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"Carbohydrates & Lipids - Energy Storage"
Carbohydrates & Lipids - Energy Storage
Jason Cashmere
Carbohydrates: Short-Term Energy Storage

Carbohydrates include biologically important molecules, sugars & starches. These molecules provide short-term energy to cells. Carbohydrates are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The carbon provides the "back-bone" of the molecule.

Carbohydrates, like many other organic molecules, may be monomers or polymers. The carbohydrates in the monomer form are known as monosaccharides. Glucose, for example, is a monosaccharide. Disaccharides are sugars that are made of 2 monosacchrides. Sucrose is an example of a disaccharide. Desaccharides are formed by a process called dehydration synthesis ( also known as condensation reaction). In this process, a molecule of water is split out as the bond is formed. The disaccharides are broken down into monomers by a process called hydrolysis. Hydrolysis occurs when a molecule of water is used up as a bond is broken to make 2 smaller products. Polysacchrides are large carbohydrate molecules that are polymers of monosacchrides like glucose. Some important polysacchrides include starch, glycogen & cellulose. Starch is the energy storage molecule in plants and a good source of energy for human cells. Glycogen is the short-term energy storage molecule in human cells. Cellulose is the molecule that makes up plant cell walls. Organisms must break down the polysaccharides to use the glucose.

Lipids: Long-term Energy Storage

Lipids: organic compound formed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms but with relatively more hydrogen than a carbohydrate

Examples: fats, phospholipids, waxes and steroids

Human cells: fat serve as log-term energy storage molecules

Phospholipids: forms cell membranes

Steroids: include cholesterol and certain sex hormones

Stored fat helps cushion and protect important organs such as the kidneys

Fat: lipid, formed by fatty acids and glycerol molecules, that protect body structure, insulates the body and provides energy

Fatty acids: molecule formed by a chain of carbon and hydrogen atoms with carboxyl (COOH) group at one end

Unsaturated: fatty acids have one or...

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