Discrimination against the Elderly American society has been described as maintaining a stereotypic and often negative perception of older adults. This negative and/or stereotypic perception of aging and aged individuals is apparent in such areas as language, media, and humor. For example, such commonly used phrases as over the hill and an old fart denote old age as a period of impotency and incompetence. The term used to describe this stereotypic and often negative bias against older adults is ageism. Ageism can be defined as "any attitude, action, or institutional structure, which subordinates a person or group because of age or any assignment of roles in society purely on the basis of age"(Webster 25). As an ism, ageism reflects a prejudice in society against older adults. The victims of bigotry and prejudice are generally referred to as minorities. This is not because they are necessarily fewer in number, but because they are deprived of the rights and privileges of the majority (the Aged 4). Ageism, however, is different from other isms (sexism, racism etc.), for primarily two reasons. First, age classification is not static. An individual's age classification changes as one progresses through life. Therefore, age classification is characterized by continual change, while the other classification systems traditionally used by society such as race and gender remain constant. From this we can conclude that denial of old age is a principal source of bigotry against those who are old now (the Aged 4). Second, no one is exempt from at some point achieving the status of old. Unless they die at an early age, they will experience ageism. The later is an important distinction as ageism can affect an individual on two levels. First, the individual may be ageist with respect to others. That is they may stereotype other people...
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Theory of Knowledge Essay IB TOK Paper: Do people who speak different languages live in different worlds? Would it be reasonable to claim that a person who speaks language A lives in another world than does one who speaks language B, merely because their languages are not the same? Obviously, every man lives in his own world since we all perceive the world differently (and the world must here be considered to be what we perceive it to be). There is a number of factors that affect our perception of the world, most notably our senses, our memories and the culture to which be belong. Is it perhaps also so that the language we happen to speak is also such a factor (apart from the role it plays in culture)? Now, we perceive the world through our senses, and process the acquired images inside the brain together with our memories and beliefs, to create impressions that we (often, but not always) interpret and respond to. Where in this model would language fit in, if it also plays a part in this procedure, as suggested? Either in the processing of input (acting as a filter to what we can observe), or in the interpretation of it (being a filter to what we can possibly know, and therefore also to what we can observe). Both would qualify as factors in the production of our image of the world. So if language is an essential part of our understanding, it most certainly makes us live in different worlds. Many people have argued that this is the case, most notably the two American linguists, Edward Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorf, fathers of the Sapir/Whorf-hypothesis. Basically, their hypothesis is that people who speak different languages must be considered to live in different worlds, since our...
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Does the attachment theory provide a sound basis for advice on how to bring up children? To answer this question for advice to parents I will explore some of the details of the attachment theory showing, 1) earlier studies and more up to date criticisms, 2) how it proposes family members and day care can affect a child's upbringing. Attachment is the bond that develops between caregiver and infant when it is about eight or nine months old, providing the child with emotional security. Meshing commences from when the child is being fed, onto taking part in pseudo-dialogue and then following on to the child taking part in a more active role of proto dialogue, illustrated by Kaye (1982), other concepts such as scaffolding and inter-subjectivity have also been explored by psychologists. As the infant grows older the attention escalates towards the direction of the caregiver. John Bowlby(1958, 1969, 1973, 1980) pioneer of the attachment theory was involved in research regarding the emotional connection between the adult and infant and he believed that the early relationships determined the behaviour and emotional development of a child. In an early Bowlby (1944) study he discovered children who had an unsettling upbringing where more likely to become juvenile delinquents. His work is constantly open to criticism and has been revisited with further research. Subsequent research has based measuring security and insecurity in a child from an early age using the Strange Situation Test. Other research has shown certain trends of difficult behaviour and how the child interacts with the caregiver actively. Bowlby's theory was based on ideas from ethology and previous work, psychodynamic theory by Sigmund Freud, it was appropriate for the 1950's after the 2nd World War when women were returning to household duties and motherhood as men returned to their employment...
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The intent of this paper is to examine individualistic and communitarian cultural ideologies within two distinctly different political environments. The first challenge in comparing two nations is deciding which approach is most appropriate. There are several approaches in political science that have proven most beneficial when making comparisons. This study will use a comparative government approach to examine the political institutions, processes, constitutions, and functions of government within each of the two countries selected. The countries that have been chosen for this study are United States and Norway, respectively. Gregory Scott believes that the fundamental aspects of human interaction in society are the need for community (unity) and the need for individuality. The argument is that the entire history of politics is largely the story of how communities and nations resolved the inherent conflict between the universal needs for community and individuality. With that, the topic that this paper tends to address has emerged, within the study of politics in this class and others, as the single most dynamic in scope and in implication. Freedom, equality, and justice combine to build a substantial argument for the individualistic ideology. Authority, order, and democracy are all building blocks for the argument of the communitarian. Scott notes that much of what motivates individualist is a strong desire for freedom. This author also argues that we are all interdependent and authority is justified by the need to bring order to societies competing values and thoughts. In studying the history of humanity, the battleground that has been formed between the need for individuality and unity is undeniable. A person's view of the nature of humanity is fundamental to their view of government, and its scope. If people are seen as dangerous, then a government to protect people from that danger is most appropriate. If people...
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Critical Discussion of the Psychoanalytic Concept of Repression Repression is defined (White, 1964,p214) 'the forgetting, or ejection from consciousness of memories of threat, and especially the ejection from awareness of impulses in oneself that might have objectionable consequences.' In layman's terms when forming a memory, the brain takes what we see, hear, smell, feel and taste and fills in the blank spaces with information that we have perceived from common knowledge and stores it as a memory. But sometimes something happens that is so shocking that the mind grabs hold of the memory and pushes it underground into some inaccessible corner of the unconscious. The psychoanalytic concept of repression as a defense mechanism is closely linked to the Freudian idea of an unconscious mind. Early Freudians saw the unconscious mind as having the same properties as that of the conscious mind. Just as the conscious mind was believed capable of consciously inhibiting events by suppression, so the unconscious was considered capable of inhibition or cognitive avoidance at the unconscious level by repression. Suppression is said to happen, when one voluntary and consciously withholds a response. Unconscious repression in contrast may function as an automatic guardian against anxiety, a safety mechanism that prevents threatening material from entering consciousness. Symptoms are formed as a result of repression even though the patient may not be aware of it. Freud says; (Freud, 1973, p335) 'We must now form more definite ideas about this process of repression. It is the precondition for the construction of symptoms.' Symptoms serve as a substitute for the patient for something that repression is holding back. Freud says; 'A symptom like a dream, represents something as fulfilled: a satisfaction in the infantile manner' (Freud, 1973, p413). Freudian therapy is like an entrance hall, with a room adjoining it, in which...
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Abstract Episodic memory is the process of recalling personally experienced past events. The efficiency of this process is adversely affected by age. In a sense, this may explain the level of emotional distress that the aged and their kin and all others feel at the onset of failing episodic memory. Because it relates to individuals and their family and friends in a very personal way, it tends to rob them of past-shared experiences in a way that other memory failures do not. Introduction The mechanism of human memory recall is neither a parallel nor a sequential retrieval of previously learned events. Instead, it is a complex system that has elements of both sequential and parallel modalities, engaging all of the sensory faculties of the individual. On an everyday level, issues about memory and recall affect everyone. It has a bearing on ramifications from the trivial to matters of life and death. Thus, a particular student might worry about his or her ability to remember 'memorized' material, a person might worry about losing his or her mind, and, there are the more troubling issue of diseases affecting memory such as Alzheimer's disease. According to Tulving, episodic memory represents only a small part of the much larger domain of memory (Tulving, 1992, p.1). Specifically, episodic memory is the process involved in remembering past events. This paper is a review of research findings on episodic memory with specific attention to episodic memory in adults and infants. Episodic Memory in Adults In society, it is quite common for people in their golden years or even well before that, to worry about losing their memory. There is scientific evidence to support this notion of degradation of memory with age. It is now well known in neurology that brain cells die off as one ages. Verhaeghen...
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Germany Germany is a country of rich heritage and a long history. From early tribes to wars, a widely used language to automobiles, Germany is a common meeting ground for many things. Germany has been around for a very long period of time, so it would be rather difficult to go in depth on its history. Germany's history began way back around 100 BC with the first Germanic tribes moving in. Very little is known about these tribes, other than what is found in Roman documents and the findings of archaeologists. Between 300 and 843 AD migration of the Franks, Goths, and Vandals began. In this same period, Germany began to convert to Roman Catholicism. From 1814 to 1871, Germany began its revolution. They had seen the French revolution and had decided it was their own time to revolt. Many scholars from all classes of society had teamed up to discuss the possibility of a revolution. Following the German Revolution in November of 1918, voters began to support anti-democratic parties, including Communists and Nazis. In the 1930s, Germany was very close to starting a civil war. After numerous Presidential cabinets failing, President von Hindenburg, with almost no other options, chose Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of Germany on January 29, 1933. The views of Hilter and Hitler's actions, like gaining control of a large portion of Europe, later lead to World War II after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor. Germany in the mid to late 1900s was divided, at first into four sections and then later into two. In the summer of 1989, Germany began to reunite. As stated before, there is not enough time to discuss Germany's full history. Germany has a distinctive geography. The capital of Germany is Berlin, with a population of 3,391,407 (as of March 31, 2005)....
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Essay High school drop-outs This essay is about high school drop-outs and why it is a major problem for our youth. Drop-outs are faced with unnecessary challenges that could have been avoided if they stayed in school and graduated. The age that people drop out of school is about when they are about 16 or 17 years old. In the last 20 years the earnings level of dropouts doubled, while it nearly tripled for college graduates. Recent dropouts will earn $200,000 less than high school graduates, and over $800,000 less than college graduates, in their lives. Dropouts make up nearly half the heads of households on welfare. Dropouts make up nearly half the U.S's population. It has been known for many years that young people who complete high school don't face many more problems in later life than do people who graduate. But it is not always a negative influence in a person's life if they drop out. It mostly depends on what field of work labor you're trying to pursue that if dropping out will help or hurt you. Dropping out can be successful if they try to be hip-hop arts or if they go into the army. There are some other jobs that people who doped out can have but the jobs aren't any thing to brag about. Plus being a drop-out it is hard to have a family because you are trying to live off of minimum wage. It is not all that difficult to know why people drop out of school. Here are some reasons why people leave school before they graduate. Didn't like school in general or the school they were attending. Were failing, getting poor grades, or couldn't keep up with school work. Didn't get along with teachers and/or class mates. Didn't feel safe...
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The Hmong Culture of South Asia is a very interesting ethnic group. Between 300,000 to 600,000 Hmong live in Southeast Asian countries, such as Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, and Myanmar. About 8 million more live in the southern provinces of China. Since the Vietnam War ended in 1975, Hmong refugees from Southeast Asia have settled in Australia, France, Canada, and the United States. The largest Hmong refugee community lives in the United States with a population of about 110,000. The U.S. Department of state has tried to spread Hmong refugees out across the country to reduce the impact on any one region. Because Hmong families tend to be large in numbers, the community grows rapidly. Facing considerable challenges while adapting to the American Culture, the Hmong have fought to keep their traditions and culture alive in the United States. Because of the lack of fluency in English and education, the Hmong have had trouble communicating, which complicates learning. Though their work skills are poor, some Hmong have had success starting a their own small businesses such as restaurants and grocery stores. By selling their beautiful, colorful needlework, some Hmong women make a living. Although some of the Hmong immigrants have been successful, their children have had more success while competing in the job market. The Hmong refugees that fled from such countries as Vietnam, Laos and Thailand had some trouble adapting to the American culture. An arriving refugee and his family would probably have sold all of their worldly possessions so they could have enough money to live off of until the father got a job or the mother was able to produce some textile goods to sell. In Southeast Asia, The Hmong lived high in the mountains. The Hmong men tended to be farmers, while the women would stay in...
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<b>How Overpopulation Causes Social Problems</b> <b>Introduction</b> The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how overpopulation causes social problems. To do so you must take many things into consideration, such as different views of racial problems and conflicting definitions of a social problem. Social problems can be defined in many different ways. They effect everyone and some of us encounter problems everyday as a result of our race, religion, gender, or low income. Others experience problems from technological change or declining neighborhoods, others are affected directly by crime and violence in their own neighborhood, and sometimes definitions of social problems are changed by society because of changes around you. Finally in order to achieve the purpose of this which is to examine and discuss different issues and situations that cause social problems such as poverty. Overpopulation and social problems go hand and hand in today's society and there are many reasons and factors as to why these problems exist. Factors that lead to overpopulation that causes social problems are the increase in the number of single mothers in poor neighborhoods opposed to the decline in birth rates in the more efficient parts of the country, how the death rate is at a steady decline because of medical advances in rich and poor countries, the effects immigrants have on an environment and the population growth that occurs, the influence parents leave on children, and what is being done to help prevent the spread of AIDS because this is a deadly disease which is lowering our population but causing many social problems. <b>Elements of a Social Problem</b> There are also elements that make up a social problem. One of these elements is that "they cause physical or mental damage to individuals or society" (Carter p16) which means that sometimes people may permanently...
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"Sugar and Spice and all things nice… that's what little girls are made of" "Frogs and Snails and Puppy Dog's tails… that's what little boys are made of" In our society men and women both play very important parts. Even if it may be tempting to believe that girls and boys are the same for a short while after their birth this is not the case. From their first moments girls and boys are raised differently. To put it simply: girls get the dolls and boys the cars. The differences become more apparent the older the children get, especially if they have been brought up according to traditional values. Men and women very often have a completely different attitude in life. Men are said to be less emotional, but more determined, whereas women play the more caring, but also more dependent role in our society. But what would our world be like if women were more like men? Since the beginning of mankind, men have been hunters and women the ones who stay at home, taking care of the children. Even though our society is undergoing tremendous changes, men still hold the top-positions in jobs such as management, marketing, finance or politics and get paid around 1/3 more than women on average. Apart from the traditional reasons for men being more successful there is also the reason that men do everything possible to achieve their goals. Women are far less ruthless and much more sensitive to the feelings of others, so they seem weaker and less determined. Women very often work as teachers, nurses and social-workers, jobs which involve care and emotions and are directly concerned with people, but very often badly paid. If women were more like men they would also try and get the best-paid jobs, without thinking...
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Let's go to the movies! Let's go see the stars! By Navirah Zafar Jilani Silver screen is one of the most popular forms of entertainment in the world today. With such a wide audience base, movies can touch and influence lives in ways no other forms of media can do in their attempts to entertain the audience. It is no wonder that producers and filmmakers fill their movies with messages that can and do strike sensitive chords in society. Movies cannot solely be confined to entertainment, but an in-depth study helps understand what baggage is brought with them: a whole setup of ideologies, attitudes and mechanism of the controlling power. Media organisations and filmmakers start developing movies with preconceived notions of communities, races, religions and genders. There are many factors such as script, dialogues, characters, shots, wardrobe, lighting, makeup and many more which constitute the build up of any portrayal. It is through these units, one can understand how downplay of various non-white characters results in positive and negative portrayals. A handful of firms dominate the globalised part of the media system. Many media organisationss lack in delivering social values and responsibility, they merely serve the purpose of exploiting consumers' minds in order to instigate a stereotypical image of anything which is not white. These were the findings of a research carried out by Mehtab Ismail, a media student at the University of the Punjab. Her research revolved around the premise that non-white characters are always portrayed in negative connotations against their white counterparts. American cinema has always been a pioneer in creating, sustaining and reinforcing imagery of non-whites. Race for many may vary, but it is a complex term defined not by biology as much as by politics, history, fear and social hierarchy. Often these forces are disguised as...
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Question: Bob Maynard has said that "Problems are opportunities in disguise." Write an essay describing a time in your life when a problem became an opportunity. How did you transform the situation? Explain what you did to turn the problem into an opportunity and how others can benefit from your experience. Life is full of problems, but how we approach those problems often determines whether we're happy or miserable. Bob Maynard says, "Problems are opportunities in disguise." If we approach problems with Maynard's attitude, we see that problems are really opportunities to learn about others and ourselves. They enable us to live happier and more fulfilling lives. Maynard's quote applies to all kinds of problems. I faced a problem just last week when our family's kitchen sink developed a serious leak. There was water all over our kitchen floor and piles of dishes to be washed. But our landlord was out of town for the week. I come from a big family-I have six brothers and sisters-so we couldn't afford to wait until he got back, and my mom couldn't afford a couple hundred dollars to pay for a plumber on her own. So I took the opportunity to learn how to fix it myself. I went to the library and found a great fix-it-yourself book. In just a few hours, I figured out what was causing the leak and how to stop it. If it weren't for that problem, I probably would have relied on plumbers and landlords all my life. Now I know I can handle leaky pipes by myself. I think it's important to remember that no matter how big a problem is; it's still an opportunity. Whatever kind of situation we face, problems give us the chance to learn and grow, both physically and mentally. For...
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Nicotine Replacement Therapy, Effective or not? Is nicotine replacement therapy effective in helping people quit tobacco smoking? A Controlled Trial of Sustained-Release Bupropion, a Nicotine Patch, or Both for Smoking Cessation. Smoking is the silent killer of the 20th century more people died from smoking and smoking related illness in the past hundred years than in all the major wars. The situation used to be one of ignorance people did not realise the ill-effects of their habit on their health and the health of those around them. Today the situation has changed most realise the danger but many are addicted and find it extremely difficult to quit. Nicotine is a drug and like most is highly addictive it is a craving for this nicotine which makes it difficult to suddenly stop smoking, hence the introduction of nicotine replacement therapy. The release of nicotine or some similar substance delivers the nicotine to the body without the harmful tar of smoke inhalation hence relieving some of the craving intensity. Use of such nicotine-replacement therapies is thought to help people quit smoking. The study detailed above was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of such nicotine replacement therapies on smoking subjects, and monitor side effects (if any). The study combines nicotine release patches with an antidepressant bupropion (a combination now used pharmaceutically). Jornby et al.(1) conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of sustained-release bupropion, a nicotine patch, bupropion and a nicotine patch, and placebo for smoking cessation. They excluded smokers with any clinical depression. Treatment consisted of nine weeks of bupropion (150 mg a day for the first three days, and then 150 mg twice daily) or placebo, as well as eight weeks of nicotine-patch therapy (21 mg per day during weeks 2 through 7, 14 mg per day during week 8, and 7 mg per...
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In her article, "The Cult of True Womanhood: 1820-1860," Barbara Welter discusses the nineteenth-century ideal of the perfect woman. She asserts that "the attributes of True Womanhood . . . could be divided into four cardinal virtues-piety, purity, submissiveness and domesticity." Furthermore, she adds that "if anyone, male or female, dared to tamper with the complex virtues which made up True Womanhood, he was damned immediately as an enemy of God, of civilization and of the Republic" (Welter 152). In Hannah W. Foster's The Coquette, the characters Major Sanford and Eliza Wharton violate True Womanhood condemning them both to wretched fates. Major Sanford continually violates the True Womanhood with his systematic seduction of women. Due to his assaults against female purity, Major Sanford is rejected by society for being devoid of virtue. Well aware of this reputation, Mrs. Richman warns Eliza that he is a "professed libertine" and is not to be admitted into "virtuous society" (Foster 20). Upon her acquaintance with him, her friend Lucy Freeman declares, "I look upon the vicious habits, and abandoned character of Major Sanford, to have more pernicious effects on society, than the perpetrations of the robber and the assassin" (Foster 63). Major Sanford's licentious past dooms him to a future of lechery; there is no possibility for him to evade his reputation. Eliza's assaults against True Womanhood are violations of the virtues submissiveness and purity. When Eliza refuses to ignore the gallantry of Major Sanford in favor of the proposals of Reverend Boyer despite the warnings of her friends and mother, she disregards submissiveness in favor of her own fancy. Eliza's mother warns her, saying, "a thousand dangers lurk unseen around you," and supports Reverend Boyer with regard to his profession, asserting that "no class of society has domestic enjoyment more at command...
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What TV giveth, we taketh? by Navirah Zafar Jilani Television has become the new religion for almost everyone, living anywhere, in this world. This box, now found in many distinct shapes and sizes, has subliminally forced human consciousness to think, eat and act as it says. Taking television as an object would be outrageous. Behind this sleek screen are devils that won't let humankind think otherwise. The moment one switches on the tube, waves of eye punching colors and images are bombarded at the eyes of TV fanatics who seem unaware of the effects they create. Media Mongols, at times, show lack of sensibility when they package ideas for the viewing audience. With the arrival of cable stations, Pakistani audience has an array of channels and networks to choose from; ranging from Indian, US, British and Pakistani channels. Apart from this, there also come low class CD channels which further accentuate confusion and struggle for the viewer to understand the self and the surroundings. TV channels like Star World , MNET, MM1 , MM2, MNET Action, E! (Entertainment), MTV, Channel V and other channels of such league seem to make sex, sensuality, homosexuality, rape, violence, drugs, smoking, vandalism and rebellion part of the normal thinking process. Individuals belonging to the upper strata of society have access to such facilities with which they can satisfy such needs. But what about maids and house keepers who view a combination of violent and obscene images! Where do they go and leash out their desires? It is a known fact that television has become a learning ground for almost everyone who owns a TV set. Now an individual's frame of reference is not only judged by what he/she learns from the family, friends and school but television as well. When asked about ratings or...
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