I. The Basics A. "Transformation" from a normal to a cancerous state occurs at the level of individual cells. · metastatic cancer cells resemble the primary cancer · cancers are usually clonal in origin (X-inactivation studies in females; unique Ig or TCR rearrangements in lymphoid cancers) · single cell transformation can be observed in culture systems (decreased adherence, anchorage independence for growth, loss of contact inhibition, decreased growth factor requirement, increased nutrient uptake and membrane ruffling) · Implications: Cancer arises at the level of the single cell and therefore must be understood at that level. This is different than other common diseases such as hypertension or diabetes that are due to "systemic" perturbations in physiology. B. Cancer is primarily a genetic disease. · somatic mutations occur in common "sporadic" (non-familial) cancers · inherited germline mutations occur in rare familial cancer syndromes · increases in the mutation rate or genomic instability correlate with increased risk of cancer · selection for mutations in cancer occur at the level of the single cell, not at the level of organismal survival. C. Cells must make critical decisions in a multi-cellular organism. · stem cell renewal; growth / quiescence; differentiation; cell death · adult humans have a remarkable homeostasis of cell number · communication between different cells is critical for this homeostasis · failure at any of these decision points can lead to overgrowth D. The good, the bad, and the ugly. · tumor suppressor genes prevent transformation [good] · oncogenes cause transformation [bad] · loss of genomic integrity causes mutations in both [ugly] II. Oncogenes A. Oncogenes are dominantly acting agents of cellular transformation. Note that a small number of different oncogenes explains a very large number of different types of cancer. This is a great simplification of the problem. B. Independent lines of cancer research identify the same set of oncogenes. 1. Acutely transforming retroviruses · why study tumor viruses? rapid and reliable oncogenesis can be readily quantitated genetically simple: only 4 genes instead of 60,000 ·...
pages: 7 (words: 1853)
Progress in the treatment of breast cancer has been painfully slow. Treatment changes can occur after physicians and their patients have been convinced that a new treatment is equal or superior to another already in use. Treatment of breast cancer depends on a woman's age and health as well as the type, extent, and location of the tumor, and if the cancer has remained in the breast or has spread to other parts of the body. Treatment may include surgery, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, radiation or a combination of treatments. There are various surgical techniques that might differ in the amount of breast tissue that is removed with the tumor, such as whether it has spread away form the breast or with in it and the patients feelings towards which surgery. The surgeon normally removes some lymph nodes under the arm as part of the operation, so they can test for the presence of cancer cells. One surgical treatment includes Lumpectomy, also called breast conservation. The surgeon removes the cancerous area and the surrounding area of the normal tissue. A second incision may be made in order to remove the lymph nodes (Andrew). The treatment aims to maintain a normal breast appearance when surgery is done; less painful and least amount of time to recover which are all positive points. After the lumpectomy, a six to eight week course of radiation therapy is used to treat the remaining breast tissue. Most women who have small, early stage breast cancer are first-rate candidates for this treatment. There are however women who are not typically eligible for a lumpectomy including those who have already had radiation therapy to the affected breast. Women who have two or more areas of cancer in the same breast that is too far apart to be removed through on...
pages: 5 (words: 1309)
Cancer is not just one disease but rather a group of diseases. Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among women (after skin cancer) and one out of eight women will develop this disease. Since this disease is so common and affects so many women, every woman should be well informed on the subject of breast cancer including detection, treatment, and different ways to fight breast cancer. All forms of cancer cause cells in the body to change and grow out of control. Most types of cancer cells form a lump or mass called a tumor. Cells from the tumor can break away and travel to other parts of the body. There the cancerous cells can continue to grow. This spreading process is called metastasis. When cancer spreads, it is still named after the part of the body where it started. For example, if breast cancer spreads to the lungs, it is still breast cancer, not lung cancer. Another word for cancerous is malignant. Therefore, a cancerous tumor is called malignant. However, not all tumors are cancer. A tumor that is not cancer is called benign. Benign tumors do not grow and spread in the same manner cancer does and the tumors are usually not a threat to life. A few cancers, such as blood cancers (leukemia), do not form a tumor. Breast cancer begins in the breast tissue. Men may also develop breast cancer, although this is rare. (Women.com, pp. 6) Inside the breasts are glands that produce and release milk after a woman has a baby. The glands that make the milk are called lobules and the tubes connecting the lobules to the nipple are called ducts. The breast itself is made up of lobules, ducts, and fatty, connective, and lymphatic tissue. There are several types of breast tumors....
pages: 5 (words: 1183)
According to the National Alliance of Breast Cancer Organizations (NABCO, 2002), breast cancer is the second most common form of cancer in women in the United States, falling only behind skin cancers. This is why it is such an important disease to understand. Throughout this paper there will be information about various issues which deal with breast cancer, in an attempt to give better insight to the disease. First there will be a brief discussion on the normal and altered physiology of the breast followed by the etiology and possible causative factors. Next there will be signs and symptoms which result from these alterations. Finally, the paper will be ended with some complications and the prognosis of this disease. Although breast cancer occurs in both men and women the prevalence is low in men. Out of every 100 women who are diagnosed with breast cancer only one man is which is why this paper will concentrate on the disease process in women. (ACS) (American Cancer Society [ACS], 2002) Please refer to the illustration above for help in understanding the structure of a normal breast. The female breast is primarily made up of lobules, ducts, and stroma. Lobules are milk producing glands, ducts are the milk passages that connect the lobules to the nipple and stroma is fatty and connective tissue that surrounds the ducts, lobules, blood vessels and lymphatic vessels. Lymphatic vessels carry lymph, a clear fluid containing waste products and immune cells. There are also lymph nodes along the lymphatic vessels; these nodes are bean-shaped collections of immune cells. Most lymphatic vessels of the breast connect to axillary lymph nodes which can be found in the armpit. Other nodes, such as internal mammary nodes and supra/infraclavicular nodes can also be found inside the chest or above and below the collarbone. (ACS, 2002) According...
pages: 9 (words: 2255)
Introduction Cancer develops when certain body cells grow uncontrollably. Normal body cells grow, divide, and die in an orderly, systematic way. In an adult stage body, while most body cells divide to replace dying cells and to repair injuries, cancer cells continue to grow and divide instead of dying. They continue to live and to form new abnormal cells. There are many kinds of cancers, but they all start the same way, by out-of control growth of abnormal cells ("What is Cancer?"). According to "Eating Right to Reduce Your Risk of Developing Cancer," cancer is the second leading cause of death; one in every four deaths in the United States is from cancer. However, by eating nutritious food, you can reduce your risk of developing cancer ("Eating Right to Reduce Your Risk of Developing Cancer"). Nutrition and physical activity both play major roles in the prevention of cancers. This paper will focus on how to prevent risk of cancers by monitoring nutrition intake and physical activity. Background There are both controllable and uncontrollable risk factors that cause cancers. Some uncontrollable factors include genetic and inherited components, like a family history of breast cancer and immune system disorders. A body's immune factor refers to the natural ability to protect from foreign cells developing in the body. Examples of immune risk factors are aging and infection (including HIV infection). Environmental factors which are known to cause various cancers consist of exposure to radiation and sun, water, and air pollution. (Whitney 618). Some of these may be controllable. Controllable factors causing cancers include the excessive use of alcohol, use of tobacco, too much use of tanning beds, and over-exposure to sun. Lack of physical activity and bad nutrition also can raise the risk of cancers (Whitney 618). Let us look at some of bad nutrition that will...
pages: 7 (words: 1667)
1.0 Introduction Cancer affects our cells, the body's basic unit of life. To understand cancer, it is helpful to know what happens when normal cells become cancerous. 1.1 Definition of colon The colon is a part of the digestive system. It is actually a muscular tube that has an average length of 1.8m and its function is to absorb excess nutrients and water from food material and blocks the material passing through the digestive tract. It also store waste product known as stool, which is converted by bacteria. It is divided into 4 sections ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon and sigmoid colon. The ascending colon is on the right side of the abdomen extended upward from the cesium. The transverse colon encompasses the left side of the upper abdomen. In the area slightly below the transverse colon and towards pelvis is the descending colon. The last section of colon, the sigmoid colon as connected to the rectum. The inner lining of the colon is slick, which makes it a haven for all kinds of infectious growth. (What Are Colon and Rectal Cancers? , 2003 April 19) 1.2 Definition of polyps Among these malignant growths are polyps. These polyps are usually shaped like dome tipped button or mushrooms, and their size may vary from a tiny seed to larger than a plum. One of the examples of polyps is the adenomas polyp. Polyps if left unchecks, can develop into a cancerous stage after a long period, which is normally ten years. Which in turn, progresses into colon cancer. These polyps normally grow in the inner lining of the colon. (Prevention of Colon Polyps and Cancer, 2002) 1.3 Symptoms Early symptom and indications show major changes in the bowel habits. The patients might experiences illness such as diarrhea, unexplained anemia, abdominal discomfort, tiredness and sudden weight loss. (What...
pages: 9 (words: 2260)
Lung cancer, what is it? How is it diagnosed? When someone brings up a subject like lung cancer, many people don't have a lot of information. There may be a lot of questions running through their heads. This paper is designed to get all of the questions answered and show people a path to prevention. It includes information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease. This information can make it easier to understand what people with lung cancer are going through and for you what to watch for. If a person is diagnosed with lung cancer they may have one of the two main types; Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Small Cell Lung Cancer. The most common type is Non-Small; it makes up about 80 percent of all cases. This type of lung cancer grows and spreads the slowest of the two. It is divided into three subcategories; squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell carcinomas. Small Cell Lung Cancer makes up about 20 percent of all cancer cases. These produce rapidly to form large tumors. They usually spread to more internal organs than just your lungs. Mainly, they are caused my smoking and second-hand smoke. Who is at risk? The majority of people that are diagnosed with Lung Cancer are in a few elite groups. One of the groups is made up of people who smoke constantly, or are around second-hand smoke. Another is the age group of about 50-60 year-olds, with a background of smoking. Males have a one-third higher change of getting lung cancer than women do. Race matters too. African-Americans seem to have a higher chance of developing it than Caucasians. Overall, Americans have a seven percent chance of getting lung cancer in their lifetime. Cancer, in general, is a treatable disease, but as far as our technology...
pages: 4 (words: 990)
Prostate Cancer, a common form of cancer, is a disease in which cancer cells are found in the prostate. The prostate is on the male sex glands, and is located just below the bladder and in front of the rectum. The size of the prostate is about the size of a walnut. It surrounds the part of the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. The prostate makes fluid that becomes part of the semen, which contains sperm. Prostate cancer is most commonly found in older men. As a man gets older, his prostate may get bigger and block the urethra of the bladder, which can cause him to have difficulty urinating or even interfere with sexual functions. This condition is called Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH), and although it is not cancer, surgery may be needed to correct it. The symptoms of BPH, or other problems in the prostate may be similar to symptoms of prostate cancer. Some common symptoms of prostate cancer are: weak or interrupted flow of urine, urinating often (especially at night), difficulty urinating, pain or burning from urinating, blood in the urine, and nagging pain in the back, hips, or pelvis. Often, there are no early symptoms of prostate cancer. Once cancer of the prostate has been found, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread from the prostate to tissues around it, or to other parts of the body. This is called ¡°staging.¡± It is very important to know the stage if the disease to plan for the treatment. The following stages are used for prostate cancer: Stage 1: Prostate cancer at this stage cannot be felt and causes no symptoms. The cancer is only in the prostate and usually is found accidentally when...
pages: 5 (words: 1132)
"Prostate Cancer" The prostate gland is located between the bladder and in front of the rectum. The upper part of the urethra passes through the prostate gland, which can cause some serious problems if it becomes enlarged. They believe that the cancer is caused by changes in DNA. The reason for this is because some parts of the DNA give instructions to the cell about growth and division. This is where cancer comes into play, which is the division of cells gone mad. The genes that promote cell growth and division are oncogenes. When this happens, it creates a tumor. The tumor will either be benign or malignant. Benign tumors do not spread like the malignant ones. When a malignant tumor spreads, it is called metastasis. Prostate cancer is when a malignant tumor is found in the prostate gland. The severity determines what stage the cancer is in, it will be in T1, T2, T3, or T4. "T1 and T2 are limited only to the prostate gland."(source 1) T3 is when the cancer has already made its way into the tissue. T4 is when the cancer is spread all across the body. There are three types of prostate diseases: benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis, and prostate cancer. Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a not cancerous and is just and enlargement of the gland. It affects half of all men younger than 50 and 80% of men older than 60. These are some of the symptoms: difficulty urinating, an urge to urinate even when the bladder is empty, frequent urination, a weak or intermittent stream of urine, and a sense of incomplete emptying when urinating. Prostatitis is when the gland is inflamed because of a bacterial infection. This disease affects men of all ages that have a sized prostate. Some of the symptoms for prostatitis...
pages: 4 (words: 854)
Cancer Research Paper I chose to research Prostate cancer because someone I know has some of the symptoms of Prostate cancer. All of the tests have not been run as of yet, so the final prognosis has not been given. Prostate cancer is cancer that originates in the prostate gland, a male genital gland about the size of a walnut that is located in front of the rectum, behind the base of the penis, and under the bladder. The prostate gland surrounds the upper part of the urethra, the tube that caries urine and semen out of the penis (Prostate Cancer Resource of America). Prostate cancer is the most common cancer, other than skin cancer. It is estimated that one in six men will develop prostate cancer sometime during his life (Cancer of the Prostate). According to the American Cancer Society, this year almost 200,000 men in the United States will be newly diagnosed with prostate cancer and 40,000 men will die from this disease (Radiotherapy Clinics of Georgia). Prostate cancer is more common in older men. Almost 75% of the men diagnosed with prostate cancer are age 65 and over. Prostate cancer occurs more frequently among African-American men than among white men. African-American men are more likely to die from the disease than white men (Cancer of the Prostate). Other men at risk include men with a family history of prostate cancer or a history of venereal disease, men with recurring prostate infections, men who have taken progesterone, and men with a high-fat diet (Prostate Problems). Symptoms of prostate cancer may include pain and/or burning with urination, frequent urination, a decrease in the amount and power of the urine flow, blood in the urine, an inability to urinate, lower back, and pelvic pain (Prostate Problems). Other symptoms may include tiredness, loss of appetite, weight loss,...
pages: 3 (words: 576)
The most common kind of cancer is skin cancer, affecting some 500,000 Americans yearly. But out of all the types of cancer there is, it is the most curable. About ninety five percent of people who have skin cancer are cured by drugs or surgery. "Sunlight is regarded as a causative factor in more than 90% of skin cancers," stated Lamberg. Skin cancer is the most serious consequence of over exposure to the sun. It is a delayed effect that usually doesn't appear for many years. Since sun damage may not be immediately visible, many people don't realize the dangers of tanning. Dr. Vivienne Nathanson said, "A Suntan isn't a sign of good health, a tan even where there is no burning, always means that the skin has been damaged. Suntan isn't nature's own sunscreen." A tan thickens the skin enabling it to tolerate the sun longer without burning but it does not offer full protection. A few serious sunburns can increase a person's risk for skin cancer. The lighter a person's natural skin color is, the more likely he or she is to burn. Melanin in greater of lesser amounts is what separates skin types and determines how a person can handle the sun. People who stay out too long can get a burn that just as severe as one caused by a fire of boiling water. Ultraviolet B rays causes sunburn, but ultraviolet A rays are more harmful. It alone may lead to skin cancer. It actually damages the connective tissue at deeper levels. Sunbeds first became popular in the 1970's and have become a boom industry ever since. Surveys have shown that in the 16-24 age group, at least one person in four has used a sunbed. It is twice as popular with women than men to use a sunbed....
pages: 2 (words: 400)
Skin cancer and Tanning beds Despite being one of the most preventable cancers, skin cancer is also the most common cancer in the United States, accounting for almost half of all cancers and more than 1 million Americans will be diagnosed with nonmelanomas in 2002, and about 53,600 will be diagnosed with melanoma (http://www.preventcancer.org/healthyliving/PreventionNews/Tanning-Bed-Use-and-Skin-Cancer-Risk.cfm). It's a scary thought and yet some people still risk it just because our society says that tan is beautiful. I used to be one of those people. My freshman year in high school the big craze was fake tanning. Everyone was doing it and so did I. I had a membership at a tanning place called California Sun Center. It was relatively inexpensive and at the time I thought it was a great deal. I paid thirty dollars a month for unlimited tanning. I have always been sort of a hypochondriac and I was worried about skin cancer. When I went to the Website it said, "The sun emits three types of ultraviolet rays. The shorter the ray, the more harmful it becomes. The shortest of the three, UVC, is unable to penetrate the earth's ozone layer. Only UVB and UVA enter the earth's atmosphere, and of these two, the shorter UVB is the ray responsible for burning. UVA, the longest ray, is responsible for tanning. Outdoors, UVB can reach levels of up to 40 percent, making burning a very real possibility, even for darker skin types. This then poses a real dilemma for those who want to acquire a tan without the dangers inherent in burning-a dilemma that has been solved by the indoor tanning industry. Indoor, tanning beds emit approximately one-tenth of the UVB experienced outdoors, minimizing the chances of developing sunburn and the negative consequences that accompany such a condition. This is great news for...
pages: 3 (words: 751)
Cervical Cancer, just like all cancers, is a complex cancer of the cervix. The National Cancer Institute describes the cervix as the lower, narrow part of the uterus (womb). The uterus, a hollow, pear-shaped organ, is located in a woman's lower abdomen, between the bladder and the rectum. The cervix forms a canal that opens into the vagina, which leads to the outside of the body (What You Need to Know about Cancer of the Cervix). The Family Guide to Women's Health and Prescription Drugs explains that the cervix is lined with mucous membrane similar to that found inside the mouth, and is made up of connective tissue (Cervical Cancer: The One That's Preventable). Cervical cancer, just like all cancers, is caused by cells in the cervix becoming abnormal. Once this happens the cells begin dividing as part of their daily routine and eventually, if not found, will invade the deep layers of the cervix. The cancerous cells will divide and form a mass of tissue-the tissue either being benign (not harmful) or malignant (cancerous). A woman may never know without regular medical attention and checkups that she even has anything wrong with her body. Regular symptoms of irregular bleeding and discomfort during urination may occur but not in all cases in all women. So the first step to even solving the problem is diagnosing it. Many tests are available to let women know if something is wrong with their bodies. The most common and most effective in general cases are the Pap Smear Test (What You Need to Know about Cancer of the Cervix). In this test the doctor checks the uterus, vagina, ovaries, fallopian tubes, bladder, and the rectum for any abnormalities (What You Need to Know about Cancer of the Cervix). Other tests for cervical cancer are also available, such...
pages: 6 (words: 1404)
OVERWEIGHT men who pull their belts too tight could be increasing their risks of cancer. Oesophageal adenocarcinomas have increased 150 per cent in men since the 1970s and gastric reflux is believed to be a significant factor. The head of the SA Cancer Control Research Centre, Associate Professor David Roder, said reflux of gastric juices into the oesophagus caused changes to the cellular lining. Pressure on the stomach was more common in men because they carried their excess weight across the abdomen. "Tight belts and trying to keep their bellies in -- all that could be feeding in to this reflux oesophagitis," Professor Roder said. COMPUTER users have overwhelmed the Microsoft website as they race against time to protect their computers against a virulent worm sweeping the Internet. So many people have tried to download a patch to protect against the worm that the website servers have struggled with demand. In an ironic twist, this has had the same effect as the denial of service attack the worm will launch against the Microsoft update site tomorrow. Up to 100,000 Australian computers are believed to have been infected with the virus, which goes by the names of MSBlast, Blaster, Poza or LovSan. Vodafone, Monash University, RMIT, two major media organisations, and one federal and two state government departments are among the higher profile victims of the worm since it first appeared on Monday. Tens of thousands of Australian home computer users have also seen their computers crash or slow down after being infected. Yesterday, the worm continued to infect about 2500 computers an hour around the world. Australia has the fourth worst rate of infection, behind the US, Britain and Canada. Australian Computer Emergency Response Team senior security analyst Jamie Gillespie said the delay in users downloading the patch to protect against the vulnerability in Windows could lead to it having a longer life. The...
pages: 2 (words: 507)
BROCCOLI How it combats cancer: Research has revealed that a chemical component called indole-3-carbinol can combat breast cancer by converting a cancer-promoting estrogen into a more protective riety. The phytochemical sulforaphane raises the levels of certain cancer-fighting enzymes that defend the body from cigarette smoke, fumes, pesticides & other known carcinogens. Diet tips: Broccoli leaves actually contain more beta-carotene (i.e. pre-Vitamin A) than the florets - use leaves in purees, soups, stir-fries. To preserve broccoli's valuable nutrients, steam or microwave, being careful not to overcook. Avoid garnishing broccoli with fatty cheeses and creams instead,squeeze on some lemon juice or sprinkle with toasted bread crumbs. PAPAYA How it combats cancer: Its plentiful store of vitamin C works as an antioxidant and may also reduce absorption of cancer-causing nitrosamines from the soil or processed foods. Papaya contains folacin (also known as folic acid), which has been shown to minimize cervical ysplasia and certain cancers. Diet tips: Choose papayas that are at least half yellow in the store - fully green ones were probably picked too soon and won't ripen properly. You can serve papaya in fruit salad, add it to a garlic-and-spinach pasta mixture, or just eat it on its own, letting the juice dribble down your arm. GARLIC How it combats cancer: Garlic's immune-enhancing allium compounds block carcinogens from entering cells and slow tumor development. Diallyl sulfide, a component of garlic oil, has also been shown to render carcinogens in the liver inactive. Studies have linked garlic - as well as onions, leeks, and chives - to lower risk of stomach and colon cancer. Diet tips: Add raw garlic to salads, use it fresh in marinades and sauces; rub freshly cut garlic around the insides of salad bowls and over chicken and fish fillets. Avoid dried or powdered garlic, which is less concentrated - and less effective KALE How it combats cancer: Research has...
pages: 4 (words: 879)
In the last year two people I was close to died of lung cancer. It goes without saying that these two were both cigarette smokers. They had bought their first Lucky Strike or Camel or Chesterfield as teenagers in the 1940s. They had smoked thousands of cartons of dozens of brands, two packs a day, three packs a day, until they died. One tried to quit 20 times. Another had quit, finally, in the hospital because he wasn't allowed to smoke around his oxygen tank. I don't say this to disqualify myself from writing about smoking but rather to qualify. As a survivor I have to ask who is to blame for these two deaths, or for the 350,000 other Americans– friends, uncles, parents– who died of smoking-related diseases last year? The daily newspaper, the medical establishment, even the cigarette packs these smokers opened carried warnings about the lethal dangers of cigarettes. Some 45,000 studies documented the link between smoking and ill health. Weren't these consumers responsible for what they inhaled? Didn't they kill themselves! What then about the tobacco industry? Year after year the people who write for the Tobacco Institute go on rebutting the medical research, trying to convince us that cigarettes are not bad. The companies have spent $1.5 billion a year in advertising to entice Americans, especially young Americans, to smoke. Don't they bear any responsibility for manufacturing and marketing such a lethal product? These questions of responsibility, personal and corporate, will be argued in the courtroom this spring by dying smokers and/or their survivors who are suing tobacco companies. Juries in Massachusetts, New Jersey, Texas, California, Minnesota and West Virginia will decide whether a person who lit her own cigarettes can turn around and collect payment from the company that made them. They will decide whether a manufacturer who denied...
pages: 3 (words: 709)
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women today. The American Cancer Society reported that in 2001 an estimated 200,000 new cases of breast cancer were diagnosed in woman in the U.S. Although, not widely known, men can be stricken with breast cancer also. However, the numbers are much lower than occurrences in women. For example, 1,500 men were reported to have contracted breast cancer in 2001. The key to surviving breast cancer is early detection and treatment. When breast cancer is found early and confined to the breast, the survival rate is close to 100%. Beginning at t he age of 20 years old, every women should being to practice monthly self breast exams. As a woman ages, the risk of cancer also increases. Doctor visits are important too. After the age of 40, a woman should have a mammogram every two years and practice self exams every month. As with all cancers they start with cells in the body that begin to change. The following explains the stages of breast cancer: Stage 0 - Cancer cells are present in either the lining of a lobule or a duct but they have not spread to the surrounding fatty tissue. This area is restricted and begins under the arm pit area or slightly lower, towards the side of the breast. Stage 1 - Cancer has spread from the lobules or ducts to nearby tissue in the breast, and the tumor is generally 3/4 inches or less in diameter; the lymph nodes are not involved. Stage 2 - Cancer has spread from the lobules or ducts to nearby tissue in the breast, and tumor may be 2 inches in diameter; sometimes the lymph nodes may be involved. Stage 3 - Known as locally advanced cancer; tumor may be larger than 2 inches in diameter, and cancer may or may not have spread to lymph nodes or other tissues near the...
pages: 3 (words: 588)
The 10th Annual "Making Strides Against Breast Cancer" walk was held on Sunday, October 19 and attracted a vast amount of participants. The five-mile walk took place at Queens Boulevard and as cold as the weather was, many showed their support by making donations and participating in the walk. Approximately six hundred of St. John's students took part in this great cause, myself being one of them. Apart from this walk, I had participated in other causes like the "March of Dimes" for babies and the AIDS walk, and at the end of this walk the feeling was exactly the same but the understanding of this walk was much more. There was more maturity in this walk with much more sincerity. I felt what I think the majority felt and that was a feeling of hope. With everyone there representing and struggling against the same cause, it made you felt that we are truly one in a sense. I think the one thing that struck me the most from this walk was the staggering statistics that was given to us in a speech by one of the organizers. It was very informative and a great realization, being in a family with five women. Being part of this walk, I think you can't help but wonder that someday this walk, this stand that we take now, might actually save millions of lives in the future. To have a feeling that you cannot express but everyone shares that same feeling, is something that you and only you can feel, and thats what exactly the walk provided for me. Simply put, the walk made me felt good and not in a selfish way but that I wanted to walk this walk and not that I needed to. I think this walk and others similar to...
pages: 2 (words: 382)
This article talks about how British researchers have shown that high-dose chemotherapy and a stem cell transplant together are far more effective against the bone cancer multiple myeloma than standard chemo. Patients in the eight-year study who got the more intensive treatment usually survived a year longer. Dr. Len Lichtenfeld, spokesman for the American Cancer Society said, "A one-year increase in survival in a study like this is very significant." Also, patients getting the more intensive treatment were five times more likely to have all traces of all cancer eliminated from their blood. Patients and doctors have believed that when it comes to cancer, more aggressive treatment is better. Earlier studies of high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplants for multiple myeloma were less rigorous and generally inconclusive. In other cancer like breast cancer, high-dose chemotherapy has been found no more effective than standard treatment. High-dose chemotherapy can be painful for patients. The cancer drugs kill healthy cells with the cancerous cells, which causes side effects. The study covered 401 patients age 65 or younger forth the United Kingdom and New Zealand. Patients were randomly assigned. The 200 getting standard chemotherapy received a combination of four cancer drugs at different times over a few weeks, then repeated this cycle every six weeks up to twelve times. The 201 other patients got at least three cycles of a similar treatment initially, then had their stem cells removed by having their blood pumped through a machine that filtered out those cells. The median survival time was 42.3 months for patients receiving standard therapy; that jumped to 54.1 months for those getting the more intensive treatment. In my opinion, I think it is good that this new study has been done, because now doctors have a better way of treating people with bone cancer. I...
pages: 2 (words: 407)
Genetics and the Predisposition to Breast Cancer: BRCA1 & BRCA2 I. A. The genetics of Cancer a. Some Interesting Facts i. Cancer is one of the most common and severe diseases on earth ii. It is responsible for 20% of all deaths iii. One-third of the world's population will develop some form of cancer iv. Cancer is responsible for more than 10% of the total cost of all medical care in developed countries b. Cancer is a virulent form of neoplasia, or uncontrolled cellular proliferation leading to a malignant mass or tumor capable of metastasizing. c. Three main forms of cancer: Lymphoid/hematopoietic, sarcoma, carcinoma. B. Molecular basis of cancer a. Mutations in the genes responsible for controlling cell proliferation and apoptosis cause cancer. b. Damage to the DNA of a somatic cell rarely has an effect beyond that cell unless the mutation contributes to a malignant transformation (cancer). c. Cancer results from a series of mutations. d. Cancer evolves from an accumulation of additional mutations in the genes that encode DNA -repair and tumor-suppressors. C. Predisposition to Cancer a. Mutations that occur in germ-line cells and are then fertilized pass down the mutation to offspring. b. These offspring now have a "predisposition" to cancer, with the mutation found in every cell of their body. II. Part II: Breast and Ovarian Cancer a. Some Interesting Facts About Breast Cancer i. Over 150,000 women each year are diagnosed with breast cancer, and over 40,000 of them die. ii. Lifetime risk for the average woman is a 1 in 9 chance of developing breast cancer. iii. Only about 5 to 10% of these patients have a strong family history of disease, and can be attributed to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. b. Oncogenes i. Mutated proto-oncogenes, alleles of normal cellular genes ii. Mutations are dominant, require only one mutated allele. iii. Can encode telomerase genes that block apoptosis iv. Usually are gain-of-function mutations that facilitate malignant transformation by mechanisms such as: v....
pages: 7 (words: 1826)