Methods for Equality Do we live in a black and white world, or does a grey area exist in between? On the issue of civil rights equality, and particularly African-American's rights, it seems very clear cut that it is a black and white world. In the 1960's the African-American's began to stand up for their rights under rallying leaders. Although Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X were both prominent African-American activists, they used different methods to achieve their goals. Martin Luther King fought for African American rights by using peaceful marches, and his powerful persuasive speeches. King fought not just for African American rights, but rather for many races that were discriminated against in the 1950's ("African Americans, it's not just Black and White") Dr. King was able to rally black and white supporters by using his influential voice. "Injustice anywhere," said King, "is a threat to justice everywhere" (McClenaghan 2). King used his powerful way with words, and marches as methods of demonstrating equal rights. In 1965, Dr. King headed a march for African American voting rights in Alabama. This march was met Symons 2 with equal force by the police and white supremacists. Verbal insults and violence were common adversaries for King in his marches, yet he remained peaceful (McClenaghan 139). King rallied 1500 activists, of all ethnicities, and then marched outside Selma, Alabama until met by state troopers. Dr. King however did not try to break their barricade, but rather knelt in prayer. They soon turned back, and marched home ("King, Martin Luther, Jr.). In 1963, King made a famous march with thousands of supporters on Washington D.C. At the capitol, King made his famous "I have a dream" speech (McClenaghan 553). "I have a dream," King proclaimed, "that my four little children will one day live in a nation...
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The book itself is an interesting twist on the premise of worldview importance. A meeting between John F. Kennedy, C.S. Lewis, and Aldous Huxley apparently takes place within minutes of their deaths. Each man did die on the same day of November 22, 1963. Their deaths were within three hours of each other. How utterly impossible this turn of events seems to be. J.F.K. is cast as a modernistic, or humanistic, Christian. His worldview is systematically brought out by both C.S.Lewis and Aldous Huxley in so much as he was, or had become, the product of a generation of people who had been faced with perceived conflicts in theoretical or religious beliefs. The "modern" or "human" thing to do was to file these emotions or thoughts into categories of potentials or possibilities versus beliefs or values. The comments that Kennedy makes throughout the text tells me that he was constantly sitting on the edge of the fence in regard to many issues of a religious nature. He did not really share his own true beliefs, he merely suggested that his opinions were worthwhile and valid to him and the population that he represented. He never came out and said, "This is what I believe, or feel". It was always implied. I thought Mr. Kennedy's portrayal may have been stretched a little too far to the right however. He and Mr. Huxley were obviously set-up in this conversation by the author to allow his interpretation of Mr. Lewis' worldview to be considered the correct one. If the authors' poetic license was supposed to totally clarify the characters position or stand on the issues as he presented them, then I missed it. C.S. Lewis was definitely the object of the message to the reader and his views and stands were apparent on every...
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Chapter 1 Introduction It is sometime in May 2001… Joseph Estrada has just been replaced as the President of the Philippines… In a police precinct somewhere in Metro Manila, a number of Estrada loyalists-mostly young men-are being charged for having committed various acts of vandalism during the riots that accompanied Estrada's downfall. Suddenly, one of them darts out of the precinct and makes a dash for freedom across an empty field. He is pulled up short by the warning shot fired into the air by a pursuing policeman. On being marched back into the office, the young man is asked by a TV journalist why he tried to escape. He replies in Tagalog: "I wasn't trying to run away. I was only going to buy a cellphone!" General Aim This project examines the use of mobile phones in the Philippines. Cellphones enable their users to maintain and reproduce existing social relationships in expanded spatio-temporal contexts. They are also able to constitute new relationships involving virtual selves in a cyber and global world. Seldom has a technology so affected the identities and social relationships of its users. Studies (Pool, 1977; Aronson, 1971) have shown that the introduction of telephones had similar consequences on discursive practices as well as on the notion of the self. Mobile phones intrude into and expand their users' private worlds. How this private world is related to the broader public world has never been sufficiently analyzed in the Philippine context. However, research in the West has shown that cellphones radically affect and even alter the relationships between private and public (Persson, 2001; Plant, 2002). Since much of modern life depends on the clear separation of the private from the public, their possible conflation or transgression can lead to radical change. This radical potential is increased when it is combined with existing computer-mediated...
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Al gore is the democratic nomination for the president of USA in this November's election. He is currently the VP under president Clinton Al gore was born on March 31 1948. He grew up on a farm in Carthage Tennessee. In 1965, Al meets his future bride Tipper at a high school dance when he was 17. In the late months of 1969 Al joins the army and reports to Fort Rucker, Alabama for assignment as information officer for the U.S. Army Aviation School. On May 19th 1970 Al marries Mary Elizabeth "Tipper" Aitcheson. They have four children: Karenna (born August 6, 1973), Kristin (born June 5, 1977), Sarah (born January 7, 1979), and finally a boy, Albert III (very original name) (born October 19, 1982). Tipper and Al own a small farm near Carthage, and the family attends New Salem Missionary Baptist Church in Carthage. In January of 1971, Al goes to Vietnam as a military journalist. Gore is assigned to the 20th Engineer Brigade located at Bien Hoa, northeast of Saigon. After the base was closed in April 1971, he was reassigned to the engineer command, in Long Binh, a large army base near Saigon. During May of 1971 Al returns home from Vietnam after being honorably discharged from the Army. He and Tipper settled in Nashville where he began working as a reporter for the Nashville Tennessean newspaper and attends the Vanderbilt University Graduate School of Religion. He later attends Vanderbilt University law school. In 1976 Al begins his political career. He announced his candidacy for Tennessee's Fourth Congressional district. Al wins a competitive primary campaign with 32 percent of the vote. During his candidacy his popularity grew and during the 1976 he won the general election race with more than 90% of the vote. Gore has...
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During Andrew Jacksonâ€™s presidency (1829-1837), Jackson put in his own ideas that were drastically diverse. These ideas were called Jacksonian Democracy. Jackson dealt with the nullification in Southern states because of tariffs, removal of Native Americans, dealing with Federalist vs. State regarding removal, spoil system, and attacking the National Bank. Some of these events had a positive outcome and some outcomes were not as good. To protect America from British manufacturers trying to destroy American competitors, Congress passed tariffs to protect American industry. These were increased in 1824 and 1828. The high tariff of manufactured goods reduced British exports to the U.S., and because of this Britain bought less cotton. With this decline of British goods, the south was forced to buy more expensive northern manufactured goods. The south felt that the north was getting richer at their expense. Calhoun, the vice-president and native of South Carolina created a nullification theory. This theory questioned the legality of applying some federal laws in sovereign states. If the constitution had been established by thirteen sovereign states, he reasoned, and then they must be sovereign, and each has the right to determine whether an act of congress was constitutional. If not, the states had the right to declare that law abolished. If not, the majority in the Federal government would crush the rights of the minority. In 1832, the issue of states rights was tested when a tariff law was passed that South Carolina legislators saw as unacceptable, they declared the tariffs nullified and they threatened to secede from the Union if anyone came to collect taxes. Jackson became furious when hearing these threats. He felt that the actions in declaring a federal law void, ignored the will of the people as written in the Constitution. He declared these actions as treasonous and...
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During Andrew Jackson's presidency (1829-1837), Jackson put in his own ideas that were significantly different being called Jacksonian Democracy. He dealt with the nullification in Southern states because of tariffs, removal of Native Americans, dealing with Federalist vs. State regarding removal, spoil system, and attacking the National Bank. Some of these events had a positive outcome and some outcomes were brutal. To protect America from British manufacturers trying to destroy American competitors, Congress passed tariffs to protect American industry. These were increased in 1824 and 1828. The high tariff of manufactured goods reduced British exports to the U.S., and because of this Britain bought less cotton. With this decline of British goods, the south was forced to buy more expensive northern manufactured goods. The south felt that the north was getting richer at their expense. Calhoun, the vice-president and native of South Carolina created a nullification theory. This theory questioned the legality of applying some federal laws in sovereign states. If the constitution had been established by thirteen sovereign states, he reasoned, and then they must be sovereign, and each has the right to determine whether an act of congress was constitutional. If not, the states had the right to declare that law abolished. If not, the majority in the Federal government would crush the rights of the minority. In 1832, the issue of states' rights was tested when a tariff law was passed that South Carolina legislators saw as unacceptable, they declared the tariffs nullified and they threatened to secede from the Union if anyone came to collect taxes. Jackson became furious when hearing these threats. He felt that the actions in declaring a federal law void, ignored the will of the people as written in the Constitution. He declared these actions as treasonous and threatened to hang Calhoun...
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More nearly than any of his predecessors, Andrew Jackson was elected by popular vote; as President he sought to act as the direct representative of the common man. Born in a backwoods settlement in the Carolinas in 1767, he received sporadic education. But in his late teens he read law for about two years, and he became an outstanding young lawyer in Tennessee. Fiercely jealous of his honor, he engaged in brawls, and in a duel killed a man who cast an unjustified slur on his wife Rachel. Jackson prospered sufficiently to buy slaves and to build a mansion, the Hermitage, near Nashville. He was the first man elected from Tennessee to the House of Representatives, and he served briefly in the Senate. A major general in the War of 1812, Jackson became a national hero when he defeated the British at New Orleans. In 1824 some state political factions rallied around Jackson; by 1828 enough had joined "Old Hickory" to win numerous state elections and control of the Federal administration in Washington. In his first Annual Message to Congress, Jackson recommended eliminating the Electoral College. He also tried to democratize Federal officeholding. Already state machines were being built on patronage, and a New York Senator openly proclaimed "that to the victors belong the spoils. . . . " Jackson took a milder view. Decrying officeholders who seemed to enjoy life tenure, he believed Government duties could be "so plain and simple" that offices should rotate among deserving applicants. As national politics polarized around Jackson and his opposition, two parties grew out of the old Republican Party--the Democratic Republicans, or Democrats, adhering to Jackson; and the National Republicans, or Whigs, opposing him. Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and other Whig leaders proclaimed themselves defenders of popular liberties against the usurpation of...
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Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin was born in Boston, Massachusetts on January 17, 1706. He was one of the seventeen children of Josiah Franklin, a soap maker. Josiah's second wife, Abiah Folger mothered young Benjamin. As a child, Benjamin loved to read and at twelve years of age was apprenticed to his older brother, James, who was a printmaker. The family decided this would be best for young Benjamin after his father could only afford one year of studies in clergy for his son. James soon after started The New England Courant, the first newspaper in Boston to include opinionated articles written by James's friends. At only fifteen, Benjamin wanted to be included in these chronicles. He created a fictional character known as "Silence Dogood" and wrote daily letters in regard to advice and criticisms toward the town. His creation was greatly admired by readers and soon young Benjamin confessed. His brother loathed and ignored him while his friends supported him; manifesting a great jealousy between the two brothers. Soon after, smallpox hit Boston and caused a great deal of religious debate with vaccination. Though the majority of the people believed that these vaccinations only worsened the conditions. However, they did not believe that James's mockery of the clergy was just. He was thrown in prison for his prints and the company was left to Benjamin. However, upon his release, he was not grateful to his brother and took over. Young Franklin knew that this was not the lifestyle he wanted and reacted to this by running away. He arrived in Philadelphia and used the last of his money to buy some rolls. He was wet and messy when his future wife, Deborah Read, met him on October, 6, 1723. She never imagined marrying him until 7 years later. Eventually, Franklin...
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Karl Heinrich Marx was born on May 5, 1818, in the city of Trier in Prussia, now, Germany. He was one of seven children of Jewish Parents. His father was fairly liberal, taking part in demonstrations for a constitution for Prussia and reading such authors as Voltaire and Kant, known for their social commentary. His mother, Henrietta, was originally from Holland and never became a German at heart, not even learning to speak the language properly. Shortly before Karl Marx was born, his father converted the family to the Evangelical Established Church, Karl being baptized at the age of six. Marx attended high school in his home town (1830-1835) where several teachers and pupils were under suspicion of harboring liberal ideals. Marx himself seemed to be a devoted Christian with a "longing for self-sacrifice on behalf of humanity." In October of 1835, he started attendance at the University of Bonn, enrolling in non-socialistic-related classes like Greek and Roman mythology and the history of art. During this time, he spent a day in jail for being "drunk and disorderly-the only imprisonment he suffered" in the course of his life. The student culture at Bonn included, as a major part, being politically rebellious and Marx was involved, presiding over the Tavern Club and joining a club for poets that included some politically active students. However, he left Bonn after a year and enrolled at the University of Berlin to study law and philosophy. Marx's experience in Berlin was crucial to his introduction to Hegel's philosophy and to his "adherence to the Young Hegelians." Hegel's philosophy was crucial to the development of his own ideas and theories. Upon his first introduction to Hegel's beliefs, Marx felt a repugnance and wrote his father that when he felt sick, it was partially "from intense vexation...
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George Herbert Walker Bush was born on June 12, 1924 in Milton, Massachusetts. His father Prescott Sheldon Bush was a bank manager who was elected senator in 1952. His mother is Dorothy Walker Bush. George Bush grew up in a family atmosphere with his three brothers and his sister at Greenwich, Connecticut, a suburb of New York, before studying in one of the best private boarding schools of the country. When George Bush received his degree from the Phillips Academy of Andover, Massachusetts, he was already admitted at Yale, but the United States entered into the Second World War. George Bush joined the Navy and at the age of eighteen and became the youngest naval pilot (from 1942 to 1945). Thus according all evidence, he was the last President of the United States to have fought during the Second World War. In September 2, 1944, during his 58th mission, his aircraft was shot down by the enemy over Chichi Jima island. Fours hours later, he was rescued in the middle of the Pacific Ocean by the crew of the U.S.S. Finback, an American submarine, to whom he owes his life. He was decorated with the Distinguished Flying Cross and sent back home. A few months before the end of World War Two he married Barbara Pierce of Rye (New York) on January 6, 1945. He entered Yale and outshone in both at academics and Baseball. When he left in 1948, George Bush moved from New England to Midland, Texas, after having refused a post in his father's company. At Texas, he worked for Dresser Industries. The old family silver he had served him to create an oil company named Zapata in 1954, which made him rich. In 1959, he settled down in Houston.Mr. and Mrs. Bush had six children. They...
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Lyndon B. Johnson (LBJ) was born on August 27, 1908 in Johnson City Texas. . Lyndon was the thirty-sixth president of the United States. He graduated from Southwest Texas State Teachers College in 1930. Throughout his political career he was a democrat. He became one of the greatest men in Washington. His Life LBJ began his life in 1908. He graduated from Johnson City High School in Texas in the year 1924. Then he attended Southwest State Teachers College and graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree from 1927-1930. After he graduated he got a job that same year, teaching speaking and debate in Sam Houston High School in Houston, Texas. He taught for only one year, 1930-1931. On November 17 1934, he married his wife Claudia "Lady Bird" Taylor. From 1935-1937, he was the National Youth Administration in Texas. He then became an U.S. representative from Texas. During this time, he served active duty in World War II in the Navy as a Lieutenant Commander from 1941-1942. In 1944 his life took a big turn, he had his first child, Lynda. In 1947 he had his second child, Luci. For his next 11 years of his life he was an U.S. Senate member, and a leader of the Senate for his last 5 years, 1949-1960. In the election of the vice president in 1961, LBJ served for only two years, leaving for presidency after Kennedy's assassination. In the election of 1963 for president Lyndon became the thirty-sixth president of the United States. In 1971 he wrote a novel about his time as the president, "The Vantage Point: Perspectives of the Presidency". On January 22, 1973, LBJ died on his ranch just outside his hometown of Johnson City, and was later buried on his ranch. Childhood and Education Lyndon had...
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Martin Luther King Jr. Biography and Research Paper In his life, Martin Luther King Jr. accomplished many amazing things for the African-Americans in the United States and all over the world. He helped spread freedom and democracy throughout the world, even though he primarily concentrated on the well-being of the United States. Through all of the tough decisions he had to make, and all of the situations he had to overcome, Dr. King stuck to his morals and ethics. Martin Luther King Jr. was born January 15, 1929 into a middle class family in Atlanta Georgia. He was the son of a minister and was very intelligent. He entered high school at age 13. In the 11th grade, he entered an oratorical contest sponsored by the Negro Elks in a distant Georgia town. Martin jr. spoke on "The Negro and the Constitution" and one a prize for his speech. On the way back to Atlanta, he and his teacher reviewed the exciting events of the day. Presently the bus stopped and some whites got on. There were no seats left so the bus driver ordered Martin and his teacher to get up and stand. King refused to budge. The driver threatened him and called him a "black son-of-a-bitch," until at last he heeded his teacher's whispers and he got out of his seat. For the rest of the trip home, he and his teacher were jostled around as the bus traveled down the highway. King later said, "It was the angriest I have ever been in my life." After the 11th grade, King left high school and went to Morehouse college which was accepting exceptional high school juniors to fill its depleted ranks because of the world war. He was only 15 when he enrolled. King graduated in the spring...
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George Washington was born on Feb. 22, 1732 (Feb. 11, 1731/2, old style) in Westmoreland County, Va. While in his teens, he trained as a surveyor, and at the age of 20 he was appointed adjutant in the Virginia militia. For the next three years, he fought in the wars against the French and Indians, serving as Gen. Edward Braddock's aide in the disastrous campaign against Fort Duquesne. In 1759, he resigned from the militia, married Martha Dandridge Custis, a widow, and settled down as a gentleman farmer at Mount Vernon, Va. As a militiaman, Washington had been exposed to the arrogance of the British officers, and his experience as a planter with British commercial restrictions increased his anti-British sentiment. He opposed the Stamp Act of 1765 and after 1770 became increasingly prominent in organizing resistance. A delegate to the Continental Congress, Washington was selected as commander in chief of the Continental Army and took command at Cambridge, Mass., on July 3, 1775. Inadequately supported and sometimes covertly sabotaged by the Congress, in charge of troops who were inexperienced, badly equipped, and impatient of discipline, Washington conducted the war on the policy of avoiding major engagements with the British and wearing them down by harassing tactics. His able generalship, along with the French alliance and the growing weariness within Britain, brought the war to a conclusion. The chaotic years under the Articles of Confederation led surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown, Va., on Oct. 19, 1781. Washington to return to public life in the hope of promoting the formation of a strong central government. He presided over the Constitutional Convention and yielded to the universal demand that he serve as first president. He was inaugurated on April 30, 1789, in New York, the first national capital. In office, he sought to...
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Description of Early Life Dr. Condoleezza Rice was born November 14, 1954, in Birmingham, Alabama, and is an only child. Condoleezza means in Italian "with sweetness". Dr Rice is also known by her nickname "Condi". Dr Rice's parent's names are Angelena Rice and Reverend John Wesley Rice. Condaleezza's father was a minister at Westminster Presbyterian Church, and her mom was a music teacher. Before Dr. Rice was school age her mother, Angelena, gave Condi piano lessons and a full schedule of learning in different subjects. She learned how to read fluently at age five. Condi took less interest with her friends, instead she learned French, and piano with her mother. Condi's father John taught her the game of football, which she still takes an interest in today. As an African American child in Birmingham she had been discrimintaed against because of her skin color. When Condi was little her mom took her to buy a dress in a store. Condi picked out the dress, and she walked with her mom to the dressing room. A white sales lady came and said to Condi and her mom your changing room is over there. She pointed to the storage room. Angelena ,Condi's mom ,demanded that she would not have her daughter change there nor would she buy the dress from the store. The sales person let Condi try it on in the changing room. The sales person was gaurding the door so no one would see Condi and her mom. Another racial incident that happened to Condi took place in her hometown. In 1963,Condi was standing in her dad's church when she felt the floor shake. A Ku Klux Klan bomb went off at a nearby Baptist Church killing four young black girls. One of them was Condi's classmate Denise McNair. Condi...
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From the first day that Adolf Hitler seized power, January 30, 1933, he knew that only sudden death awaited him if he failed to restore pride and empire to post Versailles Germany. His close friend and adjutant Julius Schaub recorded Hitler's jubilant boast to his staff on that evening, as the last celebrating guests left the Berlin Chancellery building: No power on earth will get me out of this building alive! Adolf Hitler, murderer of millions, master of destruction and organized insanity, did not come into the world as a monster. He was not sent to earth by the devil, nor was he sent by heaven to "bring order" to Germany, to give the country the autobahn and rescue it from its economic crisis. At half past six on the evening of April 20th, 1889 an innocent child was born in the small town of Braunau Am Inn, Austria. The name of the child was Adolf Hitler. He was the son a Customs official Alois Hitler, and his third wife Klara. Initially Alois had taken his mother's name, Schicklgruber, but changed it in 1876 and became Hiedler, or Hitler. Quite important - it is hard to imagine tens of thousands of Germans shouting "Heil Schicklgruber!" instead of "Heil Hitler!" Adolf Hitler later confided to his only childhood friend, August Kubizek, "that the name Schicklgruber 'seemed to him so uncouth, so boorish, apart from being so clumsy and unpractical. But 'Hitler' sounded rich and was easy to remember." Adolf's mother, born Klara Pölzl, was 23 years younger than Alois. She was so closely related to her husband that a special dispensation was sought from Rome before they could marry in 1884. Of the six children born of this marriage, only two survived, Adolf and a younger sister called Paula. Young Adolf...
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Benito Mussolini was born on July 29, 1883 in Predappio. The son of a blacksmith he was largely self-educated. He became a schoolteacher and a socialist journalist in northern Italy. In 1910 he married Rachele Guidi who bore his five children. Mussolini was jailed in 1911 for his opposition to Italy's war in Libya. Soon after his release in 1912 he became editor of the socialist newspaper in Milan, "Avanti!". When WWI began in 1914 Mussolini advocated Italy's entrance into the war on the allied side and was expelled from the socialist party. He then started his own newspaper in Milan, Il Popolo d'Italia (The People of Italy) which later became the origin of the Fascist Movement. In 1916 Mussolini enlisted in the military. After his promotion to sergeant he was wounded and in 1917 he returned to his paper. During the Chaos that Gripped Italy after the war Mussolini's influence grew swiftly. Mussolini and other war veterans founded Fasci di Combattimento in March of 1919. This Nationalistic antisocialist movement attracted much of the lower middle class and took its name from the Fasces, an ancient symbol of Roman discipline. The Fascist movement grew rapidly in the 1920's, spreading through the countryside where it's Black Shirt Militia won support of the land owners and attacked peasant leagues of Socialist Supporters. To take advantage of the opportunity Fascism shed it's initial Republicanism gaining the support of the King and Army. On October 28, 1922 Mussolini led his Fascist March on Rome. Mussolini was immediately invited to form the Italian Government by King Victor Emmanuel III. Although Mussolini was given extraordinary powers to return order to Italy he governed constitutionally until 1924 after the violence of the 1924 elections resulting in the death of Socialist party deputy Giacomo Mattoetti. Mussolini moved to...
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Caesar Augustus Caesar Augustus took reign of the Roman Empire after the death of his uncle Julius Caesar. Julius Caesar's reign was looked down upon by the senate and Augustus took that into account and as a result he did not follow the way of governing his uncle chose. He learned that directly opposing the strong republican tradition in Rome would be very dangerous. So with this in consideration, Augustus transformed the Roman Republic into a different type of government. He learned that through showing good moral character and giving people want they wanted, peace and a better civilized state could be achieved. Caesars reign was most successful because he had a good relationship with the senate and knew exactly what the people wanted, peace and prosperity. Unlike his uncle, who shaped the government to his liking, and gained resentment of many Roman senators. "Thine age, O Caesar, has brought back fertile crops to the fields and has restored to our own Jupiter the military standards stripped from the proud columns of the Parthians, has closed Janus' temple freed of wars; has put reins on license overstepping righteous bounds; has wiped away our sins and revived the ancient virtues through which Latin name and the might of Italy waxed great, and the fame and majesty of our empire were spread from the sun's bed in the west to the east As long as Caesar is the guardian of the state, neither civil dissension nor violence shall banish peace, nor wrath that forges swords and brings misery to cities." (From Horace, Odes) This quote is an example which shows us that Augustus was much respected and very successful in creating a better civilized state. He was thought of a God because of his accomplishments for the people and the government, in...
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Charlemagne Biography Charlemagne is also known as "Charles the Great." He was the most famous ruler in the Middle Ages. He was the king of the Franks from 768- 814 and the emperor of the Romans from 800- 814. Charlemagne's kingdom included most of western and central Europe. He was born in 742 and died in 814. Charlemagne was a tall man for that time at over six feet. He had a thick neck, red hair, and blue eyes. Some words that describe him would be ambitious, strong, and brutal. Charlemagne was a very smart man. He could speak and read in Latin, and even though he tried to write in Latin, he never learned how. Charlemagne was born on April 2, 742. His father was "Pepin the Short." In 751, Charlemagne's father dethroned the last Merovingian king, and took the throne for himself. In a promise to the pope to protect his lands, Pepin the Short was crowned King of the Franks by Pope Stephen II in 754. When Charlemagne's dad died in 768, Pepin the Short's kingdom was divided into two parts. Charlemagne and his brother Carloman each got part of the land. Even though Carloman was younger, he got a bigger part of the land. Three years later in 771, Carloman died and Charlemagne received all of his brother's land. He united the two sections together, and was now the only leader of the Frankish Empire. Soon after his brother's death, Charlemagne started to expand his empire. His empire in 771 went from Austrasia in the north to Septimania in the south. Its border in the east was Nordgau and the border in the west was Aquitaine. Charlemagne's biggest and longest fight was against the Saxons. The Saxons lived in northwest Germany. This was Charlemagne's first move...
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Benjamin Franklin was born in Boston on January 17, 1706. He was the tenth son of soap maker, Josiah Franklin. Benjamin's mother was Abiah Folger, the second wife of Josiah. In all, Josiah Franklin was the father of 17 children. Benjamin's father wanted him to enter into the clergy. However, Josiah could only afford to send Benjamin to school for one year and clergymen needed years of schooling. But, as young boy Benjamin loved to read he had him apprenticed to his brother James, who was a printer. After helping James compose pamphlets and set type which was demanding work. At the age 12 Benjamin began selling their products in the streets. When Benjamin was 15 his brother started The New England Courant the first "newspaper" in Boston. The people aboard only readied most of the newspaper at that time. James's paper carried articles, opinion pieces written by James's friends, advertisements, and news of ship schedules. Benjamin wanted to write for the paper too, but he knew that James would never let him. So Ben began writing letters at night and signing them with the name of a fictional widow, Silence Dogood. Dogood was filled with advice and very critical of the world around her, particularly concerning the issue of how women were treated. Benjamin would sneak the letters under the print shop door at night so no one knew who was writing the pieces. They were a smash hit, and everyone wanted to know who was the real "Silence Dogood." After 16 letters, Benjamin confessed that he had been writing the letters. While James's friends thought Benjamin was quite precocious and funny, James discipline his brother and was very jealous of the intention paid to him. James was thrown in jail for his views, and Benjamin was left to...
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When one takes a look at the world in which he currently lives, he sees it as being normal since it is so slow in changing. When an historian looks at the present, he sees the effects of many events and many profound people. Benjamin Franklin is one of these people. His participation in so many different fields changed the world immensely. He was a noted politician as well as respected scholar. He was an important inventor and scientist. Particularly interesting is his impact on the scientific world. Benjamin Franklin was a modest man who had had many jobs in his lifetime. This may help explain his large array of inventions and new methods of working various jobs. He did everything from making cabbage growing more efficient to making political decisions to being the first person to study and chart the Gulf Stream movement in the Atlantic Ocean. Franklin was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on January 17, 1706. He was the fifteenth child in a family of seventeen kids. His parents, Josiah and Abiah Franklin, were hard working devout Puritan/Calvinist people. Josiah Franklin made candles for a living. Since the Franklins were so poor, little Benjamin couldn't afford to go to school for longer than two years. In those two years, however, Franklin learned to read which opened the door to further education for him. Since he was only a fair writer and had very poor mathematical skills, he worked to tutor himself at home. Benjamin Franklin was a determined young man. As a boy, he taught himself to be a very good writer. He also learned basic algebra and geometry, navigation, grammar, logic, and natural and physical science. He partially mastered French, German, Italian, Spanish, and Latin. He was soon to be named the best-educated man in the country....
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