Analyse and contrast the decisions of the judges in the case of Bertram Badens trust House of Lords decision
Critical Analysis for Equity and Trusts Mr Bertram Baden in 1941 established a trust for the benefit of his employees. Clause 9 of the deed stated 'The trustees shall apply the net income of the fund in making at their absolute discretion grants to or for the benefit of any of the officers and employees or ex- officers or ex-employees of the company or to any relatives or dependants of any such persons in such amounts at such times and on such conditions (if any) as they think fit.' The words of this deed caused problems regarding the objects named and the certainty of these named objects especially regarding relatives and dependants. Mr Baden died in 1960 and in 1962, when the fund assets had reached £163,000 Mr Baden's executors claimed that the trust was void for reasons of uncertainty. The question now is whether under the test attached to discretionary trusts the trust fails on uncertainty of the objects; referring to 'dependants' and 'relatives'. When applying the new test 'can it be said with certainty that any given individual is or is not a member of the class?'. Sachs LJ looks at the certainty under the rule attributed to re Gulbekeians's Settlement 'through the eyes of a businessman seeking to advance the welfare of the employees of his firm and those so connected with the employees' rather than through the eyes of 'a man making a will'. His own opinion is that conceptual certainty was referred to when the, 'is or is not a member of the class' test was enunciated. Once the conceptual certainty of the class is defined then it has to be decided who is a member of that class. He states that they have to prove to be within the class if they cannot prove it then they are not...
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"Weapons Training" by Bruce Dawe, is an 'anti-war' poem, a dramatic monologue in which an instructor is teaching new recruits about their weapons in preparation for the Vietnam War. His voice is aggressive and demanding, the tone of the instructor is disciplined and hard on his students. The poem has a negative tone to it because it is about men being trained in the use of devices that will kill other men. The reader senses the atmosphere of a training area, and knows that the soldiers will most likely not return home. It focuses on the instructor's use of language, and the imagery is aggressive. The reader's response is a realisation of the reality and brutality of war. A representation is an interpretation or a way of viewing a manifestation of a concept in the real world. It can, therefore be real or abstract. Conflict, is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as a meeting of opposing parties. Conflict is an eminent part of this poem. The main types of conflict identified in this poem are ideological/political conflict between the Vietnamese and the American/Australians and interpersonal conflict between the soldiers and the Sergeant. These are represented by Dawe in a very clever way; by the use of gaps, foregrounding, silences, and positioning the reader in order to represent his hate towards war. The two opposing parties in this poem are the 'Americans/Australians' and 'Vietnamese". They differ greatly in their ideologies and have different ideologues since one believes in Democracy and the other Communism. Although Dawe believes in a democracy (as he is representing his views against the government in the form of a poem – which would be a crime in a communist state) he is an Australian that hated war; thus this poem, graphically represents the viciousness and brutality of war. Therefore,...
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On the 6th of November 2003, United States President George W. Bush, addressed the National Endowment of Democracy (NED) at the U.S. Chamber of Commerce for their 20th Anniversary. Conforming to typical orations, Mr. Bush discussed the importance of the NED's work in democratic efforts around the world and integrated current issues of the Middle East. The NED speech is carefully prepared to discuss relevant topics, incorporate recent topics of executive action, and modified to adhere to the setting and audience type. The President's job, as shown in this particular speech, consists almost solely of communication, so it is not surprising that his performance as a speaker is excellent. In communication, the assets of public speaking become immensely essential for the Commander-in-Chief. The spoken and unspoken actions of an orator are crucial in appealing to each type of location and spectator. The setting of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce plays a subtle factor in Mr. Bush's speech. The Chamber of Commerce has been the site for countless events for all branches of the Federal government. Ranging from conferences to award ceremonies, the building invokes a predisposition towards thoughts of order and justice. With headquarters across from the White House and just blocks away from Congress, it personifies the strength of United States. The U.S. Chamber attracts the highest caliber speakers at its events, including international think tanks, and Washington's movers and shakers. The Council Chamber has long been the site of important addresses delivered by a succession of U.S. Presidents, including Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, George H.W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush. Foreign leaders regularly speak at the Chamber, and this roster includes Egypt's Anwar Sadat and Hosni Mubarak, the Philippine's Corazon Aquino, and India's Rajiv Gandhi. The choice of location is not unexpected, as any governmental...
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Overall, McDonald's seems to be targeted over other similar businesses unfairly by the media. In the McLibel documentary children are used in all of their advertising and as their main audience target. As said in the article "How Americans Became The Fattest People On The Planet" McDonald's is being blamed for Americans becoming obese. As seen in "30 hours per week for our new working class" McDonalds is seen as someone who gives to the community by maintaining jobs for young people. However the media often betrays McDonalds. In the McLibel documentary there was the use of persuasive techniques such as the use of dramatic/negative images. Images of chickens getting their heads chopped off. This makes the audience feel sickened by this sight, and dislike McDonald's food. Exclusion of detail in the McLibel documentary was evident by only showed the point of view of the people who were against McDonalds. By doing this it persuades the audience to take their point of view. The use of rhetorical questions was used to blame McDonalds for people becoming overweight. Rhetorical questions make the audience really think a certain way. McDonalds is being blamed for Americans becoming obese. In the article "How Americans Became The Fattest People On The Planet" there is the uses of persuasive techniques such as, use of dramatic/negative images. Pictures of obese children and adults. By doing this it makes the audience not want to eat McDonald's because they don't want to look like that. With the use of rhetorical questions for example. Could a billion-dollar business that has stuffed Americans with fat and sugar for the past 20 years be called to book as well? It makes the reader think about what they have been eating. Another persuasive technique the use of repetition. For example; too much fast food too little exercise, the...
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1. Wang Dan is the most prominent new exile to the U.S. He was one of the leaders of the Tiananmen Square democracy movement in 1989 in China. By conducting a textual analysis of his address to Taipei Times I will show how Wang Dan used propaganda to portray the Chinese people are innocent victims and frame what the Chinese government should have done particularly with regard to the mass media to remedy government¡¯s slowness and inappropriateness of response to an outbreak of SARS in order to maintain the stability of the society and the development of the economy. In order to support my thesis, I will use examples and ideas from five periodical articles and three additional publications and theories like Harold Innis¡¯s concept of center vs. periphery and Marshall McLuhan¡¯s concept of the medium is the message in my essay by elaborating detail in terms of the following three aspects: 1. The public panic and the function of mass media. 2. How do the mainstream media and government deal with the crisis caused by an outbreak of SARS? 3. The impact of the economy by SARS This review of an outbreak of SARS focuses on these three main areas. The public panic and the function of mass media 1. WangDan presents Chinese people as innocent Wang Dan presents Chinese people are innocent in an outbreak of SARS. He said the Chinese authorities tried to cover it up, but paper cannot cover up fire. The consequence was panic among the people. Obviously, he tried to show that people who were infected by SARS were innocent due to irresponsibility of the Chinese government. As we know he was one of the leaders of the Tiananmen Square democracy movement in 1989 in China and he has sufficient knowledge in history and politic of China, but he have been isolated...
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Affirmative Action 1 Running Head: ANALAYZING AFIRMATIVE ACTION How Important is it and what Effect does it has on America today? Carey J. Butler Submitted to: Dr. Willie Hoskins Alcorn State University Ed. 514 Methods of Educational Research June 26, 2003 TABLE OF CONTENTS I. RATIONALE_____________________________ 1 Statement of Problem Purpose of the Study Hypothesis Delimitations Assumptions Definition of Terms Justification of Study II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE______ 10 III. METHODOLOGY_______________________ 13 Subjects Data Collection Instrumentation Analysis of Data IV. REFERENCES__________________________ 16 V. APPENDICES___________________________ 18 Appendix A Informed Consent Letter for the President of the University Appendix B Informed Consent Letter for the students, faculty, and staff Appendix C Response Letter form the President of Pray For Me University Appendix D Survey I. Affirmative Action 2 Statement of the problem In 1977, Allan Bakke sued the University of California based on the fact that he had been denied to the admission of University of California Davis Medical School due to the fact that the University had reserved a number of spots for minority students – quota system – with lower GPA and MCAT scores. He claimed that he deserved to be admitted to the University, but had been denied twice because minority applicants with lower qualification were given advantage and priority based on their races. Ever since the case of Regents of the University of California v. Bakke 1977, the issue of affirmative action –specifically race-based affirmative action in admissions – has been the center of a number of debates. I will explain why reinstating race-based affirmative action is consistent with the intent of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. I will also argue why the society and citizens within need to realize that race-based affirmative action is not about putting burdens on innocent individuals; it is about providing minorities with opportunities. In order to draw the conclusion, the arguments of both advocates and opponents of the affirmative action will be presented in such a manner where the advocates' arguments dispute...
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America and its economy have gone through many different levels of Globalization. In the 1990s the American economy rebounded with its corporation becoming the key players in crucial industries. The economies once seen as the principal threats to America's position began to lose there footing. The reason for the turnaround has been subject of much debate and disagreement among economists and business leaders. Some point to the lighter hand of government and labor unions in the United States, some point to stronger entrepreneurial tradition here, and still others credit the existence of freer markets, but all seem to agree that American corporations were better positioned to succeed in the new global economy that blossomed in the 1990s. The most important characteristic of this new global economy is the integration of much of the world into a single market and production system. U.S. corporations and foreign ones, as well have been growing larger through mergers and acquisitions. Even the largest companies have learned that size matters in the battle for global market share, whether in banking, media/entertainment, telecommunications, pharmaceuticals and software/internet. The dynamism of the American economy in the 1990s had several effects that were politically consequential. On one hand, the steady economic growth, low inflation and heady stock market performance of that period helped fuel an impressive rate of job creation, low levels of unemployment, and heightened consumer confidence. On the other hand , the new global economy is one in which certain skills are highly sought after and rewarded for example filmmakers, software engineers and business strategists, while others are not like service workers. This may be why a booming economy in the 1990s did not diminish income inequality in the United States. The heady1990s were followed in 2001 and 2002 by three developments that threatened the pace of globalization:...
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For some, anarchism is portrayed as being congruent with the philosophy of post-structuralism. It is claimed that the post-structuralist' celebration of difference with its anti-authoritarian impulse, it's rejection of top-down power in favour of localised bottom-up resistance and its rejection of political representation is said to find its political expression in anarchism. However, doubts remain as to the validity of such claims. While anarchists do advocate such post-structuralist elements, post-structuralists such as Todd May and Andrew Koch omit any reference to solidarity and equality of wealth and social resources which are inimical to anarchism. What lies lurking in the murky waters around the 'pristine' island of post-structuralism are notions of ontological and epistemological relativism, a rejection of universalism, an hostility towards humanism and an all out assault on objectivity. "Taken together - the relativity of both ontology and epistemology, the plurality of language systems, and the impossibility of communicating intended meaning" argues Koch, subverts the "potential to reach consensus without either deception or force". To suggest that individuals are not always able to agree on certain points is a valid one and one that is not in opposition to anarchism. For difference generates increasing complexity resulting in a vibrant and dynamic society. But to suggest that we all live in individuated closed systems for which there is no congruence with other closed language systems is over-stated. Besides negating the possibility of groups of people having any common experiences at all, whether black people in Harlem, Brixton, Notting Hill, homosexuals in Tasmania, or Muslims the world over etc., this line of thinking is overstating the extent to which our world views are hermetically sealed. Regardless of their incessant ramblings on difference, plurality, etc., about how we are constrained and constituted in externality, in heterogeneous discourses and discursive practices, we do share a...
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Like any hall of fame, its inductees are the best in whatever they do, from baseball or football to something like being President. If you are a member of any hall of fame (including the one for the Presidents), it means that you have done something special or have a certain quality about yourself that makes you worthy to be in a hall of fame. My nominee for the Presidents hall of Fame is our seventh President of the United States, Andrew Jackson. I'll go over his presidency, focusing on both the highs and the lows of his two terms in office, from 1829-1837. The issues that I'll focus on are states' rights, nullification, the tariff, the spoils system, Indian removal and banking policies; these controversies brought forth strong rivalry over his years of president. He was known for his iron will and fiery personality, and strong use of the powers of his office that made his years of presidency to be known as the "Age of Jackson." Andrew Jackson was born on March 15, 1767, in a settlement on the border of North and South Carolina. He was orphaned at age 14. After studying law and becoming a member of the Bar in North Carolina later he moved to Nashville Tennessee. Their he became a member of a powerful political faction led by William Blount. He was married in 1791 to Rachel Donelson Robards, and later remarried to him due to a legal mistake in her prior divorce in 1794. Jackson served as delegate to Tenn. in the 1796 Constitutional convention and a congressman for a year (from 1796-97). He was elected senator in 1797, but financial problems forced him to resign and return to Tennessee in less than a year. Later he served as a Tennessee superior court judge for six years starting in 1798. In 1804 he retired from the bench and moved to Nashville and devoted time to business ventures and his plantation....
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Andrew Johnson vs. William Clinton The definition of impeachment is the removal of a high ranking official in the United State government. In this case, these high-ranking officials are our own presidents. Andrew Johnson and William Clinton were both impeached on more than one count of the articles of impeachment. They both under went the impeachment process, and both were acquitted. Who would have known that one hundred and thirty years could pass by and still have the same process working the same as it does today? The process of impeachment initiates when formal charges are brought against a federal official. The House then refers the matter(s) to the House Judiciary Committee. A majority vote is the first step in the process. The Judiciary Committee reviews and may hold hearings and draws up articles of impeachment. They then investigate whether to offer articles of impeachment to the House of Representatives. Each house on each article separately, and each one that passes is send to Senate for trial. Senate then conducts a trial. If it is the president on trial, the Chief Justice presides and the House members prosecute. The constitution gives the senate "the sole power to try impeachment". Senators hear testimony and seek evidence. They debate the articles. Approval of two-thirds of the Senate vote is required for the official to be removed from office. Andrew Johnson, our seventeenth president after Abraham Lincoln was assassinated, wasn't liked very much to begin with. Many people thought he was part of Lincoln's assassination. Also, he was democrat. Another reason many people didn't like him was because of his reconstruction plans. This disparity led to the weakened power of the presidency. He enmeshed in many disputes with the Radical Republicans. Johnson fired Edwin M. Stanton, who was sympathetic to the Radical Republicans. The impeachment in...
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Their sentence to death begins the moment they are born. Malnourished and weak, a mother catches only a glimpse of her newborn before he is taken away. It is her eleventh child, and like the rest, she will never see him again. The infant is left in a small room with only a machine to feed from. His diet is force fed hormones and chemicals. In a few weeks, his cage becomes too small to even turn around. He spends the days in boring agony, his only physical stimulation being the sounds of loud machinery, and the stench of his own excrement. He is small and emaciated, with no exposure to the sun, lacking the bone and muscle strength to do anything but sit. He could not run even if the bars would open. What is his fate? To be raped and eventually murdered like the sisters before him, or to live everyday like his fallen brothers, tortured for years before their slaughter? No, he is a fortunate child, for his death will not be long waited. Just one month after his birth, the veil calf is shipped by truck to a giant factory. Alone and restrained, his feet are fettered by chain. It gnaws at his ankles, but it is nothing compared to what is to come. A large man approaches him with mallet in hand. The calf screams the only way he knows how as his skull is crushed and throat is slit. His last sight is the ground five feet below, as the blood from his wound slowly bleeds his life away. This is a true story; a story that plays out thousands of times a day. It takes place not just in far off third world countries or in uncivilized cultures, but also in the rural areas...
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Animal Rights/Morals According to Carl Cohen a right is a claim, or potential claim that one party may exercise against another (Cohen, pg. 759). Mr. Cohen has written a ten page essay regarding and defining in his terms the connection between morals, rights and animal rights which he believes non-existent. Mr. Cohen is of a belief that while some life on this earth may have rights others do not, peaceful coexistence can exist through compassion and enlightenment. He goes to great lenghts to explain his theories. Simply put, Carl Cohen believes man is a moral animal and says humans confront choices that are purely moral; lay down moral laws for others and themselves (Cohen, pg. 760). It is important to understand his perspective in order to understand the argument against animal rights. Animals lack the capacity for free moral judgement. Because they have no capacity for moral judgement they have no rights, therefore none can be violated. Mr. Cohen makes it clear and I stand firmly in agreement that just because animals have no rights by definition does not give man the right to do as we please to the animals. Woven throughout Mr. Cohen's essay is an underlying thread revealing him as a man of conviction and morals. He writes of obligations we have as a part of society and these obligations are not to be confused with rights. Examples given of obligations to society are the doctors to the patients, the adult to the child, the child to the pet (Cohen, pg. 761). Mr. Cohen writes "to treat animals humanely, however, is not to treat them as humans or as holders of rights"(Cohen, pg. 761). Based on Mr. Cohen's theory that what gives one species rights but not another is the ability to reason morally. Animal rights activists agree that if rights belong...
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One of the questions facing society today is whether animals should be used in scientific experimentation. In the middle of this controversy, many ideas about nature, primarily animals, are formed. Each side has different arguments, each one posing questions on the place of humans with respect to animals and the rest of the natural world. The history of the benefits of animal research is marked by dramatic breakthroughs. Working with animals in research is vital to continue medical progress. There is a great deal of controversy surrounding animal research today. One example of such controversy is animal rights activists saying that animals have the capacity to suffer. Another example is animals can't control their own behavior and humans can, so humans shouldn't harm the life of animals. Animal rights activist also say that animal research is deliberate and therefore cruel. Lastly animal rights activists believe discrimination against other life forms, because they are members of different species, is parallel to discrimination against humans on the grounds of race, gender or religion, and therefore is immoral. On top of this there are many things that we would not have if it weren't for animal testing. Animal rights activists say that animals have the capacity to suffer and therefore should not be tested on; however, this is not a logical argument. It does not work because most animals experience little or no pain at all in nearly all medical research. Approximately ninety four percent of medical research either does not involve pain or uses anesthesia (Leahy). However, about six percent of research involves some pain to the animal, primarily in the area of pain research itself. Pain is a significant medical problem and work continues into drugs and treatments to help alleviate the effects of arthritis, headaches, cancer, and angina. While the ability...
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Animals have been used in medical research for centuries. Most of the animals used for research are rodents - rats, mice, hamsters and gerbils. Some dogs, cats and a variety of goats, ferrets, pigeons, monkeys and rabbits are also used .The struggle against this tyranny is a struggle as important as any of the moral and social issues that have been fought over in recent years. For decades the value of animal research has been grossly overrated. Although researchers have depended on animal test data to achieve medical advances, there should be other means of research because testing on animals is cruel, inhumane, and often unnecessary. The American Medical Association believes that research involving animals is absolutely essential to maintaining and improving the health human beings. They point out, that virtually every advance in medical science in the 20th century, from antibiotics to organ transplants, has been achieved either directly or indirectly through the use of animals in laboratory experiments. They also emphasize that animal research holds the key for solutions to AIDS, cancer, heart disease, aging and congenital defects. Lastly they insist that, the result of these experiments has been the elimination or control of many infectious diseases. This has meant a longer, healthier, better life with much less pain and suffering for humans. For many patients, it has meant life it self. However, there should be other means of research because the whole process of animal research remains cruel and inhumane. Animal rights activists have gathered a large amount of information that has closed down many laboratories that violate anti-cruelty statutes. In the past, research labs have had to be subsequently suspended due to animal cruelty. Reports involving horrifyingly painful experiments on monkeys and the filthy laboratories the animals must live in. Animals limited to living in tiny metal cages...
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American annexation or Canadian confederation? This was the question that British Columbia was faced with during the 1860¡¦s. At this time, British Columbia was undergoing a great depression due to an under populated colony ruled by a very expensive government. Many argued that annexation would remedy this and turn British Columbia into a prosperous state and that confederation is only giving false promises of a great government. The following will promote annexation over confederation stating the pros and cons of both. British Columbia at the time was in a financial and economical crisis. This was mainly because of the fact that the colony was being taxed into severe poverty by an extravagant and irresponsible form of government and instead of the population gradually rising, it¡¦s actually been declining for the early part of the 1860¡¦s. Land value has been cut 50% since 10 years ago and people seeking profit in an untapped market only gained tremendous losses. Another factor for the current status of the colonies is its vast distance from the home government and even longer to the mother land; England. The colony was in a dead end and the only way to run around was either annexation or confederation. Annexation seemed to be the logical choice at the time because of the fact that British Columbia was so close to the United States, from whom they did most of their trade with, there was one problem with this. Free trade hasn¡¦t been established between the United States and the colony. In fact everything that we can produce is taxed so large that with the exception of a very few insignificant articles, we have not the remotest hope of ever supplying our American neighbors. With that, the colonists felt that unless confederation could bring free trade within all of North America, Annexation is...
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For an amazing experience, and a inspiring venture, the Speed Art Museum is the place for you. The Speed Art Museum combines modern art styles such as cubism, and also includes classical art such as Baroque styles and Renaissance styles, the Speed Art Museum has something for about anyone. The museum displays art works by Monet, Picasso& Degas. The museum has a wide selection of art. The Speed Art Museum does a very good job in how it shows off these artist work. Something very convenient were the older women who volunteer to help you explore the museum. I received a map of the areas and I wondered around for what seemed like hours. The first room that I came upon had several types of modern art in it. It contained a lot of different styles of art in it. My favorite gallery is one that had some Picasso art in it. I have always been mesmerized by this man's art. His art I've seen it books, or online has always put thoughts into my head of what was this guy thinking. After I got the chance to look at his art closer I got a feeling of what he was thinking. Standing in front of something that confuses so many, yet brings so many joy. When I entered the building I realized that the Speed Art Museum contains not only paintings but also statues, sculptures and artifacts. When I came into the Greek and Roman art gallery, it felt like I was inside a igloo. The walls were painted a gleaming white and my eyes squinched after getting out of the orange hallway I just came from. The gallery included very old sarcophaguses and other artifacts. I really enjoyed the Greek and Roman pottery the museum had on site. Just when I thought...
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Introduction After the liberalization of Indian economy in 1990's competition has increased manifold in all sectors be it automobiles, pharmaceuticals, steel, sports equipment etc. As a result of this many goods had found its way into Indian markets at a very cheap price much cheaper that those sold in Indian markets. This resulted in dumping in a huge scale. As such to protect the Indian domestic industries and preventing the retardation of the domestic industries, Anti-dumping rules were formed in 1990's. This paper had discussed the various aspects and rules followed in India in context of Anti-dumping duty. Dumping and anti dumping had been discusses. Anti dumping rules and anti dumping procedures had also been discussed. Also anti dumping cases initiated by India and against India had been discussed. Finally some of latest happenings in 2002-03 in context of anti dumping duty had also been touched upon. Dumping Many times the countries sell goods abroad at a price below that charged in the domestic market. The product is exported at a price that is less that the cost involved in producing the product. This practice in international trade is known as dumping. In terms of law "an article is considered as being dumped if it is exported from a country at a price less than its normal value". Purpose of dumping Since the product is exported at a lower price this creates a demand for the product in the importing country due to its cheapness. This creates a good market for the product in the importing country more than that of the local product. Thus dumping is often employed by the country to create a greater market share for the product and ultimately gain a future monopoly for the product. Anti-Dumping duty When an article is exported from any country at a price less than its normal price or when...
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Maggie Mercado English 1301 Professor Shade Anti- Marijuana Cheech and Chong had it all figured out; when all goes wrong hit the bong. What would it be like if weed was legal? Hippies would think they finally found their utopian paradise; a relaxed, mellow atmosphere with the scent of ganja in the air. Now back to reality. The legalization of marijuana brings up two main issues, those who are pro- marijuana and those who are anti- marijuana. Often times many people are deprived of the truth, and may be led to believe facts that are not true. Although there is a lack of exposure of the facts my speculation is anti-marijuana. Marijuana as a medicinal drug: There aren't many convincing reasons why marijuana should be used in the treatment of sick patients. There are many long term side effects from the drug. Such as prolonging puberty in both male and females and unhealthy and underweight children in smoking mothers The Anti- Legalization forum says that marijuana causes impairment of the immune system due to the inability of T-cells to battle off diseases.. The Drug Enforcement Administration gives credence to the fact that marijuana is not accepted by any American Health associations, so there is no reason to legalize the drug. There are rumors that marijuana suppresses the immune system. That rumor was dismissed because the myth was based on a study that gave the animals a near lethal dose of cannabinoids; these results have never been tested on humans. Simply put there is not enough evidence supporting the medicinal use of marijuana. Marijuana and Crime: Marijuana's influence on crime is another issue considered by the masses. Does marijuana influence crime? Yes, I believe drug- use contributes to crime and violence. A study done on males (18- 49) showed that those who were under the influence of...
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Apartheid in South Africa and U.S. Involvement African Politics Pols 4401-01 April 16th, 2002 From 1948 until 1991, South Africa was a nation separated by forced isolation. The word separateness in Afrikaans, the language of the descendants of Boer Trekkers, is "apartheid". For Afrikaners, the word would also come to mean white-minority rule in a society where everyone was separated by race according to law. Individual mentality, such as wanting to separate people so that you stay pure, should not violate the rights and freedom of anyone else. Justly, if an individual consciously chooses not to be around certain people, it should not restrict other people from living and mingling with whom they please. Passed from generation to generation was the unjust Boer mentality that, their way of thinking should be away of life for those they conquered. Harsh treatment and discrimination on behalf of British rule was a major catalyst for "The Great Trek". The cape farmers, known as Boers, were in opposition to the British ending slavery. Boers were economically and politically disadvantaged, for example, they were excluded from land ownership. Instead of them striving for a better life of self improvement through social equality, they sought to better themselves by being the ones doing the discriminating. The quest this group of people went on was for the purpose of manipulating the indigenous populations in order to gain political and economical advantages and power. And the Trekkers did accomplish these things through forcing their policy of apartheid upon the Africans, Indians, and Coloreds. Though 1948-1991 marks the legal period of Apartheid as a system of government in South Africa which, "required segregation in housing, education, employment, public accommodations , and transportation."(cd-rom) These type of living conditions were already a part of the social structure the Afrikaners were shaping. For instance, "Control was established over...
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Is more of the same too much? Even when what you started with was pure treasure? That's the question that greets viewers of the restored, re-edited version of Francis Ford Coppola's Vietnam War fantasia, APOCALYPSE NOW, a film that codified genius in its first release and is here presented under a different title, with almost an hour of scenes cut from its original release. The critical consensus is that the re-edited version embarrasses current Hollywood product by emerging as the best film of the year. That happens to be more or less true, but that, alas, is more a commentary on the bankruptcy of so much of today's filmmaking than it is on the the quality of the restored material. For while APOCALYPSE NOW REDUX contains much that is brilliant, it is almost entirely material that appeared in the previous release; the additions, while interesting on a historical level, dilute rather than enhance the impact of what appears on screen. It is all too often easy to see why these scenes were cut during the first release. They were either redundant or just didn't work. Both versions of the film are loosely based on Joseph Conrad's novella "Heart of Darkness," transferred from Africa to Vietnam. In both, a troubled, burnout military assassin named Captain Willard (Martin Sheen) is assigned by a group of officers that include a young Harrison Ford to seek out and "terminate, with extreme prejudice" the rogue Colonel Kurtz (Marlon Brando), who is now somewhere in Cambodian jungle, operating a private war with natives and AWOL soldiers who "worship him like a God." In both, Willard undertakes this journey up the river in a small patrol boat with several navy men who know nothing of his mission except that "it's gonna be hot"; in both, he experiences so...
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