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Politics
One of the most controversial political issues of today is that of illegal immigrants from Mexico. Illegal immigration into the United States is a problem that should be stopped, as it is unfair to both Americans and to the people of the country from which they illegally immigrated. It is thought that the majority of illegal aliens residing in the U.S. are Mexicans (Anderson 55). Roy Beck clarifies the situation by stating, "The national consensus is that the United States should be a post-mass immigration country has included most leaders of business, religion, labor, academia, and social work." Illegal immigration from Mexico must be stopped by means of different policies and other methods of prevention, because the effects on both Mexico and the United States are predominately unfavorable. There are multiple policies and means of preventing illegal immigrants from entering the United States. Immigration laws are the catalysts of illegal immigration prevention. Proposition 187 is a tough immigration law clamping down on illegal aliens, used in California, the state with the most illegal immigrants. It doubled the number of boarder guards, made it harder for legal immigrants to bring their families over, not permitting as much political asylum and was harder on illegal aliens already here (DiConsiglio 3). NAFTA, officially, hasn't reduced as much illegal immigration as had been hoped, but, it helped Mexico recover faster from it's economic crisis in '94-'95, which has stopped a larger flood of people, since most immigrants tend to come to the U.S. in times of Mexican economic depression ("Mexico" 2). The major reason Mexicans tend to illegally immigrate is to find jobs. Therefore, elimination of the chance of them getting a job would be a deterrent. A bill shown to the House, by California would let the employer enter a job applicant's social security...
pages: 4 (words: 1094)
comments: 0
added: 09/21/2011
Illegal Immigration One of the most controversial political issues of today is that of illegal immigrants from Mexico. Illegal immigration into the United States is a problem that should be stopped, as it is unfair to both Americans and to the people of the country from which they illegally immigrated. It is thought that the majority of illegal aliens residing in the U.S. are Mexicans (Anderson 55). Roy Beck clarifies the situation by stating, "The national consensus is that the United States should be a post-mass immigration country has included most leaders of business, religion, labor, academia, and social work." Illegal immigration from Mexico must be stopped by means of different policies and other methods of prevention, because the effects on both Mexico and the United States are predominately unfavorable. There are multiple policies and means of preventing illegal immigrants from entering the United States. Immigration laws are the catalysts of illegal immigration prevention. Proposition 187 is a tough immigration law clamping down on illegal aliens, used in California, the state with the most illegal immigrants. It doubled the number of boarder guards, made it harder for legal immigrants to bring their families over, not permitting as much political asylum and was harder on illegal aliens already here (DiConsiglio 3). NAFTA, officially, hasn't reduced as much illegal immigration as had been hoped, but, it helped Mexico recover faster from it's economic crisis in '94-'95, which has stopped a larger flood of people, since most immigrants tend to come to the U.S. in times of Mexican economic depression ("Mexico" 2). The major reason Mexicans tend to illegally immigrate is to find jobs. Therefore, elimination of the chance of them getting a job would be a deterrent. A bill shown to the House, by California would let the employer enter a job applicant's social...
pages: 4 (words: 1096)
comments: 0
added: 10/12/2011
In today's society, there are many different terms and definitions used to describe multiculturalism. For example, "melting pot", "mosaic", and "assimilation" are the most commonly used terms today to describe multiculturalism. However, with societies different definitions of multiculturalism there will always be stereotyping, bias opinions, racism as well as problems associated with cultural references. Nevertheless, by raising awareness of the multicultural policy in future generations one could only hope to eliminate such behaviours. One of the ways multiculturalism had been defined is by the term "melting pot". Melting pot is when a culture, say for example Japanese, moves to the United States of America, the Japanese would then take on an American culture, which then becomes the majority culture. Gloria Yamato sates that we must reclaim whatever parts of our ethnic heritage that we have lost. She feels that this so called "melting pot" has succeeded into turning us into "fast gobbling generics". In the story, "For Mataji" by Amita Handa the author says that girls couldn't go to school because they weren't looked at in the same way that the boys were (280, Amita Handa). Not allowing girls to go to school is prejudice, because of the fact that they're equal, and are not different. However, in the Proclamation of the Canadian Constitution, Pierre Elliot Trudeau stated "I speak of a country where every person is free to fulfill himself or herself to the utmost, unhindered by the arbitrary actions of governments" (430, Pierre Elliot Trudeau). This means that he believes everyone is enjoy themselves to the fullest and not to hold back anything about themselves. The second way multiculturalism had been defined is by the term "mosaic". Mosaic is when there are many cultures in one place but all of the different cultures can practice their own beliefs without being...
pages: 3 (words: 774)
comments: 0
added: 10/07/2011
Immigration should be restricted in the United States in almost every form. The government is in enough chaos trying to handle merely the Americans there are now, without having to deal with the influx of thousands of aliens each year. Along with the myriad of immigrants to the U.S. comes an equal number of problems. The U.S. has some of the most lenient laws governing immigration in the world, and as a result our government supports thousands more than it should have to. People cross our borders to leech off welfare and unemployment checks that actual citizens need to function in society. Schools are forced to teach lessons multi-lingual to accommodate those children who aren't even supposed to be here. Just imagine having to take twice as long to teach something because it must be repeated in many languages... we'd all be learning how to add in fourth grade. The sign in New York reads "give us your poor, your tired, your huddled masses," but why would we want them? It is not our burden to baby-sit the world. There's no reason that we should have to clothe, feed, and shelter every-one that feels oppressed in his or her country, because if we do, we'll end up as crowded as China. Our ancestors had to work to make this country what it is today by offering their sweat and blood to the causes. We are great now because they died and suffered; the foreigners want to come in to reap the benefits without having to pay the price. By allowing people into our country we decrease the quality of life for all of those who offered their lives and their sons' lives for freedom, and in a law-abiding country that is simply not principled or just....
pages: 2 (words: 296)
comments: 0
added: 12/18/2011
THE METROPOLITAN UNIVERSITY OF PRAGUE IRES POLITICAL SCIENCE: THEORIES AND CONCEPTS Mr. Charles Robinson Ph.D ESSAY By: HIKMAT FAYZIEV - (MUP)(was born in 03.03.1984, Tashkent, Uzbekistan, adress: Husinicka 22, Prague, Czech Republic, Europe) The topic: What is new institutionalism? Prague 2008 By: Khikmat Fayziev From: Charles Robinson ESSAY «What is new institutionalism?" Introduction: Nearly three decades ago, the first neo-institutional arguments were formulated by John Meyer and colleagues such as Brian Rowan in 1977 and Richard Scott in 1983, and by Lynne Zucker in 1977. This new orientation proposed that formal organizational structure reflected not only technical demands and resource dependencies, but was also shaped by institutional forces, including rational myths, knowledge legitimated through the educational system and by the professions, public opinion, and the law. The core idea that organizations are deeply embedded in social and political environments suggested that organizational practices and structures are often either reflections of or responses to rules, beliefs, and conventions built into the wider environment. This early work set in motion a line of research that continues to be active and vital, attracting a growing number of organizational researchers worldwide. The initial arguments emphasized the salience of symbolic systems, cultural scripts, and mental models in shaping institutional effects, but were somewhat vague with respect to the mechanisms by which culture and history cemented the social order and constrained organizational choices. Early accounts identified institutional effects as concerned principally with social stability, drawing attention to reproductive processes that function as stable patterns for sequences of activities that were routinely enacted. Institutionalization was defined in terms of the processes by which such patterns achieve normative and cognitive fixity, and become taken for granted. Subsequent contributions addressed the mechanisms that buttressed institutionalization. DiMaggio and Powell in 1983 highlighted coercive, normative, and mimetic processes of reproduction. Coercive...
pages: 6 (words: 1610)
comments: 0
added: 02/14/2012
THE METROPOLITAN UNIVERSITY OF PRAGUE IRES POLITICAL SCIENCE: THEOTIES AND CONCEPTS Mr. Charles Robinson Ph.D ESSAY By: HIKMAT FAYZIEV (MUP)(was born in 03.03.1984, Tashkent, Uzbekistan, adress: Husinicka 22, Prague, Czech Republic, Europe) The topic: What is new institutionalism? Prague 2008 By: Khikmat Fayziev From: Charles Robinson ESSAY «What is new institutionalism?" Introduction: Nearly three decades ago, the first neo-institutional arguments were formulated by John Meyer and colleagues such as Brian Rowan in 1977 and Richard Scott in 1983, and by Lynne Zucker in 1977. This new orientation proposed that formal organizational structure reflected not only technical demands and resource dependencies, but was also shaped by institutional forces, including rational myths, knowledge legitimated through the educational system and by the professions, public opinion, and the law. The core idea that organizations are deeply embedded in social and political environments suggested that organizational practices and structures are often either reflections of or responses to rules, beliefs, and conventions built into the wider environment. This early work set in motion a line of research that continues to be active and vital, attracting a growing number of organizational researchers worldwide. The initial arguments emphasized the salience of symbolic systems, cultural scripts, and mental models in shaping institutional effects, but were somewhat vague with respect to the mechanisms by which culture and history cemented the social order and constrained organizational choices. Early accounts identified institutional effects as concerned principally with social stability, drawing attention to reproductive processes that function as stable patterns for sequences of activities that were routinely enacted. Institutionalization was defined in terms of the processes by which such patterns achieve normative and cognitive fixity, and become taken for granted. Subsequent contributions addressed the mechanisms that buttressed institutionalization. DiMaggio and Powell in 1983 highlighted coercive, normative, and mimetic processes of reproduction. Coercive factors...
pages: 6 (words: 1609)
comments: 0
added: 01/19/2012
by Wilson Salman The Soviet Union was a global superpower, possessing the largest armed forces on the planet with military bases from Angola in Africa, to Vietnam in South-East Asia, to Cuba in the Americas. When Mikhail Gorbachev succeeded Konstantin Chernenko as General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in March 1985, nobody expected than in less than seven years the USSR would disintergrate into fifteen separate states. Gorbachev's attempt at democratising the totalitarian Soviet system backfired on him as the Soviet republics began to revolt against Moscow's control. This was not a case of economic and political crisis producing liberalisation and democratisation. Rather, it was liberalisation and democratisation that brought the regime to crisis point. After coming to power, Gorbachev implemented a domestic economic reforms that he hoped would improve living standards and worker productivity as part of his perestroika (reconstruction) program. The Law on Cooperatives, enacted in May 1987, was perhaps the most radical of the economic reforms during the early part of the Gorbachev era. For the first time since Vladimir Lenin's New Economic Policy, the law permitted private ownership of businesses in the services, manufacturing, and foreign-trade sectors. The law initially imposed high taxes and employment restrictions, but it later revised these to avoid discouraging private-sector activity. Under this provision, cooperative restaurants, shops, and manufacturers became part of the Soviet scene. Gorbachev's introduction of glasnost (openness) gave new freedoms to the people, such as a greater freedom of speech; a radical change as control of speech and suppression of government criticism had previously been a central part of the Soviet system. The press became far less controlled and thousands of political prisoners and many dissidents were released in the spirit of glasnost. In January 1987, Gorbachev called for demokratizatsiya...
pages: 4 (words: 1008)
comments: 0
added: 01/26/2012
Southeast Asia is the location of a small country called the Philippines. Formally, Republic of the Philippines, the archipelago consists of roughly 7,100 islands that are located in the southwest Pacific Ocean just Southeast of China. Natives of the country are called Filipinos. The term formerly originated when lowland Christian Spaniards, called indios, began referring to themselves as "Filipinos" (Dolan 76). The ethnic background of a modern day Filipino is as complex as a typical American's; it is a combination of numerous cultures. So the term "Filipino" means little more than does the term "American" (Bullen 36). The first known settlers on the islands were the Negritos, the aboriginal Filipinos, who arrived about 30,000 years ago (Guillermo 2). Since then, many different types of people have continuously inhabited the islands such as Chinese, Malaysian, Indonesian, Japanese, Spanish, as well as American for over 25,000 years (Levinson 153). Therefore, through centuries of interracial mating, the modern Filipino has become a unique blend of various cultures, resulting in a diverse population. The Land: Pre-History of the Philippine Archipelago Around 65 million years ago, scientists believe that the Philippines and the island of Borneo were one landmass that was thrown up by volcanic eruptions in the ocean bed (Bullen 36). The eruptions were one of many processes of Plate Tectonics, which refers to changes in the configuration of Earth's crust as a result of internal forces (Christopherson 323). In time, the islands detached from each other, becoming unoccupied territory for inviting settlers. However, during that time, the human species was still in the process of evolution, so the land was settled by tenants other than human. According to Jared Diamond, the origin of human history began in central Africa about 7 million years ago. Humans were confined in the continent for the next...
pages: 8 (words: 2182)
comments: 0
added: 01/20/2012
Aristotle and Rousseau formulate their accounts of human nature in Book I and the Origins of Inequality respectively. Each account analyzes the development of human nature through quite different teleological methods. These philosophers approach various topics quite differently due to their opposing viewpoints on what state humans are most happy with. Despite their different approaches both Aristotle and Rousseau arrive at equally convincing conclusions. The two distinguish humans from animals as well as describe humans as social beings to a certain extent. Human nature is very different for Aristotle and Rousseau. Both have opposing views in their examinations of what state is most natural for mankind. In book I Aristotle describes that, "The city-state is also prior in nature to the household and to each of us individually, since a whole is necessarily prior to its parts" (1253a15). Aristotle views this city-state as the most evolved and best state for humans. The analogy of the acorn and the oak tree is commonly used in this situation. Neither an acorn nor a sapling is the final product in the growth of an oak tree. Understanding human nature, for Aristotle, is study of the pinnacle of human achievement. To Aristotle the polis is this pinnacle because we strive for something beyond family structure. In other words, Aristotle believes that what is naturally is not chronologically first. Rousseau's teleological analysis of human nature is seemingly in direct conflict with Aristotle's claim that, "Anyone who cannot form a community with others…he is either a beast or a god" (1253a25). Rousseau's account would appear beastly to Aristotle, but Rousseau describes the original state of man as, "nothing is so gentle as man in his primitive state…" (64). We create extensive political systems and feel as if we escape the harms of nature through the system....
pages: 6 (words: 1430)
comments: 0
added: 12/16/2011
The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African" written by himself, explores the life of a native-born African in pursuit of a life, liberty and freedom in the English world. For the most part the narrative's purpose was to impress a formidable audience: influential British officials. In chapter twelve of the narrative, he put forth two impressive arguments: the first economic rationale and the second moral duty. Equiano's paramount argument petitioned Christians by calling on the scriptures as evidence in the immediate necessity to abolish slavery and simultaneously called in question the ideology set forth in republicanism and the denial thereof to victims of slavery. Olaudah Equiano's freedom ended as a young boy when his fellow countrymen kidnapped and sold him into slavery. In his report of the Middle Passage Equiano gave his first impressions of the English control - death of the body as well as the spirit. This initial voyage ended in Barbados. After a short time Equiano boards a ship headed for an English colony of Virginia, where he would spend the next seven years as a slave owned by Pascal. During these seven years, he educated himself, traveled with Pascal in the Royal Navy, and converted to Christianity. Subsequently he purchased his freedom and in 1789 and shortly after wrote his memoirs. His memoirs realized its ultimate purpose in 1797 with the abolition of the English slave trade. The memoirs reached varied audiences, initially composed of American, European, and religiously motivated abolitionists but targeted the deliberators in favor of slavery abolishment within the British government. His composition of the narrative employed a strategy of social desirability with an indication of hypocrisy that targeted the concept of humanity, the evolution of liberty and the ideals of civilization. This strategy indirectly attacked...
pages: 3 (words: 816)
comments: 0
added: 12/10/2011
"Using the case of the anti-Nike sweatshop labour campaign, discuss the basis, the process and the problems faced by new transnational social movement coalitions." In an increasingly globalized world Transnational Corporations (TNCs) have acquired unprecedented levels of power and autonym. Spurred on by neo-liberal economic ideology, deregulation of markets and increasing international flows of capital, TNCs are relocating manufacturing to countries where labour costs are cheapest as a means of maximizing profits at the expense of social welfare. Whilst globalization has enabled TNCs to operate more freely in the international arena, it has also facilitated social interaction and social organization amongst actors by creating new channels of political participation and new identity discourses. Greater global interdependence and advancing communication and transportation technology has augmented relations between people across vast geographical divides leading to a growing awareness regarding the unequal relationship between the workers who produce goods and those that consume them. Resultant concerns amongst participants in international civil society about the lack of effective regulations controlling the activities of TNCs and the associated negative societal and environmental ramifications are finding expression in forms of globalized resistance against the hegemonic forces of neo-liberal capitalism. Consequently, increasing numbers of cross-boarder coalitions consisting of workers, activists and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are stepping into the void left by the retrenchment of nation-stare power. The international campaign mounted against Nike Inc., the worlds leading athletic shoe and sports-apparel company, to protest its involvement in sweatshop labour practices provides a useful example of the foundations, processes and difficulties that transnational social movement coalitions face when advocating for workers rights and greater corporate social responsibility. By using the case of anti-Nike campaign and applying theories relating to new transnational social movement coalitions (TSMC) this essay will attempt to provide an analysis of the organizational forms and manifold...
pages: 18 (words: 4768)
comments: 0
added: 12/26/2011
Methods for Equality Do we live in a black and white world, or does a grey area exist in between? On the issue of civil rights equality, and particularly African-American's rights, it seems very clear cut that it is a black and white world. In the 1960's the African-American's began to stand up for their rights under rallying leaders. Although Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X were both prominent African-American activists, they used different methods to achieve their goals. Martin Luther King fought for African American rights by using peaceful marches, and his powerful persuasive speeches. King fought not just for African American rights, but rather for many races that were discriminated against in the 1950's ("African Americans, it's not just Black and White") Dr. King was able to rally black and white supporters by using his influential voice. "Injustice anywhere," said King, "is a threat to justice everywhere" (McClenaghan 2). King used his powerful way with words, and marches as methods of demonstrating equal rights. In 1965, Dr. King headed a march for African American voting rights in Alabama. This march was met Symons 2 with equal force by the police and white supremacists. Verbal insults and violence were common adversaries for King in his marches, yet he remained peaceful (McClenaghan 139). King rallied 1500 activists, of all ethnicities, and then marched outside Selma, Alabama until met by state troopers. Dr. King however did not try to break their barricade, but rather knelt in prayer. They soon turned back, and marched home ("King, Martin Luther, Jr.). In 1963, King made a famous march with thousands of supporters on Washington D.C. At the capitol, King made his famous "I have a dream" speech (McClenaghan 553). "I have a dream," King proclaimed, "that my four little children will one day live in a nation...
pages: 3 (words: 784)
comments: 0
added: 10/27/2011
The book itself is an interesting twist on the premise of worldview importance. A meeting between John F. Kennedy, C.S. Lewis, and Aldous Huxley apparently takes place within minutes of their deaths. Each man did die on the same day of November 22, 1963. Their deaths were within three hours of each other. How utterly impossible this turn of events seems to be. J.F.K. is cast as a modernistic, or humanistic, Christian. His worldview is systematically brought out by both C.S.Lewis and Aldous Huxley in so much as he was, or had become, the product of a generation of people who had been faced with perceived conflicts in theoretical or religious beliefs. The "modern" or "human" thing to do was to file these emotions or thoughts into categories of potentials or possibilities versus beliefs or values. The comments that Kennedy makes throughout the text tells me that he was constantly sitting on the edge of the fence in regard to many issues of a religious nature. He did not really share his own true beliefs, he merely suggested that his opinions were worthwhile and valid to him and the population that he represented. He never came out and said, "This is what I believe, or feel". It was always implied. I thought Mr. Kennedy's portrayal may have been stretched a little too far to the right however. He and Mr. Huxley were obviously set-up in this conversation by the author to allow his interpretation of Mr. Lewis' worldview to be considered the correct one. If the authors' poetic license was supposed to totally clarify the characters position or stand on the issues as he presented them, then I missed it. C.S. Lewis was definitely the object of the message to the reader and his views and stands were apparent on every...
pages: 3 (words: 567)
comments: 0
added: 10/27/2011
Chapter 1 Introduction It is sometime in May 2001… Joseph Estrada has just been replaced as the President of the Philippines… In a police precinct somewhere in Metro Manila, a number of Estrada loyalists-mostly young men-are being charged for having committed various acts of vandalism during the riots that accompanied Estrada's downfall. Suddenly, one of them darts out of the precinct and makes a dash for freedom across an empty field. He is pulled up short by the warning shot fired into the air by a pursuing policeman. On being marched back into the office, the young man is asked by a TV journalist why he tried to escape. He replies in Tagalog: "I wasn't trying to run away. I was only going to buy a cellphone!" General Aim This project examines the use of mobile phones in the Philippines. Cellphones enable their users to maintain and reproduce existing social relationships in expanded spatio-temporal contexts. They are also able to constitute new relationships involving virtual selves in a cyber and global world. Seldom has a technology so affected the identities and social relationships of its users. Studies (Pool, 1977; Aronson, 1971) have shown that the introduction of telephones had similar consequences on discursive practices as well as on the notion of the self. Mobile phones intrude into and expand their users' private worlds. How this private world is related to the broader public world has never been sufficiently analyzed in the Philippine context. However, research in the West has shown that cellphones radically affect and even alter the relationships between private and public (Persson, 2001; Plant, 2002). Since much of modern life depends on the clear separation of the private from the public, their possible conflation or transgression can lead to radical change. This radical potential is increased when it is combined with existing computer-mediated...
pages: 33 (words: 8812)
comments: 0
added: 11/25/2011
Al gore is the democratic nomination for the president of USA in this November's election. He is currently the VP under president Clinton Al gore was born on March 31 1948. He grew up on a farm in Carthage Tennessee. In 1965, Al meets his future bride Tipper at a high school dance when he was 17. In the late months of 1969 Al joins the army and reports to Fort Rucker, Alabama for assignment as information officer for the U.S. Army Aviation School. On May 19th 1970 Al marries Mary Elizabeth "Tipper" Aitcheson. They have four children: Karenna (born August 6, 1973), Kristin (born June 5, 1977), Sarah (born January 7, 1979), and finally a boy, Albert III (very original name) (born October 19, 1982). Tipper and Al own a small farm near Carthage, and the family attends New Salem Missionary Baptist Church in Carthage. In January of 1971, Al goes to Vietnam as a military journalist. Gore is assigned to the 20th Engineer Brigade located at Bien Hoa, northeast of Saigon. After the base was closed in April 1971, he was reassigned to the engineer command, in Long Binh, a large army base near Saigon. During May of 1971 Al returns home from Vietnam after being honorably discharged from the Army. He and Tipper settled in Nashville where he began working as a reporter for the Nashville Tennessean newspaper and attends the Vanderbilt University Graduate School of Religion. He later attends Vanderbilt University law school. In 1976 Al begins his political career. He announced his candidacy for Tennessee's Fourth Congressional district. Al wins a competitive primary campaign with 32 percent of the vote. During his candidacy his popularity grew and during the 1976 he won the general election race with more than 90% of the vote. Gore has...
pages: 3 (words: 613)
comments: 0
added: 01/01/2012
During Andrew Jackson’s presidency (1829-1837), Jackson put in his own ideas that were drastically diverse. These ideas were called Jacksonian Democracy. Jackson dealt with the nullification in Southern states because of tariffs, removal of Native Americans, dealing with Federalist vs. State regarding removal, spoil system, and attacking the National Bank. Some of these events had a positive outcome and some outcomes were not as good. To protect America from British manufacturers trying to destroy American competitors, Congress passed tariffs to protect American industry. These were increased in 1824 and 1828. The high tariff of manufactured goods reduced British exports to the U.S., and because of this Britain bought less cotton. With this decline of British goods, the south was forced to buy more expensive northern manufactured goods. The south felt that the north was getting richer at their expense. Calhoun, the vice-president and native of South Carolina created a nullification theory. This theory questioned the legality of applying some federal laws in sovereign states. If the constitution had been established by thirteen sovereign states, he reasoned, and then they must be sovereign, and each has the right to determine whether an act of congress was constitutional. If not, the states had the right to declare that law abolished. If not, the majority in the Federal government would crush the rights of the minority. In 1832, the issue of states rights was tested when a tariff law was passed that South Carolina legislators saw as unacceptable, they declared the tariffs nullified and they threatened to secede from the Union if anyone came to collect taxes. Jackson became furious when hearing these threats. He felt that the actions in declaring a federal law void, ignored the will of the people as written in the Constitution. He declared these actions as treasonous and...
pages: 5 (words: 1196)
comments: 0
added: 11/28/2011
During Andrew Jackson's presidency (1829-1837), Jackson put in his own ideas that were significantly different being called Jacksonian Democracy. He dealt with the nullification in Southern states because of tariffs, removal of Native Americans, dealing with Federalist vs. State regarding removal, spoil system, and attacking the National Bank. Some of these events had a positive outcome and some outcomes were brutal. To protect America from British manufacturers trying to destroy American competitors, Congress passed tariffs to protect American industry. These were increased in 1824 and 1828. The high tariff of manufactured goods reduced British exports to the U.S., and because of this Britain bought less cotton. With this decline of British goods, the south was forced to buy more expensive northern manufactured goods. The south felt that the north was getting richer at their expense. Calhoun, the vice-president and native of South Carolina created a nullification theory. This theory questioned the legality of applying some federal laws in sovereign states. If the constitution had been established by thirteen sovereign states, he reasoned, and then they must be sovereign, and each has the right to determine whether an act of congress was constitutional. If not, the states had the right to declare that law abolished. If not, the majority in the Federal government would crush the rights of the minority. In 1832, the issue of states' rights was tested when a tariff law was passed that South Carolina legislators saw as unacceptable, they declared the tariffs nullified and they threatened to secede from the Union if anyone came to collect taxes. Jackson became furious when hearing these threats. He felt that the actions in declaring a federal law void, ignored the will of the people as written in the Constitution. He declared these actions as treasonous and threatened to hang Calhoun...
pages: 5 (words: 1192)
comments: 0
added: 09/07/2011
More nearly than any of his predecessors, Andrew Jackson was elected by popular vote; as President he sought to act as the direct representative of the common man. Born in a backwoods settlement in the Carolinas in 1767, he received sporadic education. But in his late teens he read law for about two years, and he became an outstanding young lawyer in Tennessee. Fiercely jealous of his honor, he engaged in brawls, and in a duel killed a man who cast an unjustified slur on his wife Rachel. Jackson prospered sufficiently to buy slaves and to build a mansion, the Hermitage, near Nashville. He was the first man elected from Tennessee to the House of Representatives, and he served briefly in the Senate. A major general in the War of 1812, Jackson became a national hero when he defeated the British at New Orleans. In 1824 some state political factions rallied around Jackson; by 1828 enough had joined "Old Hickory" to win numerous state elections and control of the Federal administration in Washington. In his first Annual Message to Congress, Jackson recommended eliminating the Electoral College. He also tried to democratize Federal officeholding. Already state machines were being built on patronage, and a New York Senator openly proclaimed "that to the victors belong the spoils. . . . " Jackson took a milder view. Decrying officeholders who seemed to enjoy life tenure, he believed Government duties could be "so plain and simple" that offices should rotate among deserving applicants. As national politics polarized around Jackson and his opposition, two parties grew out of the old Republican Party--the Democratic Republicans, or Democrats, adhering to Jackson; and the National Republicans, or Whigs, opposing him. Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and other Whig leaders proclaimed themselves defenders of popular liberties against the usurpation of...
pages: 3 (words: 586)
comments: 0
added: 10/29/2011
Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin was born in Boston, Massachusetts on January 17, 1706. He was one of the seventeen children of Josiah Franklin, a soap maker. Josiah's second wife, Abiah Folger mothered young Benjamin. As a child, Benjamin loved to read and at twelve years of age was apprenticed to his older brother, James, who was a printmaker. The family decided this would be best for young Benjamin after his father could only afford one year of studies in clergy for his son. James soon after started The New England Courant, the first newspaper in Boston to include opinionated articles written by James's friends. At only fifteen, Benjamin wanted to be included in these chronicles. He created a fictional character known as "Silence Dogood" and wrote daily letters in regard to advice and criticisms toward the town. His creation was greatly admired by readers and soon young Benjamin confessed. His brother loathed and ignored him while his friends supported him; manifesting a great jealousy between the two brothers. Soon after, smallpox hit Boston and caused a great deal of religious debate with vaccination. Though the majority of the people believed that these vaccinations only worsened the conditions. However, they did not believe that James's mockery of the clergy was just. He was thrown in prison for his prints and the company was left to Benjamin. However, upon his release, he was not grateful to his brother and took over. Young Franklin knew that this was not the lifestyle he wanted and reacted to this by running away. He arrived in Philadelphia and used the last of his money to buy some rolls. He was wet and messy when his future wife, Deborah Read, met him on October, 6, 1723. She never imagined marrying him until 7 years later. Eventually, Franklin...
pages: 4 (words: 919)
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added: 01/29/2012
Karl Heinrich Marx was born on May 5, 1818, in the city of Trier in Prussia, now, Germany. He was one of seven children of Jewish Parents. His father was fairly liberal, taking part in demonstrations for a constitution for Prussia and reading such authors as Voltaire and Kant, known for their social commentary. His mother, Henrietta, was originally from Holland and never became a German at heart, not even learning to speak the language properly. Shortly before Karl Marx was born, his father converted the family to the Evangelical Established Church, Karl being baptized at the age of six. Marx attended high school in his home town (1830-1835) where several teachers and pupils were under suspicion of harboring liberal ideals. Marx himself seemed to be a devoted Christian with a "longing for self-sacrifice on behalf of humanity." In October of 1835, he started attendance at the University of Bonn, enrolling in non-socialistic-related classes like Greek and Roman mythology and the history of art. During this time, he spent a day in jail for being "drunk and disorderly-the only imprisonment he suffered" in the course of his life. The student culture at Bonn included, as a major part, being politically rebellious and Marx was involved, presiding over the Tavern Club and joining a club for poets that included some politically active students. However, he left Bonn after a year and enrolled at the University of Berlin to study law and philosophy. Marx's experience in Berlin was crucial to his introduction to Hegel's philosophy and to his "adherence to the Young Hegelians." Hegel's philosophy was crucial to the development of his own ideas and theories. Upon his first introduction to Hegel's beliefs, Marx felt a repugnance and wrote his father that when he felt sick, it was partially "from intense vexation...
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