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Political Science
THE METROPOLITAN UNIVERSITY OF PRAGUE IRES POLITICAL SCIENCE: THEORIES AND CONCEPTS Mr. Charles Robinson Ph.D ESSAY By: HIKMAT FAYZIEV - (MUP)(was born in 03.03.1984, Tashkent, Uzbekistan, adress: Husinicka 22, Prague, Czech Republic, Europe) The topic: What is new institutionalism? Prague 2008 By: Khikmat Fayziev From: Charles Robinson ESSAY «What is new institutionalism?" Introduction: Nearly three decades ago, the first neo-institutional arguments were formulated by John Meyer and colleagues such as Brian Rowan in 1977 and Richard Scott in 1983, and by Lynne Zucker in 1977. This new orientation proposed that formal organizational structure reflected not only technical demands and resource dependencies, but was also shaped by institutional forces, including rational myths, knowledge legitimated through the educational system and by the professions, public opinion, and the law. The core idea that organizations are deeply embedded in social and political environments suggested that organizational practices and structures are often either reflections of or responses to rules, beliefs, and conventions built into the wider environment. This early work set in motion a line of research that continues to be active and vital, attracting a growing number of organizational researchers worldwide. The initial arguments emphasized the salience of symbolic systems, cultural scripts, and mental models in shaping institutional effects, but were somewhat vague with respect to the mechanisms by which culture and history cemented the social order and constrained organizational choices. Early accounts identified institutional effects as concerned principally with social stability, drawing attention to reproductive processes that function as stable patterns for sequences of activities that were routinely enacted. Institutionalization was defined in terms of the processes by which such patterns achieve normative and cognitive fixity, and become taken for granted. Subsequent contributions addressed the mechanisms that buttressed institutionalization. DiMaggio and Powell in 1983 highlighted coercive, normative, and mimetic processes of reproduction. Coercive...
pages: 6 (words: 1610)
comments: 0
added: 02/14/2012
THE METROPOLITAN UNIVERSITY OF PRAGUE IRES POLITICAL SCIENCE: THEOTIES AND CONCEPTS Mr. Charles Robinson Ph.D ESSAY By: HIKMAT FAYZIEV (MUP)(was born in 03.03.1984, Tashkent, Uzbekistan, adress: Husinicka 22, Prague, Czech Republic, Europe) The topic: What is new institutionalism? Prague 2008 By: Khikmat Fayziev From: Charles Robinson ESSAY «What is new institutionalism?" Introduction: Nearly three decades ago, the first neo-institutional arguments were formulated by John Meyer and colleagues such as Brian Rowan in 1977 and Richard Scott in 1983, and by Lynne Zucker in 1977. This new orientation proposed that formal organizational structure reflected not only technical demands and resource dependencies, but was also shaped by institutional forces, including rational myths, knowledge legitimated through the educational system and by the professions, public opinion, and the law. The core idea that organizations are deeply embedded in social and political environments suggested that organizational practices and structures are often either reflections of or responses to rules, beliefs, and conventions built into the wider environment. This early work set in motion a line of research that continues to be active and vital, attracting a growing number of organizational researchers worldwide. The initial arguments emphasized the salience of symbolic systems, cultural scripts, and mental models in shaping institutional effects, but were somewhat vague with respect to the mechanisms by which culture and history cemented the social order and constrained organizational choices. Early accounts identified institutional effects as concerned principally with social stability, drawing attention to reproductive processes that function as stable patterns for sequences of activities that were routinely enacted. Institutionalization was defined in terms of the processes by which such patterns achieve normative and cognitive fixity, and become taken for granted. Subsequent contributions addressed the mechanisms that buttressed institutionalization. DiMaggio and Powell in 1983 highlighted coercive, normative, and mimetic processes of reproduction. Coercive factors...
pages: 6 (words: 1609)
comments: 0
added: 01/19/2012
by Wilson Salman The Soviet Union was a global superpower, possessing the largest armed forces on the planet with military bases from Angola in Africa, to Vietnam in South-East Asia, to Cuba in the Americas. When Mikhail Gorbachev succeeded Konstantin Chernenko as General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in March 1985, nobody expected than in less than seven years the USSR would disintergrate into fifteen separate states. Gorbachev's attempt at democratising the totalitarian Soviet system backfired on him as the Soviet republics began to revolt against Moscow's control. This was not a case of economic and political crisis producing liberalisation and democratisation. Rather, it was liberalisation and democratisation that brought the regime to crisis point. After coming to power, Gorbachev implemented a domestic economic reforms that he hoped would improve living standards and worker productivity as part of his perestroika (reconstruction) program. The Law on Cooperatives, enacted in May 1987, was perhaps the most radical of the economic reforms during the early part of the Gorbachev era. For the first time since Vladimir Lenin's New Economic Policy, the law permitted private ownership of businesses in the services, manufacturing, and foreign-trade sectors. The law initially imposed high taxes and employment restrictions, but it later revised these to avoid discouraging private-sector activity. Under this provision, cooperative restaurants, shops, and manufacturers became part of the Soviet scene. Gorbachev's introduction of glasnost (openness) gave new freedoms to the people, such as a greater freedom of speech; a radical change as control of speech and suppression of government criticism had previously been a central part of the Soviet system. The press became far less controlled and thousands of political prisoners and many dissidents were released in the spirit of glasnost. In January 1987, Gorbachev called for demokratizatsiya...
pages: 4 (words: 1008)
comments: 0
added: 01/26/2012
Southeast Asia is the location of a small country called the Philippines. Formally, Republic of the Philippines, the archipelago consists of roughly 7,100 islands that are located in the southwest Pacific Ocean just Southeast of China. Natives of the country are called Filipinos. The term formerly originated when lowland Christian Spaniards, called indios, began referring to themselves as "Filipinos" (Dolan 76). The ethnic background of a modern day Filipino is as complex as a typical American's; it is a combination of numerous cultures. So the term "Filipino" means little more than does the term "American" (Bullen 36). The first known settlers on the islands were the Negritos, the aboriginal Filipinos, who arrived about 30,000 years ago (Guillermo 2). Since then, many different types of people have continuously inhabited the islands such as Chinese, Malaysian, Indonesian, Japanese, Spanish, as well as American for over 25,000 years (Levinson 153). Therefore, through centuries of interracial mating, the modern Filipino has become a unique blend of various cultures, resulting in a diverse population. The Land: Pre-History of the Philippine Archipelago Around 65 million years ago, scientists believe that the Philippines and the island of Borneo were one landmass that was thrown up by volcanic eruptions in the ocean bed (Bullen 36). The eruptions were one of many processes of Plate Tectonics, which refers to changes in the configuration of Earth's crust as a result of internal forces (Christopherson 323). In time, the islands detached from each other, becoming unoccupied territory for inviting settlers. However, during that time, the human species was still in the process of evolution, so the land was settled by tenants other than human. According to Jared Diamond, the origin of human history began in central Africa about 7 million years ago. Humans were confined in the continent for the next...
pages: 8 (words: 2182)
comments: 0
added: 01/20/2012
Aristotle and Rousseau formulate their accounts of human nature in Book I and the Origins of Inequality respectively. Each account analyzes the development of human nature through quite different teleological methods. These philosophers approach various topics quite differently due to their opposing viewpoints on what state humans are most happy with. Despite their different approaches both Aristotle and Rousseau arrive at equally convincing conclusions. The two distinguish humans from animals as well as describe humans as social beings to a certain extent. Human nature is very different for Aristotle and Rousseau. Both have opposing views in their examinations of what state is most natural for mankind. In book I Aristotle describes that, "The city-state is also prior in nature to the household and to each of us individually, since a whole is necessarily prior to its parts" (1253a15). Aristotle views this city-state as the most evolved and best state for humans. The analogy of the acorn and the oak tree is commonly used in this situation. Neither an acorn nor a sapling is the final product in the growth of an oak tree. Understanding human nature, for Aristotle, is study of the pinnacle of human achievement. To Aristotle the polis is this pinnacle because we strive for something beyond family structure. In other words, Aristotle believes that what is naturally is not chronologically first. Rousseau's teleological analysis of human nature is seemingly in direct conflict with Aristotle's claim that, "Anyone who cannot form a community with others…he is either a beast or a god" (1253a25). Rousseau's account would appear beastly to Aristotle, but Rousseau describes the original state of man as, "nothing is so gentle as man in his primitive state…" (64). We create extensive political systems and feel as if we escape the harms of nature through the system....
pages: 6 (words: 1430)
comments: 0
added: 12/16/2011
The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African" written by himself, explores the life of a native-born African in pursuit of a life, liberty and freedom in the English world. For the most part the narrative's purpose was to impress a formidable audience: influential British officials. In chapter twelve of the narrative, he put forth two impressive arguments: the first economic rationale and the second moral duty. Equiano's paramount argument petitioned Christians by calling on the scriptures as evidence in the immediate necessity to abolish slavery and simultaneously called in question the ideology set forth in republicanism and the denial thereof to victims of slavery. Olaudah Equiano's freedom ended as a young boy when his fellow countrymen kidnapped and sold him into slavery. In his report of the Middle Passage Equiano gave his first impressions of the English control - death of the body as well as the spirit. This initial voyage ended in Barbados. After a short time Equiano boards a ship headed for an English colony of Virginia, where he would spend the next seven years as a slave owned by Pascal. During these seven years, he educated himself, traveled with Pascal in the Royal Navy, and converted to Christianity. Subsequently he purchased his freedom and in 1789 and shortly after wrote his memoirs. His memoirs realized its ultimate purpose in 1797 with the abolition of the English slave trade. The memoirs reached varied audiences, initially composed of American, European, and religiously motivated abolitionists but targeted the deliberators in favor of slavery abolishment within the British government. His composition of the narrative employed a strategy of social desirability with an indication of hypocrisy that targeted the concept of humanity, the evolution of liberty and the ideals of civilization. This strategy indirectly attacked...
pages: 3 (words: 816)
comments: 0
added: 12/10/2011
"Using the case of the anti-Nike sweatshop labour campaign, discuss the basis, the process and the problems faced by new transnational social movement coalitions." In an increasingly globalized world Transnational Corporations (TNCs) have acquired unprecedented levels of power and autonym. Spurred on by neo-liberal economic ideology, deregulation of markets and increasing international flows of capital, TNCs are relocating manufacturing to countries where labour costs are cheapest as a means of maximizing profits at the expense of social welfare. Whilst globalization has enabled TNCs to operate more freely in the international arena, it has also facilitated social interaction and social organization amongst actors by creating new channels of political participation and new identity discourses. Greater global interdependence and advancing communication and transportation technology has augmented relations between people across vast geographical divides leading to a growing awareness regarding the unequal relationship between the workers who produce goods and those that consume them. Resultant concerns amongst participants in international civil society about the lack of effective regulations controlling the activities of TNCs and the associated negative societal and environmental ramifications are finding expression in forms of globalized resistance against the hegemonic forces of neo-liberal capitalism. Consequently, increasing numbers of cross-boarder coalitions consisting of workers, activists and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are stepping into the void left by the retrenchment of nation-stare power. The international campaign mounted against Nike Inc., the worlds leading athletic shoe and sports-apparel company, to protest its involvement in sweatshop labour practices provides a useful example of the foundations, processes and difficulties that transnational social movement coalitions face when advocating for workers rights and greater corporate social responsibility. By using the case of anti-Nike campaign and applying theories relating to new transnational social movement coalitions (TSMC) this essay will attempt to provide an analysis of the organizational forms and manifold...
pages: 18 (words: 4768)
comments: 0
added: 12/26/2011