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FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT, 2002 : A CRITIQUE by Anil Kumar Choudhary Background The movement towards right to information being considered as a formal right gained impetus in the early 1990,s. The efforts of Mazdoor Kisaan Shakti Sanghatan (MKSS) are monumental in these regards. It emerged as a powerful force in checking corruption by demanding muster rolls, bills and other official documents of public expenditure. The right to information as a civil and political right has a strong legal background in our country. Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, to which India is a signatory states that every person has the right to “seek and receive information” and even International Covenant for Civil and Political Rights provides right to information to every citizen. Article 19 (1) (a) of the Indian Constitution guarantees that “all citizens have right to freedom of speech and _expression” and the right to information flows from it; as for the enjoyment to the right to freedom of speech and _expression; relevant information is a necessary ingredient. Therefore, right to information as a constitutional right has to be seen in the light of Article 19(1)(a). In response to such a right, there had been various state legislations giving the citizens their right to information. The forerunners in this regard were Tamil Nadu and Goa which passed the legislations which empower the people with the right to information in 1997. They were followed by Rajasthan and Karnataka in 2000, Delhi in 2001 and finally Maharashtra in 2002. There was a demand for a central Act to this regard, in response to which the Shourie Committee was instituted in 1997 and finally the Freedom of Information Act, 2002 (herein by referred as Act) was passed by the Parliament. THE ACT The paper tries to look into the various aspects of the Act, not only...
pages: 11 (words: 2814)
comments: 0
added: 11/10/2011
> "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or > prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of > speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to > assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances." > This is stated in the First Amendment of the United States of America. > Since this was ratified on December 15, 1971, it guarantees Americans > four freedoms: freedom of religion, speech, press and assembly. Since > that time, those freedoms have been discussed, debated, fought and died > for. Millions of immigrants have come to America to secure those > freedoms that America has and other countries dream about. The > Founding Fathers knew what they were doing, and believed in the power > of ideas and debate, not censorship. If America abolished its Freedom > of Speech, the whole country would be affected. Not only would people > be less informed, there would be a social change, a decrease in common > knowledge, and accountability. Very nicely done! Make sure that your pronoun antecedents are clear (e.g. "this") and watch your capitalization (e.g. Freedom of Speech). > The freedom of speech concept came from England. During the Glorious > Revolution of 1688, King James II was overthrown, and then William and > Mary were put in as joint monarchs. The following year, the English > Parliament secured a Bill of Rights from William and Mary that granted > "freedom of speech in Parliament." One hundred years later our > founding fathers were wise enough to expand that principle to everyone, > not just members of Parliament. Censorship often raises its ugly head > during trying times when our nation faces difficult, seemingly > insoluble problems. That is why Justice Louis Brandeis opined in > Whitney v. California in 1927, "Fear of serious injury cannot alone > justify suppression of free speech and assembly. Men feared witches >...
pages: 9 (words: 2210)
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added: 08/03/2011
Table of contents 1. Introduction 2. French immigration in the 17th century 3. Immigrant statistics 3.1. Number of immigrants 3.2. Origin of immigrants 4. The turning point in 1760 5. French immigration to British-Canada 6. Francophones in the Canadian society 7. Outlook: The future of Quebec 8. List of references 1. Introduction "Je me souviens". Exactly this will be done over the following pages. This paper will deal with the French immigration to Canada and especially emphasize on the early phase, the immigration to Nouvelle France in the 17th century. Problematic about the French immigration is the time span. If one thinks of 1534 as the starting year of French engagement in North America (cf. Kempf 1997: 7), the year in which Jaques Cartier set out on his first journey to that region which is now Canada by order of the king of France (cf. Sautter 1972: 23), this paper would have to cover 469 years. This approach is also difficult in another way: whilst one usually speaks of other ethnic groups (Italians, Ukrainians, etc.) as unmistakably immigrants, that term is mostly inappropriate when speaking of the French, who just as the British can't be described as immigrants due to their early arrival and therefore long history of settling (cf. Burnet/Palmer 1989: 13; Tétu de Labsade 1990: 43). Hence, the French population doesn't need to be integrated in a Canadian society but needs to be understood as a Canadian society that has lived in that area for centuries, even when the immigration waves brought lots of "immigrants" into the country. The history of French immigration led to the present ongoing conflict about the role of Quebec in the Canadian confederation and the fight over separatism and clinging on to Canada as one country. Nevertheless, the main focus of this paper will be on Nouvelle-France and therefore on the 17th and 18th century. In doing that, the...
pages: 17 (words: 4481)
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added: 02/01/2012
Where does abuse come from? Where does violence come from? The two are closely and dangerously connected to our country's struggle that can only be defined by the two. Violence is abuse and abuse is violence. A lot of us might have experienced some sort of abuse at one point in our lives. Whether physical, mental, emotional, sexual or even just verbal abuse, all will have an effect on anyone causing the victim to apply this abuse to others. In other words, what is seen, heard or felt by a child will have an enormous impact of this human being's life later on. It begins with cute childhood quarrels, and then to immature teenage fights, and then to what? The Columbine High School Massacre? The murder of Matthew Shepard? Children whose parents abuse drugs live daily with fear, neglect and helplessness. Some don't survive; for those who do, the inner damage can last a lifetime. Ashley Bryan lied down on the dirty carpet of her dad's bedroom where she usually slept. The 10-year-old girl closed her eyes, clasped her hands and raised them to her lips. Firmly, fervently, she prayed. She wished not for a bike or Barbie like most kids her age, or to become a doctor or firefighter some day. Every night, Ashley asked for something she believed only God can deliver. She prayed for a new father. Someone kind, someone whose life--and thus hers—was not ruled by the demons of drug addiction and alcoholism. It could not get much worse. Her clothes, along with those of 8-year-old brother Kevin Bryan, were filthy. The two went weeks without a bath. They ate once a day, usually rice. Neglect was the norm. Their father, Calvin Holloman, drank Miller High Life beer for breakfast, sometimes until he blacked out. The kitchen...
pages: 4 (words: 1089)
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added: 11/09/2011
The FTAA, currently being negotiated by 34 countries of the Americas, is intended to be quite possibly the most far-reaching trade agreement in history. The FTAA stands for the Free Trade Area of the Americas, a name given to the process of expanding the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) to all the other countries of the Western Hemisphere except Cuba. With a population of 800 million and a combined GDP of $11 trillion (US), the FTAA would be the largest free trade zone in the world. If signed, the FTAA will be the most far-reaching free trade agreement in the world, with a force of magnitude that will reach into every area of life for the citizens of the Americas. However, the proposed FTAA would also give corporations new "rights" to challenge and compete for every publicly funded service now provided by governments - from health care and education to social security, culture and environmental protection. If adopted, it could remove the ability of every government to create or maintain laws and regulations protecting the health, safety and well-being of their citizens and the environment they share. Worse, the FTAA would become the model for future world trade agreements, eventually rendering health, environmental and other laws around the world secondary to those of international trade. For these reasons and more to be discussed in this essay, Canada should not embrace the FTAA since the benefits of free trade clearly do not outweigh the costs. The goal of the FTAA is to impose the failed NAFTA model of increased privatization and deregulation hemisphere-wide. Imposition of these rules would empower corporations to deter governments from setting standards for public health and safety, to safeguard their workers, and to ensure corporations do not pollute the communities in which they operate. They would also...
pages: 4 (words: 970)
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added: 12/12/2011
According to an August 31, 2003, online article from the Kansas City Star, gasoline prices in the Midwest have historically been among the lowest in the nation (Everly). However, within the last month, we are now slightly above the national average, which, according to the article "This Week In Petroleum," rose by 12 cents per gallon between August 18 and August 25, 2003 to an average of $1.74 per gallon. Drive around the Kansas City Metropolitan area and one will encounter prices ranging from $1.49 per gallon at the Flying J station in Peculiar, Mo., to $1.79 per gallon at the BP station in Overland Park (""). So what causes the dramatic fluctuations in gasoline prices? The dramatic fluctuations in gasoline prices are a result of a highly competitive gasoline market, and according to the Energy Information Administration, the basic costs to produce and deliver gasoline to consumers encompass the cost and availability of crude oil, which is approximately 46% of the price; marketing and distribution costs, 12% of the price; refining costs and profits, 14%; and federal and state taxes, 28% ("A Primer"). Gasoline is shipped from refineries to retail stations by pipelines or trucks, and a number of price markups, which vary from region to region due to the formulations required to produce different grades of gasoline, may be added to the consumer's price along the way ("Gasoline Price"). Typically, when retail gasoline prices rise, even when crude oil prices are stable, it's primarily due to a large, seasonality demand for gasoline. In "Crude Oil and Petroleum Product Prices," prices fluctuate widely and are based on supply and demand conditions…. Taxes and factors other than the cost of crude oil account for more than half of the price paid by the consumer for a gallon of motor gasoline." According to...
pages: 4 (words: 920)
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added: 01/07/2012
Groups inadequately represented by the Media One group I feel is inadequately presented by the media is gays. Only recently have gays been allowed to be portrayed on television programmes without huge uproar from the public and in the papers the fact that someone is gay is often used against them. When George Michael was found in L.A participating in gay intercourse there was scandal all over the newspapers. Would there have been as much media hype if he had been found with a woman? In television people often describe there being a 'token' black character and this is coming apparent with gays. Gays are never portrayed as just being normal people or people that actually do have problems aside from being gay. In Eastenders elderly Derick is the 'token' gay and he is shown as being persecuted and accused of 'being involved' with Martin Fowler, why can't he just have a normal friendship with Martin and have a problem like he can't afford a pint at the Vic like his counterparts such as Jim? Why are gays always portrayed as people who have to go through life as a struggle? Whenever there are gay or lesbian affairs or people in programmes they are usually discriminated against within the programme or they are stereotype gays. Will and Grace is a programme, which breaks the barriers because half of the main characters are gay, although again they have the stereotype gay guy who likes to paint his nails and scream a lot, gay men are often comedic acts in films. In Bad Girls there are a lot of lesbians but most are portrayed as butch 'may as well be men' women, not just regular women. In the papers stars such as Steven Gately and Will Young keep being gay a secret because they think it will effect...
pages: 2 (words: 432)
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added: 01/23/2012
In our modern society, where technology and popular culture are major influences, the media sets our social norms on how we view and react to both gender roles. It does not matter where a person looks, they can see some form media – such as an advertisement, television show, or just the music we listen too. The inability to escape from the media makes it easy for a person to become saturated with homogenous messages of gender stereotypes, which eventually become the common beliefs throughout the entire society. When it comes to gender roles, the media sends out a message that a male or female should look and act a specific way if you are anything less of that then you do not fit in the social category of normal. These messages create many gender stereotypes, such as an individual's opinion on their personal appearance, their role in society, or even specific characteristics that they think they should have to be their gender. If the media was not just controlled by a few large corporations, but by many smaller companies it would give society the freedom of choice to choose media with a message they believe instead of just saturating them with dominant, homogenous messages. The media plays a major role in establishing a certain physical appearance which is ideal for a gender type, and in both cases it is a perfectly fit, well groomed appearance that is made to be what everyone should have and if not, working to get. By doing this they set standards of perfection that few can obtain, and it is because of this they are able to ensure a profitable market forever, the main goal for all types of media. By looking at one source of media such as magazine advertisements it is very easy...
pages: 10 (words: 2646)
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added: 08/05/2011
While there are many competing theories surrounding the development of gender roles, this one fact is incontestable and unavoidable: men and women are socialized differently. There is not yet enough conclusive evidence to determine how large of a role biology plays in creating the gendered psyches, but we can draw conclusions about how social mores assist in instilling masculinity and femininity into our culture. The following pages will explore how U.S. culture affects the socialization of its males. The male infant born in the United States of America is born into a legacy of masculine expectations. From pre-industrial times until the 1960's, the "good provider" role of fathers dominated family ideology. Although all family members contributed to subsistence activities during pre-industrial times, men provided the dominant source of authority within the household. When the economy of the U.S. moved outside of the household during the industrial revolution, men's family roles became primarily concerned with economic support. Due to the nature of this necessary absence of the father from his family, sons (and daughters) viewed their fathers' role within the family to be primarily that of the provider, while the mother's role was to provide emotional support and nurturing. During the 1960's, women began to elbow their way into the work force in larger numbers while men simultaneously began a retreat from their instrumental role in financial security. This retreat manifested itself in two ways: men either increased their activity in child rearing and household duties, or turned away from those roles entirely. Within a household that has a father present, a son identifies his father as being akin to himself. If, as is the pattern with most families living within the U.S., the father remains the primary breadwinner of the family, the son internalizes the idea that a man is someone who...
pages: 9 (words: 2378)
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added: 10/24/2011
Transgendereds Rosario and Currah would both concur that homosexuality is not always congruent to transsexuality. Rosario would argue that the world of psychiatry has made the atrocious mistake of viewing transsexuals as those who are plagued with Gender Identity Disorder. (pg. 36 Rosario) Rosario had a patient who was deemed a long- term issue, due to her "psychoses" and previous suicide attempts. Patient "B" as she was titled had a desire to become a gay man. When finally identifying the issue and having the ability to talk about the identity in which she wished to pursue her hallucinations and suicide attempts seized. However, once patient "B" was placed in a day clinic and choose to voice that she wanted to become a gay man, a psychiatrist believed that this new found communication was hindering her transition from involuntary psychiatric confinement to an independent, happy life. (pg. 36) Thus, illustrating the ignorance of the psychiatrist and a majority of the psychiatric community. Many in the psychiatric community view gender only by the view of the genitals. Gender is thus predisposed and can only fall under terms of biology and not innate feelings or desires. It is this mentality that has caused such a hindrance for a great deal of transvestites and transsexuals. The psychiatrist viewed patient "B" as a female heterosexual transsexual." Rosario mocks the notion of patient "B" being labeled a heterosexual transsexual. The problem lies in not being able to divorce one's biological identify from their inherit desires of the sex they wish to portray and become. Brandon must be viewed as a man and not as a woman that wants to become a man. Thus, Brandon is a heterosexual. He is a man who is sexually attracted to women. Regardless, of surgery his feelings of being a man are overwhelming...
pages: 6 (words: 1382)
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added: 02/19/2012
Michael Bean George Bush Senior was elected president in 1989. He was elected saying many things, such as having no new taxes and increasing military spending. His views were hardly his own, but seemeed to be borrowed from the prior president, Ronald Reagan. He seemed only to be an extension of the well regarded Ronald Reagan, and seemed like a good choice for the Reagan-lovers. Like his siblings and family alike, he was given a fast track to political success and seemed to be taking full advantage of it. Despite the hardy appearance and well-projected image, Bush would later fold some of his promises under pressure. Along with many people who questioned his perfect moderate appearance, Bush began to stray towards a conservative Texan and soon his policies changed. He was often regarded as a president who would work strictly for his own benefit. Bush' media advisors worked hard to project a tougher, firmer image, which was a success, but it was later shown that Bush would be a self-defining character throughout his presidency. Once elected as president, and inaugurated on the 20th of Janurary, 1989, Bush dropped the firm image for a while, and took people on tours on his first day as president. He left a looser, more informal atmosphere throughout the Government and White House. At the time of his election, both Houses were controlled by democrats, so Bush had no choice to choose his fights moderately, and had a great deal of trouble making any sort of rash decisions. One of his most well-known blunders, the world realized that reading Bush' lips meant nothing, as Bush decided that raising taxes was an absolute necessity. This not only ruined his public image and made everyone question his every decision, but it lost his strong support with the few republicans left in the government at...
pages: 3 (words: 763)
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added: 11/19/2011
George Bush's speech alarmingly persuades his audience by expressing powerful emotional reasons for the war against terrorism. George Bush's speech is quite similar to Paine and Henrys' speeches, because they all cover a great deal of pathos to enhance their discussion. Bush's speech contains rhetorical questions, like when he asked, "Are Security Council resolutions to be honored and enforced or cast aside without consequence? Will the United Nations serve the purpose of its founding or will it be irrelevant?" Hence, Bush questioned his audience in order to impel them to cogitate on those issues. He exhibits them in a way that draws the intensity of his purpose of presenting reasons for the war, like Patrick did. For instance, Patrick queried, "Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God!" Thomas Paine imposed strong, rhetorical questions as well, when he says: "What signifies it to me, whether he who does it is a king or a common man; my countryman or not my country man; whether it be done by an individual villain, or an army of them? If we reason to the root of things, we shall find no difference, neither can any just cause be assigned why we should punish in the one case and pardon in the other…" In addition, they all spoke about the threats from another country. There is a threat of terrorism from the Iraqi regime, and Paine or Henry said there is a threat of political terrorism from the British. Furthermore, Bush, Patrick, and Thomas poses strong, negative words against their enemies, making them sound like terrible, and evil violators, or a "common murderer" as Henry puts it. This suggests an accumulation of pathos to vindicate their statements. Moreover, Bush criticized...
pages: 3 (words: 580)
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added: 02/14/2012
1. William Shakespeare "The Marriage of True Minds" Simple love sonnet: What one characteristic must true love have? What can cause love to change? What does the final couplet mean? Answer: One characteristic must be true love should have is an impediment. Love can be change when one starts having too much expectation or starts comparing with other things. The last couplet means that love is not for only outer looks of a person it is more than that. Love is something from heart to heart. "Remembrance of Things Past" What are thee things the speaker miss/regret about the past? What makes up for his sorrow over the past? Answer: Three things the speaker miss or regret about the past are friends, afresh love's long and expense of many a vanished sight. While he thinks on them dear friends make up for his sorrow. "When in Disgrace with Fortune and Men's Eyes" When is disgrace with Fortune and Men's Eyes" What are four of the things the speaker desires? Why does he think he is better of than a king? Answer: The four things the speaker desires for are to be richer in hope, featured like him, like him with friends possessed, also desiring this man's art, and the man's scope. He thinks he is better of than a king because he has everything that he wants and still he does not have to worry about other people because king is always thinking for his people. "Black as Hell, Dark as Night" In what way is this different in tone and content from the other love sonnets? Answer: This is different in tone and content from the other love sonnets because this love is more being negative then loving someone. Also it is more of selfish and being mad with him or herself. 2. John Donne "The Flea" Who is the speaker and to who is...
pages: 14 (words: 3632)
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added: 09/21/2011
George Orwell's classic novel 1984 is a perfect example of a futuristic totalitarian regime and a dystopia. Orwell's tale expresses his vision of a government changing and becoming a totalitarian government. The government, in this story, is run by an unknown leader who goes by the title "Big Brother." The concept of "Big Brother" is that someone is always watching, and people can never deceive the government. In Orwell's idea of what may happen in the future, "Big Brother" monitors everything everyone does or even thinks. Orwell was born with the name Eric Arthur Blair, in 1903, in Bengal, India. His father was Richard Walmesley Blair. He worked in the Opium department of the Indian Civil Service as a minor customs official.(Biography) When Orwell was four, his family returned to England. They then settled in a village near London, Henley. Soon after their move his father returned to India. Orwell was sent to a private elementary school in Sussex when he was eight years old. His experiences there influenced his views on the English class system. After finishing school there he went to two private secondary schools using scholarships.(Biography) He went to Wellington for one term and Eton for four and a half years. Orwell later received training in Burma and became an Indian Imperial Police officer. He served there from 1922 to 1927. Orwell decided not to return to Burma while he was on leave in England. He had dreamed of becoming a writer ever since he was a child. He did not feel the Imperial Police was a suitable job for him.(Biography) He had also realized how imperialistic the Police unit was and rejected it. He resigned on January 1, 1928. The opening of the book explains the setting of London, which is now Oceania, in the year 1984. London is...
pages: 5 (words: 1115)
comments: 0
added: 10/31/2011
Before the current administration was allowed to take office, the environment may not have been perfect, but due to years of ongoing legislation it was slowly getting better. With numerous agencies to protect the air, water, wilderness, and ozone layer against the majority of harmful devices that industry and civilization has created, we were finally gaining ground on something that is worth protecting, our environment. We had begun to learn that not everything should be up for grabs in our world and that not al1 things are meant to be left to their own accord. There is a time and a place to protect the unprotected and save our environment. Of course, all of these safeguards are slowly becoming unraveled by our current President, George W. Bush. First, to fully understand Bush's complete disregard for the environment, we must take note of where he came from. At age two George W. Bush moved from his birth place, New Haven, Connecticut, to Midland, Texas where he was to grow up around the oil business. After attending Yale and Harvard, Bush returned to Texas and attempted starting his own oil company. Although his father had made millions in the oil field bush junior did not fair quite as well. Even though he had an exorbitant amount of money given to him from old family friends and deep pocketed investors hoping for political gains in George Bush seniors' administration, he never seemed able to gain any momentum in this enterprise. In 1978, Bush lost his attempt to win a Congressional election, immediately returning to the oil field to try once more. Once again, thanks to low barrel prices, he failed and had to turn to deep pockets to bail him out. It wasn't until 1991 when the Persian Gulf emirate of Bahrain struck a...
pages: 12 (words: 3131)
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added: 12/19/2011
George Washington was a war hero from 1776. All war heroes are always known for their accomplishments. Even though he lost the first battle he commanded in the French and Indian War, he never made that mistake again. George Washington had a very important military career. He was a General at first, then he got ranked to commander-chief, then he went all the way up to president after the Revolutionary War. George Washington got his first job because he was tall physically impressive; he was also an expert hunter. At first he got hired to train all the soldiers. The bad thing about this is that George had no idea how to train soldiers. So, since he was being paid a great deal of money he hired people to train the soldiers for him. Over the next few years he ranked up to commander-chief of the continental army. Later on, after the Revolutionary War he became the first president of the U.S. He got this position partly from his amazing outcome from the war. Because of the assumption of state debts, the Bank of the United States, and the excise tax--Washington became the target of attacks by Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans. Now he is found on any of the one-dollar bills, if you want to see what he looks like. By March 1797, when Washington left office, the country's financial system was well established; the Indian threat east of the Mississippi had been largely eliminated; and Jay's Treaty and Pinckney's Treaty (1795) with Spain had enlarged U.S. territory and removed serious diplomatic difficulties....
pages: 1 (words: 261)
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added: 12/14/2011
(federal law, trial court, another old case) Location in Course Outline · Acquisition by First Succession o Acquisition by capture § Capture on public lands · Exception to rule: Limited custom affecting few people Parties · Original Plaintiff: Ghen, Whale killer · Original Defendant: Rich, Whale purchaser Facts · Whale killing o Ghen, who was in the fishing business of killing fin-back whales, shot and immediately killed the relevant whale using a bomb-lance. It sunk. · Whale finding o Then three days later ended up on a beach where a guy named Ellis found the whale · Whale selling o Instead of notifying Ghen, he auctioned it off to the highest bidder, who was Rich. Rich extracted the blubber to use for oil and sold it. · Constructive Notice o Though neither Ellis nor Rich knew that Ghen killed the whale they knew, or should have known, then it was killed by a whale killer in the industry. Procedural History Trial level opinion o Ghen sues in federal trial court, claiming title to the whale. Disposition · Plaintiff wins. Question Presented/ Issue & Holding · Question Presented o When will the court use a long-established custom followed in an industry as an exception to the general dominion and control rule established in Pierson for the acquisition of title by capture in wild animals on public property? · Holding o An exception may be granted when the custom is of very limited application, will affect by a few persons, has been followed for a long time by people in the industry, and when the survival of the industry is dependent upon it. Analysis I. Precedent A. Case law 1. Taber v. Jenny & Bartlett v. Budd a. Whale Killing; Appropriation Marks (a) Both cases involved a whale that had been killed and left with marks of appropriation. (b) The killers had done everything possible given the technology of the time to appropriate the whale from nature and make it their own. b. Actual Possession / Appropriation (a)...
pages: 5 (words: 1162)
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added: 01/03/2012
On June 3, 1961, a burglary occurred at the Bay Harbor Pool Room in Panama City, Florida. During the burglary, a window was smashed and the cigarette machine and jukebox had been broken into. A witness claimed to have seen Clarence Earl Gideon in the poolroom early that morning. Later Gideon was picked up nearby with a bottle of wine and some change in his pockets, the police proceeded to arrest him. They charged him with breaking and entering in to the pool room. Gideon was a drifter who could not afford a lawyer. When he appeared at the Florida Circuit Court for trial, he asked the judge to appoint a layer for him. Gideon argued that the Court should grant him one because the Sixth Amendment says that everyone is entitled to a lawyer. The judge denied his request, claiming that the state doesn't have to provide a poor person with a lawyer unless "special circumstances" exist. Gideon was left to represent himself. He had been arrested many times, so he understood some of the legal procedures. However, he did a poor job of defending himself. An example of his inexperience was his choice of witnesses was unusual. He asked the police officers who arrested him to testify on his behalf. He lacked skill in questioning witnesses, which made it difficult for him to make his case. Gideon was later found guilty of breaking and entering and petty larceny, which is a felony in Florida. He was sentenced to five years in a Florida state prison. While he was in prison, he began studying law in the prison library. Gideon's study of the law reaffirmed his belief that the Circuit Court's refusal to appoint counsel for him constituted a denial of his rights. With that in mind, he filed a petition...
pages: 2 (words: 447)
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added: 01/22/2012
Abstract There is a general perception in the general worldwide community that the criminal behavior of women and the delinquent behavior of girls are not serious issues. It is generally asserted that women are more likely to commit minor offences and also supported by historical statistics. It has been quite noticeable in recent trends, however, that there is a dramatic rise in the pace at which women are being convicted, and showing a faster rate than men. People who have worked closely with the youth have also known for a long time that girls are different than boys in their adolescent development; in their habits, attitudes and traditions. Studies have also shown differential treatment in families, schools, recreational facilities, and in the juvenile justice system. Other contributing factors to the differential treatment are sexism, classism and racism. Racism and classism, as well as sexism, may also play into the difference in treatment. The culture around these girls also tends to send conflicting and often confusing messages to further complicate their healthy development. It is hoped that the recent increased focus on adolescent girls unfortunate plight in the juvenile justice system has raised the consciousness of the community and the recognized organizations in the legal profession to willing focus on what can be done individually and collectively to improve the plight of adolescent girls. 1.0 Introduction "Girls have received second class treatment and historically have been neglected by the system." . To reflect on this assertion and to consider ways of eliminating the issue of juvenile delinquency , it is important to look at the history of the current worldwide judicial set-ups and to propose questions that would lead to the resolution of this crisis. It is worthwhile reflecting that the juvenile justice system is quite distinct from the criminal justice system. It was started...
pages: 15 (words: 4011)
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added: 01/15/2012
As the meaning and effects of globalization become more and more widespread, people across the world have formed grassroots organizations. These organizations protest the negative effects encouraged by globalization and try to form worldwide acknowledgement of a particular problem. This paper discusses some disadvantages of globalization and which have prompted people to protest. It will then examine at a closer level two protested issues, labor injustice and wealth inequality. Finally, conclusions on the prospect of globalization in the future will be reached. Globalization includes the global exchange of capital, labor, information, politics, technology, and culture, all which have formed an integrated "global" world. But growing disparity, corporate power, and environmental destruction has overshadowed the hope for a global civil society, a global community. Ordinary people have become increasingly aware of these problems (due in part to globalization itself and the spread of instantaneous information) and protest movements have sprouted. Although many are unorganized and address a single issue, grassroots organizations' protests have had a surprisingly influence on the institutions they protest, including the World Trade Organization, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank. The World Trade Organization's meeting in Seattle of November 1999, for example, "saw the birth, and to date, the high point of this new mode of activism," where protesters aimed to "shut down, or at least badly disrupt, the meetings of the global elite" (Angry and Effective, 2). Protestors have greater aims than simply disrupting the work of international organizations; they wish to bring attention to a variety of issues. The major issues of globalization that have prompted people to protest are environmental destruction, human rights standards, labor injustices, and the growth of multinational corporations. Specific problems within these issues include industrialized countries exploit the resources of developing countries, corporations exploit underprivileged people in labor, the outsourcing...
pages: 6 (words: 1522)
comments: 0
added: 10/30/2011
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