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"aggression in sport"
aggression in sport
Darren McCutchen
Anger is a basic emotion (Oatley, 1992) that can be defined as a negative feeling state associated with specific cognitive appraisals, physiological changes and action tendencies ( Kassinove & Sukhodolsky, 1995). It has been distinguished from related concepts of hostility and aggression ( Friedman and Spielberger) and a substantial body of literature has been accumulated which necessitates a distinction between anger and anger rumination. Conceptualization of the anger rumination was influenced by the social-constructivist ( Averill, 1983) and factor-analytical ( Spielberger, 1988) models of anger. Anger rumination is considered as a relatively independent component within the sequence of broader anger phenomenology. Generally, if anger is viewed as an emotion, anger rumination can be defined as thinking about this emotion.

The Anger Rumination Scale (ARS) was developed to assess cognitive processes that unfold after the emotion of anger has been triggered or generated. Deffenbacher (1999) explicated the difference between internal and external triggers of anger. External anger eliciting events include identifiable circumstances such as being cut off in traffic. Internal events that may trigger anger include thoughts and memories of prior anger-provoking events such as thinking about an ex-spouse. Anger experiences are further shaped by cognitive appraisals, specifically those of unfairness, blameworthiness, and intentionality ( Kassinove & Sukhodolsky, 1995). Spielberger (1988) labeled the phenomenology of anger experience as state-anger, which was defined as a transient psychobiological feeling that varies in intensity from mild irritation to fury and involves the concomitant activation of the autonomic nervous system. Correspondingly, an individual's tendency to experience state-anger with higher frequency and in response to a wider range of situations is referred to as trait-anger. We propose that anger generation and anger experience processes are intertwined with anger ruminative processes, which can be responsible for sustaining and augmenting anger.

This paper is concerned with anger rumination, unintentional and...

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