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"History of English"
History of English
Author:
Darren McCutchen
Indo-European Influences


• First language spoken in Britain was Celtic.

• Celts came from Central Asia.

• Celtic had little effect on English

• Celts were driven to the North and West of Britain.

• Celtic still spoken in Scotland & Wales.

• Celtic words- bog, galore.

• Celtic place name- Avon river

• 55AD Roman invasion (Julius Caesar)

• Romans brought Latin.

• Roman occupation lasted 400 years.

• During Roman occupation Celtic & Latin was spoken.

• Latin word- castra meaning camp. Used in town names Chester, Lancaster & Gloucester


Old English (500AD-1100AD)


• English dates from 5th C.

• 5th C Britain invaded by Angles, Saxons & Jutes.

• Angles, Saxons & Jutes from north Germany.

• Angles, Saxons & Jutes were farmers.

• Angles, Saxons & Jutes language was Anglo-Saxon.

• Anglo-Saxon main language spoken for 500 years.

• Anglo-Saxon forms the basic vocab of English.

• Anglo-Saxon vocab members of family, parts of body, food, numbers up to 1000 and verbs.

• 9th & 10th C Danes & Vikings invasion.

• Danes & Vikings spoke Old Norse.

• Old Norse & Anglo-Saxon come from Teutonic.

• Old English = Old Norse + Anglo-Saxon


Norman Conquest & Middle English (1066AD-1500AD)


• 1066 William the Conqueror and the Norman army invaded Britain.

• Normans were lawyers, government officials and traders.

• The Normans spoke Norman French.

• Anglo-Saxons were dominated by the Normans.

• French became the official language of England for 300 years.

• Latin still used in church and schools.

• The Anglo-Saxon was still spoken by the Anglo-Saxons.

• Middle English = Norman French + Old English.

• New words from Norman French are master and supper.

• Geoffrey Chaucer used English to write books "The Canterbury Tales".


The Renaissance


• Renaissance means re-birth.

• New words from Latin & Greek. Words = education, experiment, investigate.

• 10,000 new words.

• Shakespeare was one of the heaviest contributors to this. Words = Longhaired, hot blooded, obscene.

• Standardization

• 1467 Caxton introduced the first printing press and...

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