March 6, 1961 is the day that the American businesses changed for the benefit of the minority and women. President John F. Kennedy issues Executive Order 10925, which creates the Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity and mandates that projects financed with federal funds "take affirmative action" to ensure that hiring and employment practices are free of racial bias. Affirmative action is a tool that people use with sense of opportunity, when used in the right manner. I believe that the main focuses when discussed are saying arguments against affirmative action divert attention from the real issues of where American jobs have gone. Everyone is hurt by low wages and dead-end jobs. Wages are not stagnant and jobs are not lost because women and people of color have access to jobs that pay living wages. Corporate greed, rampant downsizing, contracting-out and free trade agreements like NAFTA are the villains. At my command, I work with civilians that have used affirmative action to their benefit. They did not abuse the system that helped them, but they showed their true talent in my field. Their performance spoke it all to the military and the civilian employer. I will no longer have the billet that I have now; the civilians will take my job for the shore technical support. So, my billet will become an affirmative action billet for the area. Even in the military, we use affirmative action, but indirectly. We coordinate with a person called a detailer and he gives us an option of different kind of orders. Most of all detailers stress diversity billets and places that you will advance in rate at. I believe that affirmative action has made a major, positive, and productive impact on America through education, increase in job opportunities, and increase in moral for minorities. According...
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Affirmative action generally in the US means that companies try to promote candidates who are minorities. Affirmative action is needed for various of reasons. One is for class reasons. As long as blacks (or Hispanics or Native Americans, affirmative action is rarely employed for Asians) get significantly lower incomes than whites, and possess significantly less capitol, then they will always be a discrete, separate class. Only when economic parity is achieved will the issues of racism be able to be realistically challenged. And until that time, affirmative action is needed. The second reason is for continued racism today. While Jim Crow laws have disappeared, subconscious (and conscious) racism still exists. White managers may be subconsciously inclined to think blacks aren't as intelligent as whites, and thus less likely to hire them for jobs. Or they may outright refuse to hire them. Racial discrimination cases continue to be filed across corporate America. As long as this racism contributes to the detriment of minorities, affirmative action is needed. A third reason is retributions. African-Americans suffered for hundreds of years at the hands of whites. Their economic condition, educational condition, cultural condition, and so forth were all impaired to the benefits of whites. Whites extracted labor, and kept them from advancing, to make them richer. Thus, the reason that blacks are poorer and so forth is because of white racism. Thus, race-conscious policies to correct this result of white racism are not racist themselves, just corrective. To bring African Americans up to equality thus necessitates and justifies affirmative action. A fourth reason is tactical. Unfortunately, America continues to be a very segregated place. Thus, if we don't use affirmative action we have fewer black doctors, lawyers, and so forth that can help build and serve in black communities in which they reside. Thus affirmative action is justified...
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The United States Constitution states that every person has the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. However, in the early years of the nation, minorities and women were put down and persecuted. Affirmative action is the nation's attempt to redress its long history of racial and sexual discrimination. Affirmative action is used in many different aspects of life. Affirmative action is a disputed argument because if you take away from someone to help another, where is the justification in that? Affirmative action was born out of the civil rights movement thirty years ago. Affirmative action calls for minorities and women to be given special consideration in employment, education and contracting decisions. There is a great deal of politics involved in affirmative action laws. Republicans are usually for the end of affirmative action, while democrats are in favor in keeping it. The laws have caused disputes in the nation's capital and thus lead to further division of the government. Affirmative action in college admission's has caused a dispute among America's families. "In a major victory for the University of Michigan, the Supreme Court of the United States upheld the right of universities to consider race in admissions procedures in order to achieve a diverse student body." It is important in the United States that there be a well educated populace. The more educated the populace is, the more money American's will make and future generations will be better off. Affirmative action activists state that in order for their to be this equality among people, there is a need for affirmative action. If our nations colleges and universities are vacated by white males and dominant groups, minorities will not go on. The University of Michigan has brought up a court case to the Supreme Court of the United States which will...
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Affirmative Action: Incorporate Page #'s when citing History of issue: Industrial jobs in the North (before WW1) went to white European immigrants. "Not until WWI were blacks given significant access to Northern labor markets" (Steinberg) [through Anti-Discr. Order in Fed. Defense Contracting 1941 Roosevelt passed] [He was afraid that countries overseas would see flaws in our world power democracy.] [Class notes] After Civil Rights Movement, to ensure that blacks were given same opportunity. Ie: James Meredith was denied admission at Ole Mis (Eyes on the Prize video) because of his race. AA was meant to "even the playing field" by establishing a point system to include race as a factor. Present state of policy: Presently Prop 209 has completely eliminated AA in California altogether. Race cannot be a determining factor in anyway in regards to education or hiring practices. Other states like FL, Washington (D.C.) [NY]. have also eliminated the use of AA. The irony is that the states that contain the most minority population have done away with the system that was designed to help the minority population. The Supreme Court did say there could be AA, but ruled out the use of quotas, and point systems. Race can be considered as one of many factors to promote diversity. Today, there is little belief in discrimination in the workforce and/or education system; blatant discrimination is not tolerated. There are equality laws, but with minimal results. (Although there are equality laws, racial prejudices are still prevalent---as well as institutionalized discrimination. (CLASS NOTES) Pros and cons as given by authors Pros o Steinberg: AA is a way of revising occupational apartheid. AA is one of the most important policies to regress on occupational segregation. If AA would end, it would also mark the end of the second reconstruction--- the end of racial equality itself. Cons o Steinberg recognizes that Nixon (via the Philadelphia...
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Affirmative action means taking positive steps to boost the representation of women and minorities in areas of the work place and schools from which they have been excluded through histories process. Affirmative action is good at times but when it used to supposedly advance the goal of racial understanding and harmony in schools, it is wrong. Colleges as well as other schools are using racial preferences when they choose students. In doing so they go against the constitution in a numerous of ways. The question of affirmative action has also occurred in the lawsuit against the University of Michigan. Not only is it taking place in colleges but also with children in the Chicago Public Schools selective enrollment high school programs. Affirmative action is an immense opportunity to give minorities a chance at education but when it is used in impractical ways it becomes unreasonable. The Constitution guarantees equality for everyone despite your ethnic background or gender. Affirmative action guarantees this for all minorities but the way it is used in universities to broaden the goal of racial understanding by excluding more preferable Caucasian students for their admission that becomes unfair. This is inequitable because it goes against the Constitution. One way is by the fourteenth amendment. This amendment guarantees the principle that that people be treated the same way in the eyes of the law. These racial quotas should not be in the way of deciding one person's ability in their schoolwork since it was banned twenty-five years ago. By using racial preferences in deciding whether or not someone is eligible to be admitted into a school is unconstitutional. It's vital that the government honor its solemn commitment. The questions of racial preferences is being addressed in Supreme Court once more even after the banned quotas twenty-five years ago. The questions...
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"Affirmative action" means taking positive steps to increase the numbers of women and minorities in areas of employment, education, and business from which they have been historically barred. When those steps involve preferential selection on the basis of race, gender, or ethnicity affirmative action generates intense controversy. Affirmative Action works, it benefit minority. When I heard about Affirmative Action I completely agreed with it. When I came to United States living in poorer inner cities made me appreciate Affirmative Action more. It somehow gave me hope and made me try even harder, so I will be accepted to university with the help of Affirmative Action. Minorities face discrimination everyday. For instance, when September 11 took place Muslim people faced vital discrimination. Most of them could not find job, and most of them feared of losing their job. They were terrified they could not wear their traditional clothe, like scarf. Most of them end up taking off their scarf so they will not be recognized as Muslim in order to keep their job. Minorities' coming from a different country has to begin a new life in United States. Meanwhile the white men have everything planed out for him. Children of minorities have to work hard in order to have a better life; others like white children have everything provided for them. Minorities can not escape poverty; they can not change their life style. They can not create an educational environment for themselves. To truly understand the importance of affirmative action, one must look at America's past discrimination to see why, at this point in history, we must become more color conscious. One must spend a day in a shoe of minorities and how they feel to face discrimination. Dinesh D'Souza began the debate with the issue of race. He explained that there...
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AFFIRMATIVE ACTION is believed to be one of the most effective tools for re-addressing the injustices caused by our nation?s historic discrimination against people of color and women, and for leveling what has long been an uneven playing field. However the other side believes that it has done exactly what it was set out to eradicate. It is no secret that our great nation has a centuries-long legacy of racism and sexism that has not been eradicated despite the gains made during the civil rights era. Avenues of opportunity for those previously excluded remain narrow. It is believed that adjustment are needed to the legislation so that it can correct wrongs and not potentate them against those of other races. The question is do we need affirmative action now more than ever? The timeline of Affirmative action began in 1791 The ?Original Sin? of the Constitution and Bill of Rights legitimizes slavery. In 1860s although the Thirteenth Amendment of 1865 abolishes slavery, the southern states revive slave time codes, creating unattainable prerequisites for blacks to live, work or participate in society. The Civil Rights Act of 1866 invalidates these codes, conferring ?the rights of citizenship? on all people. The Fourteenth Amendment grants citizenship to everyone born in the U.S., forbids states from denying ?life, liberty or property? without due process of law, and guarantees equal protection under the laws. It wasn?t until The Fifteenth Amendment of 1870 that gives free men the right to vote, and the 1875 Civil Rights Act guaranteeing equal access to public accommodations regardless of race or color. This is when white supremacist groups, embarked upon a campaign of terror against blacks and their white supporters that the real sins began. Leaping forward to 1954 the court case of Brown v. Board of Education that ends legal...
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"We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness." This quote was taken from our country's Declaration of Independence. This quote stands at the core of America's collective beliefs. The promise of "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" has drawn many immigrants to America's shores. Has America fulfilled these promises to all of its citizens? Do all who live here have the same opportunities regardless of race, creed or color? Has America truly come so far in diversity that discrimination is a thing of the past? I think not if in 2003 we still hear "the first black person to do…."anything. If in this day and age there are still white people that are amazed by how articulate Colin Powell is then no we have not come far enough. Colin Powell is a product of affirmative action and a firm believer in the policy. Ask your average American if they have an opinion about affirmative action and chances are they will say yes but would they be able to explain what Affirmative Action is. Chances are they will say it has something to do with quotas, which it does not. What is Affirmative Action and is it still necessary? Affirmative Action has no clearly defined meaning. According to the classical definition, affirmative action occurs whenever people go out of their way (take positive action) to increase the likelihood of true equality for individuals of differing categories. Affirmative Action is a national policy of trying to level the playing field for all citizens. Affirmative Action was created as a system to help achieve racial justice in America. It is acknowledged that the two ways...
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Affirmative action was developed in the mid 1960's to offer equal opportunity employment and education to women and minorities. These policies required that active measures be taken so that minorities had the same opportunities in career advancements and education that were nearly exclusive to whites (Brunner 1). In 2002, affirmative action is still present in our society. Minorities as well as females are given jobs and admissions into colleges and universities that are not totally based on hard they have worked, but rather on their race and gender. Because affirmative action is an unjust law that offers minorities education or employment based on race or gender and not merit, this promotional practice is a form of reverse discrimination that should be abolished. Focusing on jobs and education in particular, affirmative action policies required the active measures be taken to ensure that females, blacks, and other minorities enjoyed the same opportunities that had been available only to whites males. This practice slowly turned into a blatant form of reverse discrimination. Institutions are so anxious to raise the number of blacks in their ranks that they overlook over qualified applicants when admission decisions involving blacks. In the 1995 court case Gratz v. Bollinger, reported on Adversity. net, Jennifer Gratz applied to University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. Gratz's application was rejected because she was white. Minority students with lower test scores were admitted ahead of Gratz to meet the University's racial enrollment goals (adversity.net/education_2_michu_1.html). In this situation, Jennifer Gratz is more qualified than the minorities in question that are granted admission. The minorities admitted to the university are clearly selected based on their race and not their educational merit. Minorities are receiving the spoils for a job they did not do, rather than what they did do. Affirmative action has also led to other inconveniences...
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Affirmative action works. There are thousands of examples of situations where people of color, white women, and working class women and men of all races who were previously excluded from jobs or educational opportunities, or were denied opportunities once admitted, have gained access through affirmative action. When these policies received executive branch and judicial support, vast numbers of people of color, white women and men have gained access they would not otherwise have had. These gains have led to very real changes. Affirmative action programs have not eliminated racism, nor have they always been implemented without problems. However, there would be no struggle to roll back the gains achieved if affirmative action policies were ineffective. The implementation of affirmative action was America's first honest attempt at solving a problem, it had previously chosen to ignore. In a variety of areas, from the quality of health care to the rate of employment, blacks still remain far behind whites. Their representation in the more prestigious professions is still almost insignificant. Comparable imbalances exist for other racial and ethnic minorities as well as for women. Yet, to truly understand the importance of affirmative action, one must look at America's past discrimination to see why, at this point in history, we must become more "color conscious". History Of Discrimination In America: Events Leading To Affirmative Action. The Declaration of Independence asserts that "all men are created equal." Yet America is scarred by a long history of legally imposed inequality. Snatched from their native land, transported thousands of miles-in a nightmare of disease and death-and sold into slavery, blacks in America were reduced to the legal status of farm animals. A Supreme Court opinion, Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857), made this official by classifying slaves as a species of "private property." Even after slavery was abolished by the Thirteenth Amendment in 1865, American blacks,...
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Introduction There are numerous issues that have spawned heated debates in American society: abortion, animal rights, and prayer in public schools. Arguably, these debates have become so hotly contended that politicians have jumped on the bandwagon to support one side or another. Among the current topics that have fueled a considerable amount of political and social debate is the topic of affirmative action. While opponents maintain that affirmative action induces reverse discrimination; those that support the movement argue that without affirmative action, many of society's institutions would be free to legally discriminate against anyone they so choose. At the heart of the affirmative action debate lies the issue of race. Although many Americans will not consciously admit that affirmative actions laws were instituted to help advance minorities (especially African Americans), the reality is that American history, up to and including the debate over affirmative action, has always contended the topic of race. According to Berdahl (2000): Throughout American history, from the early colonial period to the present, race has played a central role in our legal system, in our political conflicts, and in our social relations. Race was incorporated into the Constitution, which originally counted African-American slaves as three-fifths persons. […] Race has continued to be a central feature of our political discourse, through Jim Crow and the civil rights movement, up to the current debate over affirmative action (p. 115). Race has invariably been an extensive part of American history. However, affirmative action has not. Although many authors argue that the seeds of affirmative action began with the Supreme Court case of Brown v. The Board of Education (1954), in which the Supreme Court declared that segregated educational facilities were inherently unequal and a violation of the 14th Amendment to the Constitution, most supporters of Affirmative Action agree that the true case defining...
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"What the hell would I want to go to a place like Mombasa for? I just see myself in a pot of boiling water with all these natives dancing around me." These are the words of Toronto (Canada) Mayor Mel Lastman, before traveling to the Association of National Olympic Committees in Kenya to campaign for his city's bid to host the 2008 Games. Lastman later apologized for the rather 'unfortunate' comment. Too late, his city lost the bid to Beijing, the capital of the Peoples Republic of China. Darkest Africa or the Heart of Darkness. That is how many Westerners see this wretched continent of Africa, cursed with "war, starvation, a lot of poor people, and exotic animals." They imagine it as a huge, animal and disease-infested jungle, sprinkled with tribes of primitive people, some of whom are glad to meet white people…for they like variety in their diets. Only a few Europeans, such as philanthropist David Livingstone and one explorer Henry Morton Stanley, were brave enough to enter the heart of the continent during the 19th Century. They somehow managed to navigate the rough territory, though none of them, believe it or not, drove Four Wheel Drive vehicles or managed not to end up in some huge boiling pot. David Livingstone went on to rename Mosi Uya Tunya (The Smoke that Thunders) after his queen, Victoria. While Stanley went one better and had the Bujagali Falls, at the source of the Nile in Uganda, renamed after himself! Reports from these intrepid explorers helped illuminate Africa in Europe. And for the wrong reasons too! Eventually the Western world learned that Africa was not only worth visiting, it was also worth looting. The continent was and still is rich in mineral resources, diamonds, gold and copper. The British, French, Portuguese and others carved up Africa...
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As immigrants from West Africa, especially the Ivory Coast, we have witnessed many wars around our country. In fact, from 1964 to 1998, many African countries such as Liberia, Burkina, Faso and Ghana have experienced civil wars. The lack of respect for the country's constitution by political leaders is the main reason that these wars have occurred. The recent civil war in my country the Ivory Coast is a prime example. Government members who made a mistake caused the Civil war stated on September 19, 2002 and lasted seven months. This mistake was made by the current regime when it decided to dismiss some of its soldiers from it's military, it is not known why the government made this decision. The mere rumor of the dismissals induced an uprising of 750-800 soldiers angry for being suspected of disloyalty by the current government, resulting in the worst crises since the country's first ever coup in 1999. Very often in Africa, when the army is split soldiers of both sides have no respect for civilians or their oath to protect them. The following example will fully explain this statement. During the recent civil war in the Ivory Coast rebels walked into a city called Bourke, gunfire could be heard throughout the city despite little to no resistance by government troops, for reference purposes this city is just 220 miles north of Abidjan the commercial capital of the Ivory Coast. There was an American school that was caught in the crossfire; this school was home to about 200 foreign nationals most of whom were Americans. No one was targeting the school but, neither the administrators nor the children felt safe due to the proximity of the firing. In at least on instance several rebels climbed the wall surrounding the missionary school. As a result...
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For many parents in the world, sending their children to college is a very important goal they shrive to achieve. That goal, amongst being important is also a very hard thing to do if you are not financially inclined. College tuition and fees have become outrageous over the last couple of decades. The Federal Government made a program to help students make it to college. This program is called the Federal Pell Grant. The Pell Grant was named after former Rhode island Senator Claiborne Pell. The program provides up to $3,750. That amount is roughly equivalent to instate tuition fees at many public universities in the country. The program has a budget of $9 million and helps nearly 4 million students a year. The Federal Pell Grant was created to encourage low- and middle-income students to attend college. 25 Years ago this grant covered about 80% of public – college tuition. Now the grant barely covers 40% of it. Now with tuition rising, 25% of the lower-income students which should be in college do not apply any longer(New York Times: Punishing Pell Grant). Every student is given an opportunity to go to college. Even if they are devoted, honors roll students in highschool; many cannot afford the expensive fees. If our children are the future of our society, why are we decreasing the chances of them going to college and getting their degree? Knowing the importance of college education, congress should be pushing to bring this program to a higher level. Instead the Federal Education Department is in favor of a process that could cause 85,000 students to lose their grants entirely. Also Hundreds of thousands of others will receive less federal aid. Although the Federal Education Department is trying to lower the funding, there are others that are against that, and believe that the...
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It is not the American policy to be the aggressors. We should not be the aggressors. How is this going to prevent future terrorist attacks? The Bush administration is only provoking future terrorists to be born around the globe. Eliminating Saddam Hussein is not the answer to end terrorism but just a reason to fuel Anti-American resentment. We will have the terrible reputation of worldwide "bullies". Who has more to gain from all of this? It is US. We will have a growth in our economy from the oil in Iraq. The Wall Street Journal recently noted:" With oil reserves second only to Saudi Arabia's, Iraq would offer the oil industry enormous opportunity should a war topple Saddam Hussein. But the early spoils would probably go to companies needed to keep Iraq's already rundown oil operation running, especially if facilities were further damaged in a war. Oil-services firms such as Halliburton Co., where Vice President Dick Cheney formerly served as chief executive and Schlumberger Ltd. are seen as favorites for what could be as much as $1.5 billion in contracts". Yes oil, seems part of the reason for war but it's not the entire reason. We will have won an American protectorate, which is another word for a colony. I just saw an American soldier place the American flag. If it is not colonialism, it is invasion. Our country fought in the American Revolution to stop the act of colonialism from Britain. Yet 227 years later, here we are, doing the same thing that our oppressors were doing to us. We say we are in Iraq to liberate the people from this "evil" dictator. Although the media has shown some Iraqi people congratulate and welcome troops, I want people to notice how many people congratulated us. Probably around 20 people---20 out of...
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"The Age of Globalization" is quickly becoming the favored term for describing the current times. Just as the Depression, the Cold War Era, the Space Age, and the Roaring 20's are used to describe specific periods of history; globalization describes the political, economic, and cultural ambiance of today. While some people think of globalization as principally a synonym for global business, it is much more than that. The same forces that allow businesses to operate as if national borders did not exist also allow social activists, labor organizers, journalists, academics, and many others to work on a global stage. There are advocates of globalization, opponents of globalization, and a vast middle which views globalization as nearly inevitable, largely positive, and in need of sensible management. The single issue which seems to most divide these groups is the role globalization plays in causing or curing global poverty. I think that theoretically the article touched upon numerous topics relevant to balancing the global economy. For example, the author stated that the United States can no longer afford the ever increasing trade deficit. However, the solutions proposed in the article although they are morally profitable they would not be implemented because it would not be financially profitable. As globalization has progressed, living conditions have improved significantly in virtually all countries. However, the strongest gains have been made by the advanced countries and only some of the developing countries. Divergently, low-income countries have not been able to integrate with the global economy as quickly as others, partly because of their chosen policies and partly because of factors outside their control. No country, least of all the poorest, can afford to remain isolated from the world economy. The international community could endeavor—by strengthening the international financial system, through trade, and through aid—to help the poorest countries integrate into the world economy, grow more rapidly, and reduce poverty. As stated in the article, this is the way to ensure all people in all countries have access to the benefits of globalization. But the real question is will...
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REFUGE vs. ENERGY In the grand scheme of modern life, six months of gasoline to fuel the voracious appetites of our vehicles, is a drop in the bucket. We should not drill in the Alaskan Natural Wildlife Reserve (ANWR) as drilling will have no significant impact on the American economy, or its dependence on foreign oil. To take our children's' heritage away for the bottom line of a few corporations, is disgusting and simply wrong. On March 19th, the U.S. Senate, by narrow agreement, voted to open up drilling in the Alaska Natural Wildlife Reserve ("Senate rejects oil drilling in Alaska"). This is the second attempt by the White house to open up drilling in the ANWR; a direct resolution in the Senate was beaten via filibuster last year("Senate rejects oil drilling in Alaska"). Despite two failed attempts, the White house will continue to pursue the issue. On March 30th, Gale Norton, Interior Secretary, announced: "We continue to press about ANWR" (qtd. in "Bush still pushing oil plan"). Proponents for drilling claim that the oil can be extracted safely without damaging the environment. This is simply not true. We the people must keep vigilant to ensure ANWR stays secure. Proponents state America needs this oil to reduce dependency on foreign oil. Weighing the small amount of oil to be had against the damage to ANWR, this argument is ridiculous. The government states that ANWR drilling is a significant source of oil, well worth endangering the environment. Proponents believe there is 5.7 to 16 billion barrels of oil in the preserve. They state that only 8% of the ANWR will be developed. This will mean a large economic impact for Alaska, and possibly a 50 billion dollar impact for the American economy as a whole (Anderson). The facts are that ANWR holds less than...
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Alexander Graham Bell is a name of great significance in American history today. A skillful inventor and generous philanthropist, he astounded the world with his intuitive ideas that proved to be both innovative and extremely practical in the latter half of the 19th century. Most notable, of course, are Bell's work in developing the telephone and his venerable life-long endeavor to educate the deaf. Originally, his only wish was to help deaf people overcome their difficulty in learning verbal communication, and later was pushed into researching the possibility of a device that could transmit the human voice electronically over a distance. After building his first working telephone model, Bell's fame spread quickly as people in America and around the world began to realize the awesome potential this wonderfully fascinating new device held in store for society (Brinkley 481). His telephone an instant success and already a burgeoning industry, A. G. Bell decided to turn his attention back to assisting the deaf and following other creative ideas including the development of a metal detector, an electric probe which was used by many surgeons before the X ray was invented, a device having the same purpose as today's iron lung, and also a method of locating icebergs by detecting echoes from them. With his many inventions (especially the insanely popular and universally applied telephone), his efforts to educate the deaf, and the founding and financing of the American Association to Promote the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf (now called the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf), Alexander Graham Bell has become a very important historical figure indeed (Berstein 9). Perhaps a key factor in Bell's successful life was his invigorating background. His family and his education definitely had a deep influence on his career. Born in Scotland, his mother was a painter and an accomplished musician, his father a teacher of the deaf and speech textbook writer. His father invented "Visible Speech," a code of symbols which indicated the...
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Alienation The Marxist concept in which I felt most comfortable discussing is alienation. Alienation may be described as a condition in which men are dominated by forces of their own creation, which confront them as alien powers. The notion is important to all of Marx's earlier philosophical writings and still informs his later work. Man becomes foreign or alienated to the world he is living in because he basically can not control the material possesions of his own life. Man in a capitalistic society is alienated from himself , and the natural world in which he lives. Workers create products by mixing their own labor in with natural resources to make new things that have greater economic value. Therefore the labor itself is objectified, its worth turned into an ordinary thing that can be bought and sold on the open market, a mere commodity. The labor now exists in a form entirely external to the worker, separated forever from the human being whose very life it once was. This is the root of what Marx called alienation, a destructive feature of industrial life. Radnia 2 Marx's essential criticism of capitalism is that it cuts off that room for growth by separating the worker's actual work from any possible imagination of what is being created in that work. Here lies the core of alienation. When the worker no longer is able to create in response to an imagined ideal of what is being created, work becomes alienated because there is no room for personal development in that work. Consider this paper, which is my final as an example. Writing it is hard work, but it's not alienated work; why? Because I started with an imagination of the paper I would create, and how it would make the concept of alienation understandable to you Professor. Broslawsky....
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All nations should help support the development of a global university designed to engage students in the process of solving the world's most persistent social problems The term 'global' signifies something substantial for the entire world. The need of a global body is uttermost important to solve social problems. The social problems need not be global for their general world significance, but for the threat they pose. The point of view of the speaker can be agreed with since the persistent social problems have to be solved. We have many social problems such as poverty, population growth, racial discrimination, child labour, prostitution, AIDS, illiteracy etc. These problems have to be controlled. One way of solving these problems as the speaker says is by the development of a global university which can mould the student's mind to help for a general cause. For the global university to prosper, not only the developed nations but also the underdeveloped and developing nations should participate. Proper selection of the students is the most important criteria, since these students symbolize their respective nations. There should be no prejudices among the mind of students. Students should come to this global university with an open heart and desire to learn. Unless the desire is not present, this cannot help the cause. The students from developing nations shouldn't dominate or bully their counterparts from developing nations. There shouldn't be a sense of superiority among the students. There should a proper dialogue among the students so that they come to know the various existing problems. These dialogues may help the students unite towards solving persistent social problems. Population control is one of the most important social problems. Population growth undoubtedly has a definite on social relations and society's historical development. Unfortunately, this issue has been examined insufficiently. When scrutinizing population growth today or...
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