, how to handle difficult or distressing feelings or situations, or how to build good relationships. Children of alcoholics who lack these skills are also at higher risk for school failure, depression, increased anxiety,...
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Even though thousands of reasons have been listed to justify drinking alcohol, none of them is strongly and evidently convincing. We say, let us have a drink. I drink only occasionally. What is one drink going to do? Every body was drinking, so I had to join the crowd. I guess we say all that, just because we do not know. We do not know what? We do not know that one of the latest studies in Washington University had shown some indications, but not proved yet that one drink could impair thinking. Having a small amounts of alcohol shown to affect brain processes. Even with all that, People have been brewing and fermenting alcoholic drinks since the dawn of civilization. Consumed in moderate amounts, alcoholic beverages are relaxing and in some cases may even have beneficial effects on health. Consumed in excess, alcohol is poisonous to human systems and is considered a drug. Nearly 100,000 Americans die each year as a result of alcohol abuse, and alcohol is a factor in more than half of the country's homicides, suicides, and traffic accidents. Alcohol abuse also plays a role in many social and domestic problems, from job absenteeism and crimes against property to spousal and child abuse. The immediate physical effects of drinking alcohol range from mild mood changes to complete loss of coordination, vision, balance, and speech -- any of which can be signals of the temporary systemic poisoning known as acute alcohol intoxication, or drunkenness. These effects usually wear off in a matter of hours after a person stops drinking. Many law-enforcement agencies regard a .08 percentage of alcohol in the bloodstream as evidence of intoxication. Larger amounts of blood alcohol can impair brain function and eventually cause unconsciousness; an extreme overdose can be fatal. Alcoholism can also lead to impotence...
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The relationship between alcoholism and hereditary hemochromatosis remains controversial. Previous studies have included patients with alcoholic siderosis rather than hereditary hemochromatosis. In this retrospective study, the clinical features, iron status, alcohol history, liver histology, and long-term survival were reviewed in 105 homozygotes for hemochromatosis using rigid diagnostic criteria including an HLA identical sibling with iron overload. Heavy alcohol consumption (>80 g ethanol/day) was found in 15 percent of hemochromatosis patients. Histological features of alcoholic liver disease (Mallory's hyaline bodies, pericentral fibrosis, polymorphonuclear infiltrate, and fatty infiltration) were uncommon in hemochromatosis. Hemochromatosis patients with heavy alcohol consumption had a higher prevalence of cirrhosis than hemochromatosis patients without heavy alcohol consumption. Hepatic iron concentration and hepatic iron index did not significantly differ between these two hemochromatosis groups. Long-term survival was significantly reduced in patients with heavy alcohol consumption (mean follow-up, 9.22 years). This suggests that chronic alcohol consumption has an additive hepatotoxic effect despite the paucity of histological features of alcoholic liver disease. The relationship between alcoholism and hereditary hemochromatosis remains controversial. Previous studies have included patients with alcoholic siderosis rather than hereditary hemochromatosis. In this retrospective study, the clinical features, iron status, alcohol history, liver histology, and long-term survival were reviewed in 105 homozygotes for hemochromatosis using rigid diagnostic criteria including an HLA identical sibling with iron overload. Heavy alcohol consumption (>80 g ethanol/day) was found in 15 percent of hemochromatosis patients. Histological features of alcoholic liver disease (Mallory's hyaline bodies, pericentral fibrosis, polymorphonuclear infiltrate, and fatty infiltration) were uncommon in hemochromatosis. Hemochromatosis patients with heavy alcohol consumption had a higher prevalence of cirrhosis than hemochromatosis patients without heavy alcohol consumption. Hepatic iron concentration and hepatic iron index did not significantly differ between these two hemochromatosis groups. Long-term survival was significantly reduced in patients with heavy alcohol consumption (mean follow-up, 9.22 years)....
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Position Statement: In recent years, alcohol has been reported as a beneficial addition to the everyday diet of Americans to assist in the prevention of heart disease. These reports and articles, siting recent studies conducted by acclaimed institutional facilities, often justify moderate drinking and misinterpret the information and research. It is true that certain types of alcohol have been proven to be beneficial to a selected type of individual and that heart disease was not as prevalent in these individuals who were consuming alcohol in moderation. However, alcohol as a whole is not beneficial to most individuals whom consume it and these studies fail to communicate that to the American public. This report intends to refute the popular notion that alcohol is beneficial or healthy for most individuals and will touch on the major points documented in defense of moderate alcohol consumption and present them in a manner which will shed light on the often misinterpreted subject. Outline: I. Introduction A. What is Alcohol B. History of Alcohol C. Different Types of Alcohol Consumption. II. Is Alcohol Beneficial to Human Health? A. Two Different Theories 1. Alcohol is Beneficial to Health a. How? b. To Whom? 2. Alcohol is Detrimental to Health a. How? b. To Whom? III. Which Theory is Right? A. What theory is Outshined? 1. The Bad Outweighs the Good IV. Balancing out the benefits of Alcohol A. Who Should Consume Alcohol for Beneficial Reasons? 1. Why? B. Who Should Abstain From Alcohol Consumption? 2. Why? V. Conclusion In the modern world of today, many controversies over substances that can be beneficial or detrimental to human health exist. Common misconceptions combined with hasty publication of medical theories based on faulty or inconclusive research can often lead the nation into deluded health frenzies. One of the more recent frenzies has to do with alcohol and it's beneficial qualities. Alcohol (specifically ethanol or ethyl alcohol, EtOH, CH3CH2OH) is the most socially accepted and...
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Throughout many years, Native Americans have been plagued by many cultural, social, and economical problems. Labeled minorities by society, and having to oblige to the cowardly power of the white man, whom in which through war and politics, ethically, mentally and physically wore down Native Americans as people, Native Americans established an unbreakable bond between one another. Through sacred tribal ceremonies and rituals, all Native Americans came together to heal the pain felt from the then years and years of ethical embarrassment. Today however, that is not the case. The Native Americans who used to heal themselves through the sacred tribal ceremonies and rituals to heal the pain felt from years of ethical embarrassment have seem to have found another way to deal with their problem. This by resorting to a bottle, and beginning for themselves a self abuse, as people and individuals. This by giving in to a chronic illness we like to call alcoholism. Alcohol abuse and alcoholism is a major problem to Native Americans today. According to a 1978 report from the Arizona Department of Health Services, "Native Americans have the highest rate proportionally of all ethnic groups of problems related to alcoholism".1 The different problems faced by Native Americans as individuals and as members of extended communities present great concern for all Native Americans. 2 In relation to their alcohol abuse, Native Americans have consistently been arrested at approximately "three times the Black rate and ten times the White rate."2 This according to age-adjusted figures for the years of 1950-1968. Most arrest are for minor offenses. In terms of drinking related offenses, the difference between the Native American rate and the general population rate are even greater - "about eight times the Black rate and over twenty times the white rate in the United States."3 In addition to being one of the ethnic groups who have the highest rates proportionally of problems related to alcoholism, and to being one of...
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