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In Manitoba, 6 teenagers become pregnant every day. This gives us one of the highest teen pregnancy rates in Canada, 55 pregnancies per 1,000 girls aged 15-19 years ( What does this say about adolescent sexuality in our province, and even in our community. Why are so many teens sexually active? And are they physically and emotionally ready to have sex? Adolescent sexuality has increased whereas the age of adolescents decreases. There were 2,205 pregnancies among 10-19 year olds in 1999/2000(Teen Sex, 2002). Teens are influenced by media (television, music, and magazines), peers, parents, and sex education at school. Unfortunately some of these influences don't talk about the risks of sex, and protection against pregnancy and STI's. The final decision about whether or not to have sex or use birth control is up to the adolescent. When is it right? Most people make a decision about when to have sex for the first time. Part of the decision is asking questions about many parts of sex. There are also questions about the responsibilities and the risks involved with sex. Sex is a pleasurable and exciting part of life. Some risks and problems of sexual activity that affect the body are unprotected sex, disease, or pregnancy. Being able to communicate about such risks and problems is an equally important part of sexual readiness. A teen who is ready for sexual activity needs to understand STDs and be prepared to prevent their spread. Using condoms during sexual activity can be a healthy choice. Females are biologically more likely than males to get an STD (Sexual Readiness, 2000). This is because of the way the female body is built. The germs that cause STDs have more places to linger and cause problems in the female body. They must also understand the risks of sex...
pages: 8 (words: 1998)
comments: 0
added: 01/21/2012
Death is a difficult situation for anyone to deal with, but it seems to be harder for adolescents to overcome. Loss is something teens feel when they are separated from something or someone they care about, however life does continue. With death, teens experience a grieving process. Everyone grieves differently, just as every teen grieves differently depending on who died, how they died, and other situations surrounding the death. Grief is not a disorder, a disease, or a sign of weakness. It is an emotional, physical, and spiritual necessity that comes along with loving someone. (Rofes.) There is no cure for grief, but to grieve. Buried grief can cause a war within an individual and at times it can feel like a bomb ticking underground. Most teenagers when dealing with death have a tendency to feel that the pain is so powerful that no one can understand. The pain that hits the adolescent dealing with a loss is not in one location of the body but throughout the entire body. According to the poet from the nineteenth century, Henrich, he stated, "Grief is like a toothache of the heart." (Grollman 6) No one can measure the length of grief. There is no correct way for a teen to grieve. The suffering as a result of a death varies from person to person. Unfortunately there is no easy way out when dealing with death, but a person must try to remember that they will eventually feel better. When dealing with a loss it is important for teens to remember not to compare their suffering with that of others because each individual's pain is different. The grieving process depends on many factors surrounding the death. Grief depends on the relationship one had with the person who died. Another is how they may have handled stress...
pages: 9 (words: 2287)
comments: 0
added: 09/21/2011
Juvenile justice is an area of criminal law applied to people not old enough to be held responsible for criminal acts. In most states, the age set for criminals is at 18 years. Juvenile law is mainly governed by state law and most states have enacted a juvenile code. Most adolescents do not fear law because, they know they can get away with any thing. Laws should be tougher on juveniles, punishing them for the crime committed and giving them a life-long record. The main goal of the juvenile justice system is rehabilitation rather than punishment. Violent juvenile crime is particularly chilling. We're not supposed to be afraid of our children. Juvenile violence rose in the late 1980s through the early 1990s. This provokes an image of teenage psychopaths running wild. Very occasional, but highly-publicized acts of violence by children under 13 engendered a belief that even grade school kids can be criminals. "Not so long ago politicians campaigned by kissing babies. Today, they lock children in jail (Law and Order)." The justice system is getting tougher on kids but needs to be tougher. One of the main problems is erasing of the criminal record. By making it virtually impossible to collect data about delinquents, it also makes it difficult to evaluate rehabilitation programs. Employers can't know whether potential employees are prone to steal or other criminal behaviors. The erasing of the record was originally done to deal with delinquents who stole hubcaps, not those who rape, and mug. Abrahm McLauchlin staff writer of the Christian Science Monitor believes "there is a violent core of repeat offenders who may not be adult but are fully capable of committing crimes." "It is time to stop pampering punks who rape, murder and assault law-abiding citizens. And I called for adult time for adult crime (Work...
pages: 2 (words: 418)
comments: 0
added: 09/28/2012
If I were to say the word "Nazi" the first few things to pop into your mind would most likely be killing Jews, World War II, Adolf Hitler, and the brutality towards Jews. Although all of these were big parts to the Nazi party there was still one more hug factor. The most crazed, brutal man, who still would claim he was just following orders, was Adolf Eichmann. He, with the help of his "Eichmann Hobby Shops" or gas chambers, ended up killing millions of Jews while serving under Adolf Hitler. Born in 1906 in Solingen, Germany, this brother- to-five seemed to be merely another normal child destined to grow up to be some average business man. His father was a stern and an accountant and it seemed as though little Eichmann would grow up to be like his father. Trouble began to brew, though, as he moved to Linz, Austria after his father remarried. When Adolf Eichmann grew to be 16 years of age and ended up dropping out of school. Ironically, the school he dropped out of was the same exact school Adolf Hitler dropped out of just 20 years or so before. As time went on during the 1920's Adolf needed to get money so he began to do odd jobs, and while working as a traveling salesman he first heard Hitler speak on the radio and instantly became intrigued. That was it, the one moment that decided his fate, the moment when he decided that he wanted to join the Nazi party. The National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazi) started out as a small anti-Jewish group in 1918 but when Hitler became the leader of the Nazis in 1912 he began to improve upon it. Finally, in 1934, Adolf Eichmann joined the Nazis in the SS section of...
pages: 4 (words: 869)
comments: 0
added: 01/24/2012
I watched the video clip presented by Laura A. Cecere entitled, "Saving Girls' Lives: International Adoptions from China." Chinese adoptions help families in many ways. Over the decades, the idea of adoption has changed. Having many children used to be a sign of virtue. The more offspring you have, the more successful you are, because it takes more money. If someone wanted to adopt, the adoption had to take place through your extended family. A son also equaled social security. When a child was put up for adoption in China, the family who was "giving" had to give a bearing cost to the "receiving" family. From 1891-1920, 74% of all females were adopted. More than half of this percentage were under the age of six months. Many people wanted to adopt girls to raise them as future daughter-in-laws. In some cases, the girls would eventually end up commiting suicide because they did not want to marry their brother. These girls were usually beaten, molested, abused, neglected, and had less schooling and a high mortality rate. The adoptive parents did not want to spend the money or the time on these girls because she would end up being "given away" to her husbands' family. When going through the Chinese adoption process now, one must sign a letter of oath stating that one must care for the children lovingly. A major reason that the Chinese have expanded their adoption locations to foreigners is because China is in an economic boom. They would rather work more and make more money rather than having children to pay for. In addition, it was "popular" for many parents to abandon there child and another couple would find the baby, take care of it, and love it... During a war between China and Japan, more that 2100 Japanese...
pages: 2 (words: 520)
comments: 0
added: 11/05/2011
¡¥To Kill a Mockingbird¡¦ Contextual Research Task1 Part a Life for African Americans during the 1920¡¦s and 1930¡¦s was very hard. There were crop failures; economical suffering and reconstructing not going to plan activated a great migration of blacks from the South to Northern cities. The African Americans arrived in cities already overflowing with millions of European immigrants. They developed a very urban lifestyle and culture. There was a lot of racism and an oversupply of labor market kept many African Americans from getting the better life they deserved. Many African Americans within this community discussed gaining political, economic and social equal ness with whites. African American churches offered their members a lot more than a place to worship. They provided spiritual and Community support for whatever was going on. The church was where African Americans could feel safe and wanted. Although, lynching also took place in these times, lynching was a practice very scarily too common. It was often together with race relations after the end of the Civil War and slavery destruction. Lynching is where a mob breaks into a prison and gets the person they want, throw a rope over a tree and pulls it to hang the person. These are people who have brought it upon themselves to Kill someone. The whites used lynching as a form of terror to scare the African American population. Some Americans wrote in favor about the Practice of lynching. Lynching had a history much deeper then people Thought. Here are dates and numbers of how many people got lynched in Each year: „X 1900 ¡V 115 „X 1901 ¡V 130 „X 1902 ¡V 92 „X 1903 ¡V 99 „X 1904 ¡V 83 „X 1905 ¡V 62 „X 1906 ¡V 65 „X 1907 ¡V 60 „X 1908 ¡V 97 „X 1909 ¡V 82 „X 1910 ¡V 76 „X 1911 ¡V 67 „X 1912 ¡V 63 „X 1913 ¡V 52 „X 1914 ¡V 55 „X 1915 ¡V 69 „X 1916 ¡V 54 „X 1917 ¡V 38 „X 1918 ¡V 64 „X 1919 ¡V 83 „X 1920 ¡V...
pages: 9 (words: 2311)
comments: 0
added: 10/26/2011
The main purpose of advertising is to sell a certain product of send a message to a certain group of people. Advertisements can be found anywhere from billboards on the highway to banners on the Internet. Some advertisements try to sell a certain product and make people aware of their presence. Other advertisements are there to deliver a certain message to the people. As Judith Williamson says "Advertisements are one of the most important cultural factors moulding and reflecting our life today. They are ubiquitous, an inevitable part of everyone's lives: even if you do not read a newspaper or watch television, the images posted over our urban surroundings are inescapable. Pervading all the media, but limited to none, advertising forms a vast superstructure with an apparently autonomous existence and an immense influence." Television commercials and magazine advertisements tend to focus toward the people most likely to watch that television program or read that magazine. For example, if people are watching a soccer game then the commercials in between will most likely have to do with soccer. In magazines the advertisements are related to the theme of the magazine, in computer magazines there will be advertisements on computer hardware and software, and in beauty magazines there will be advertisements on make-up and beauty supplies. In other words, as Judith Williamson mentions, "Advertisements are selling us something else Most advertisements have an eye catching picture or phrase that will keep the attention of the viewer long enough to deliver them the message. The director of this advertisement knows that this will catch the reader's attention while they browse through the magazine. As John Lyons states, "Every time an art director produces a good design, he not only raises the stature of paper but improves our visual environment. A striking visual presentation is the...
pages: 2 (words: 414)
comments: 0
added: 01/15/2012
Ad Analysis Imagine you are on the beach, water clear as crystal, grabbing for your beach towel to dry your salty body off, you realize –"I don't smell as fresh and sexy as a women should." You open your Cosmo Girl Magazine that was purchased to help you lounge on the sand and find the solution to your stinky problem, Davidoff's Cool Water perfume for women. You can be dirty and wet as a stray dog, and you will still smell sexy and irresistible with the scent illuminating from your skin. Davidoff's Cool Water advertisement draws potential customers in by its dripping wet exotic, flawless, picture perfect woman who can make men want her and make women want to be her alongside the crystal blue perfume bottle. The idea of the advertisement is to first get your attention and then to make you desire the product. According to Jib Fowles, author of "Advertisings Fifteen Basic Appeals," this simple yet attention grabbing advertisement has one goal, to appeal to all the needs of consumers. Based on Fowles' essay, this ad uses three basic appeals to meet its purpose: the need for sex, the need for affiliation, and also the need for attention. "Let's talk about sex baby…," this subject is one of the quickest ways to grab a consumer's attention. To shock a viewer or to show something unexpected and rebellious will stop anyone from turning the page to quick. And in addition any consumer who agrees of disagrees with the ad's intent will form their own opinion remember the ad, which is the "response most advertisers seek" (Fowles 65). In Cool Water's ad, the image of the beautiful women let's men and women both use their imagination with no limits. Men may envision any women of their heart smelling as sexy as the...
pages: 4 (words: 1076)
comments: 0
added: 01/06/2012
Affirmative action is an issue closely related to cultural diversity. It affects the entire employed and unemployed population of the United States. Affirmative action continues to demonstrate that it causes more harm than good. Affirmative action was created to eliminate discrimination in the workplace. Instead, it has created reverse discrimination and caused more problems than it has resolved. It has also caused a great deal more qualified personnel to be replaced by less qualified minority workers. This creates internal strife, lower efficiency in the workplace, and increased racial hostility. It is the intent of this paper to show the effects of reverse discrimination, legal issues and regulations related to reform, and alternatives to Affirmative action. Reverse Discrimination: A Result of Affirmative action Reverse discrimination is one of the problems that affirmative action creates. By creating an unequal opportunity playing field it has brought hiring on the basis of merit to its knees. Substituting one race for another just so that companies can have the appearance of political correctness is no answer for this situation. In order for racial equality to exist it must be equal not reversed. A case in point, a white male applied for a government position at a National Guard equipment maintenance site in Louisiana. He did not receive the position. He was told that the reason he was not hired was due to the fact that a black man had applied to the same position and that, in order to hire him instead of the black applicant, they would have to write a nine page essay to relate why they did not hire the minority applicant. That is a perfect example of reverse discrimination. Affirmative action perpetuates biased practices instead of ending them. Most employers that have to hire minorities to fill some sort of quota are not concerned...
pages: 9 (words: 2255)
comments: 0
added: 10/09/2011
Afghanistan's Pushtun a Culture of Hardship INTRODUCTION Afghanistan, Land of the Pushtun, is a mountainous land-locked country in Central Asia with a history and culture that goes back over 5000 years. Throughout its long, splendid, and sometimes chaotic history, this area of the world has been known by various names. In the ancient times, its inhabitants called the land Aryana. And in the medieval era, it was called Khorasan. Modern life in Afghanistan is much different than life in the west. This report will illustrate some of the key differences and similarities to other parts of the world. This information was made possible by several sources listed in the endnotes. 2 THE PUSHTUN The Pushtun are a nomadic people that primarily congregate in Afghanistan, although they are gradually being incorporated into Afghanistan's larger cities. The exact population of the Pushtun is unknown because of mountain villages and such, however, it is estimated to be around seven to nine million. THE HISTORY OF AFGHANISTAN BEFORE ISLAM EVENTS One of the first significant pre-Islam events was named "Alexander the Great invasion" in 328 BC. This was one of the many conquests of Alexander the Great. The first Muslim-Arab Conquests began in 652-664 AD. These people were likely the ancestors of most ethnic afghans currently living in Afghanistan and the surrounding area. AFTER ISLAM EVENTS In 1504 - 1525 AD, Babur invaded Afghanistan and established the capital in Kabul. The Russians Occupied Panjdeh in1885. Following that, the Russians occupied Zulfiqar and Aqobat and took Panjdeh. This was the first, and not the last act of aggression by the Russians. RECENT HISTORY OF AFGHANISTAN In1919, Amir Amanullah Khan declared a holy war against British Imperialism for Independence of Afghanistan. The treaty of Rawalpondi on August 8, 1919, Recognized 3 Afghanistan's political independence. The Afghan-Russian treaty was signed on February 28, 1921 A treaty of friendship signed by Afghanistan and...
pages: 4 (words: 881)
comments: 0
added: 01/25/2012
At times I often sit about on my front porch, in my car, or where ever I can a good thought. I think about the future of Americas youth. Especially our African American Youth, and young African American men to be more specific. I see neighborhoods being infested with drugs, and gangs with our young African American boys and men as the leaders and the targets of these so-called ¡§businesses¡¨. I angers me to think that one day out of all of the young African American men and young boys that I see everyday are more likely to go to jail than to go to college. As pointed out that African American males constitute more than 50% of the prison population and account for only 3.5% of the total enrollment of U.S Colleges and Universities(Allen, Epps, & Hannit, 1991). Working in this field for almost 6 yr. as a child and adolescent mental health counselor, I have come across many African American young boys in treatment. Actually, almost 75% of my caseload is African American boys and young men. In this field there are not enough of African American male therapist around to provide for them a sense of common ground. Therefore, I will attempt to address some of the issues that affect African American¡¦s and in particular will attempt to develop a career counseling program for African American men. . Statistics The African American population is about 12.3% of the U.S. population(U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2001). Of the increase since 1980, 16% was due to immigration. The poverty rate for African American remains nearly 3 times higher than that of Whit American(33.0% versus 12.2%), and the unemployment rate twice as high(11% versus 5%, U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1995). African Americans¡¦ disadvantaged status, as well as racism and poverty, contribute to...
pages: 8 (words: 1984)
comments: 0
added: 09/10/2011
African Americans in Interracial Partnerships: A Rhetorical Criticism "Like it or not, mass media influences our views of what is possible. If the media does not provide positive images of Black-Latino partnerships, Black kids who do not have Latino friends are less likely to see themselves making Latino friends" (ColorQ, 2002). Now that the African American is just beginning to be properly represented on television, people must now look at their representation as partners of people of different races. In this paper I will examine partnerships involving African Americans and persons of a different race by using the following question: How are African Americans represented through television and movies as members of an interracial relationships and what traits are being passed on to the next generation of viewers? The first interracial partnership that I examined was that of Claudette and Vic from the television series, The Shield. In the three episodes I viewed from season two, there was a huge underlying conflict between Claudette and Vic (Williams-Hawkins Video Archive, Tape #B-010). Claudette seems inherently suspicious of Vic due to his ambiguity and his past record. Claudette, an African American female and the leader of the precinct is portrayed as a true team-leader, demanding, but still polite about it. She also interacts with Captain Aceveda, a Latino, on a regular basis, working side by side with him. Aceveda was also very suspicious of Vic. Joe Clark, a black man who was Vic's training officer, but was later kicked off the force, was somewhat on the other side of the spectrum from Claudette. Joe was originally asked advice by Vic, but then tries to get Vic to participate in a revenge scheme against the man who had him kicked off the force. Through Claudette and Joe we see that African Americans in The Shield are represented mostly as...
pages: 5 (words: 1235)
comments: 0
added: 12/12/2011
Question #3 It has been the trend of early writers to position African values as being inferior or less developed than the western values of colonial interlopers. Often this was done to offer some form of validation of the conquering of Africa by white interests (Kom 149). Many African writers, however, have begun taking a direction concerning African tradition and viewpoints that combines a reverence for old African traditions with favorable comparison of those traditions against the value systems of the colonial European powers. In the past several decades African writers have begun to embrace the goals of the Black Studies movement(Osha 175). Traditional African values are given this status to make Blacks aware of their past and also to to point out that the traditional African view of the world may have more merit than Eurocentric views. Traditional African views hold that African perspectives honor the community instead of focusing attention on the individual. African religious tradition is one viewpoint that African writers have been pointing to as having important relevance. Chinua Achebe relies heavily on traditional African religious beliefs in her novel, "Things Fall Apart". It is religion which holds the Ibo people together in the face of incursions by white missionaries. It is religion which helps direct the lives of the people to act in a just manner. It is religion which puts man in a respectful position toward nature. However, a striking comparison between African religious beliefs and Christianity is shown in a passage of the book which not only negates the white viewpoints of African religions as being inferior and barbaric, but also suggests that some aspects of Christianity may not be as wholesome as whites would like to believe. In this passage, a wise man of the village named Akunna was having a discussion comparing the two...
pages: 5 (words: 1125)
comments: 0
added: 11/19/2011
The black experience is a large topic. In psychology the concepts of African-Americans and Anglo experiences are compared. While psychology tries to understand the black culture, it makes a mistake by trying to compare two totally different styles of living. When blacks are compared with the white community conclusions are drawn out that the African American society is inferior, and weak. Psychologist say that black people are culturally deprived, and the type of environment that blacks are usually reared from keeps blacks from becoming socially prepared to be able to achieve within the Anglo middle class society. The idea of African-Americans being weak is a sad misunderstanding. Blacks as well as other races have survived humorous hurdles that were set to block off the race from achieving equality. The black culture is very strong and aware. An African-American child understands at a young age that they exist in a complicated environment. At an early age the black child has already grasped an important understanding in psychology, that pain and struggle are unavoidable. Some psychologists are not able to recognize the strong character in black children, because of how hard they focus on the so-called weakness. When a white middle-class individual walks into the black home there is no doubt he will see things that he is not accustomed to. Instead of seeing the Anglo culture material that they see in their home, there are ebony magazines, the radio is tuned loud on the hip-hop station, and everybody in the house may be trying to talk at once. The observer may feel that the household is not right, but the blacks that live there feel that all is normal. The goals and views of the two homes are largely apart, which would make the experience of both homes obviously different. Family is an important...
pages: 3 (words: 719)
comments: 0
added: 01/07/2012
censership shouldAyutthaya residents voted yesterday for the removal of a controversial elephant camp from the heart of the ancient capital. But about 600 people who atteneded a public hearing also said the new site of the Ayutthaya Elephant Palace and Royal Kraal should still be in the vicinity of the old island city area, known as Koh Ayutthaya. A number of places were proposed including Bueng Phra Ram public park, but no final decision was reached. The participants represented the city authority, provincial administrative organisation (PAO), tourism industry and the general public. The PAO and the Fine Arts Department want the elephant camp out of the ancient city because it is located in an area earmarked for development. The tourism industry earlier voiced opposition to the relocation plan, saying both the elephants and the city's ancient ruins were magnets for tourists and should not be separated. While stressing the camp must be moved out, the participants agreed the camp should not be relocated too far from the old city. The Fine Arts Department yesterday insisted a new camp site must not be the kraal in tambon Suan Prik reserved for royal ceremonies. Chattan Kunchorn na Ayutthaya, of the Tourism Authority of Thailand, yesterday bowed to the pressure, saying the camp operator must obey the law. In addition to encroachment on public land, the elephant camp operator was also accused of having violated traffic and cleanliness laws. Residents have complained about traffic jams caused by elephants used in shows and tours and about bad smells from the animals' dung and urine. PAO chairman Surachet Chaikosol yesterday called on all concerned to come to a quick decision on the new camp site to minimise adverse impact on the business. Sompast Meephan, the elephant camp owner, said relocation would take time and called on all concerned to consider carefully where the new site should be. Narong...
pages: 2 (words: 371)
comments: 0
added: 01/25/2012
Are corporations prepared for a continuing age diverse workforce? People are living longer and therefore are staying in the workforce for a longer period of time. Every corporation is aware of employment discrimination lawsuits increasing on a yearly basis. However, one type of lawsuit that employers often overlook is the case of age discrimination.The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA), implemented in 1967, protects most workers 40 and older from discrimination in recruitment, hiring, firing, salary, retirement and other practices. Investigating charges and trying to work out solutions is done through the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). Among all the various discrimination cases, age discrimination can be the most potentially damaging to a corporation. Age discrimination can be obvious such as hiring a younger, inexperienced, more attractive person for a position than an older person with a strong background in a similar position. Or it can be subtle. Transferring an older person when he reaches 60 to a less demanding, unrewarding job, filling in the vacancy with a younger employee, or inheriting a new boss that creates a miserable environment for the administrative assistant so she will quit. In the United States there has been little protest because of the long-held attitudes and assumptions that it is only "normal" for older professionals to make room for the younger, upcoming workers. Unfortunately, in the workforce there have been many perceptions attached to aging that create a negative environment. Adaptability, judgment, health, attitude and productivity are among the few. And, older workers become less competent and are not worth training for new jobs or positions because they won't be with the company that long. An employee suing in California for discrimination under the civil rights category (Title VII) can recover past and future lost wages and benefits, attorney fees, and punitive damages. As stated previously,...
pages: 3 (words: 807)
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added: 01/10/2012
Age difference in today's society from the perspective of a young, entrepreneurial minded individual can be a detriment to their drive and focus. As corporations are hiring those that are younger to bring energy to the table, the older more experienced employees may find this threatening. Many young, focused people may feel that they are threatening the aura that has dominated in the past with the control of the company being in the hands of those that have experienced more life and have lived long enough to see the fruits and spoils of their own labor. Having this on someone's shoulders can deprive them of their focus. Without focus then there is no attitude and without a good attitude then morale drops drastically. In the learning teams, I am the youngest involved in our processes and decisions. I may not feel that my opinions matter because I have not lived long enough to see the consequences of my actions. I also feel that I don't have as much responsibilities as the other members. This does give me the chance to take any unmanned responsibilities and give a positive result. AS corporations focus on sales in the down economy, bringing younger, more energized individuals has become a focus according to interviews with many executives. This may mean an end to the baby boomer generation who has determined strategy and focus of most major companies in the past 20 years. This thought can be depressing depending on who will lead the focus of the company into the next millennium. You can definitely notice a trend in he education system as well. College enrollment has more than doubled in the last 10 years, due in part to many reasons, one of them being that companies now will not consider a resume without at least a...
pages: 2 (words: 319)
comments: 0
added: 01/31/2012
There is a certain foundation that I wish to establish before I attempt to discuss this question. Certain key terms that need to be thoroughly defined for easier understanding of the whole issue of socialization agents or agents of socialization. Sociolization agents refers primarily to the persons by which and the setting in which the process of socialization is accomplished. Socialization agents are divided into two groups, i.e. (i) Primary groups and (ii) Secondary groups. Groups basically have six characteristics and these are as follows: 1. It has to have a sense of permanence, meaning it will not cease to exist when its members are apart because the group's norms, values and beliefs form a part of each individual's character. 2. It attaches an identity to each member. 3. It formulates mechanisms for recruiting new members either formally (by use of posters or flyers) or informally (through personal interaction) 4. It sets out goals and/or purposes 5. Social status, roles, norms and values are assigned and each member must abide by them. 6. There are usually disciplinary procedures in place as a means of controlling behaviour. Primary groups consist of members who share personal and long term relationship. According to Charles Cooley (1909), Primary Groups can be characterized as an, 'Intimate face to face association and cooperation. They are primary in several senses but chiefly in that they are fundament; informing the social nature and ideas of individuals. The result of intimate socialization, psychologically is a certain fusion of individuals in a common whole so that ones very cell for many purposes, at least, is the common life and purpose of the group. Perhaps the simplest way of describing this wholeness is by saying that it is a 'we.' It involves the sort of sympathy and mutual identification for which 'we' is the natural expression.' Secondary Groups is characterized as...
pages: 6 (words: 1490)
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added: 10/31/2011
Imagine four international jets crashing each year and killing everyone on board. These lives that approached an end are clearly visible to the world watching, impacting many feelings and emotions. If air pollution was seen as crucial to the planes crashing, air quality would be improved at a much faster rate. In fact, according to Dr. Sheela Basrur of Toronto's Medical Officer of Health, one thousand deaths from air pollution is equivalent to the devastating situation of the jets crashing. Now would you stop to consider the significance of air quality? Toronto and other major Canadian cities, contain compounds in their air that potentially cause cancer. During everyday activities, many individuals are unknowingly being exposed to carcinogens. As a result of the burning of fossil fuels, such as from vehicles, coal from power plants and oil and gas to heat buildings, unhealthy levels exist. Dr. Basrur comments by stating that ,"there is no unpolluted, safe environment these days." The report's findings should be an attention warning to the mind of the government to take action and help promote the control of pollution. From these reports, motorists and residents near gasoline stations were found to be at risk of getting leukemia. Due to the exposition of benzene, contained in the one per cent of gasoline, Colafranceschi many lives are put at risk. Out of a total of ten carcinogens, nine are found present in Toronto's air. Air concentrations are beginning to raise to unhealthy levels that cause people to die prematurely from cancer. Chemicals found indoors are at even higher levels than the air outside. For example, workers in the dry-cleaning environment, are continuously being exposed to an assumed carcinogen called tetrachloroethylene. Most people are unaware that air pollution is a daily health concern, and not just in the summer. The residents of Toronto understand that Toronto has a major health problem. In fact, the president of The Toronto Atmospheric Fund mentioned that the public concern in Toronto...
pages: 2 (words: 508)
comments: 0
added: 01/08/2012
In the first of three papers Einstein wrote in 1905, he examined the discovery by Max Planck. Planck stated that electromagnetic energy seemed to be emitted from radiating objects in discrete quantities. The energy of these quanta was proportional to the frequency of the radiation. This, however, contradicted the electromagnetic theory, which was based on Maxwell's equations and the laws of thermodynamics. This assumed that electromagnetic energy consisted of waves that could contain any small amount of energy. Einstein, utilizing Planck's quantum hypothesis, described the electromagnetic radiation of light. Einstein's second paper in 1905 proposed what is called the special theory of relativity. His new theory was based on a reinterpretation of the classical principle of relativity. As a second important hypothesis, Einstein assumed that the speed of light remained constant in all frames of reference, as required by Maxwell's theory. Later in 1905, Einstein demonstrated how mass and energy were equivalent. Einstein, however, was not the first to suggest the components of special theory of relativity. His contribution joined other crucial parts of classical mechanics and electrodynamics. Einstein's third and final papers of 1905 involved statistical mechanics, a field of that had been previously studied by Ludwig Boltzmann and Josiah Gibbs. After 1905, Einstein continued working and made important contributions to quantum theory. Additionally, he wanted to extend the special theory of relativity to acceleration. Einstein showed how mass and energy were equivalent, expressing it in the famous equation, E=mc2 (energy equals mass times the velocity of light squared). Einstein's outburst to fame in 1905, also known as the miracle year, astonished the scientific world. Through investigation of basic problems regarding the nature of energy, matter, motion, time and space, he was able to revolutionize the scientific world. Undoubtedly, his discoveries in 1905 alone would have been enough to secure his reputation. After...
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