Tense with expectation, the founder of Russian communism returned from exile to St. Petersburg on April 16, 1917, in a sealed railroad car supplied by his country's age-old enemy, Germany. The homeland, to which he returned, was ravaged by war and starvation. Near collapse and anarchy, Russia was primed for Vladimir Ilyich Lenin's impassioned message: "The people need peace, the people need bread, the people need land. We must fight for the social revolution!" For the next seven years, Lenin gave his countrymen that revolution, one of the most pivotal events of the 20th century. He also gave them chaos, longer bread lines, and a legacy of terror that, while reminiscent of earlier despots in his nation's history, was unique in its vast scale. A master strategist, he combined practicality and idealism to achieve his end, a new kind of utopianism, which sacrificed community to coercion and forbade dissent. Lenin's single-party dictatorship would marry the intellect to the gun like no other before it, forever changing the global political order. By the time of Lenin's death in 1924, the bulwark of Soviet-style totalitarianism — mass executions, the secret police, intellectual repression, arbitrary violence, and concentration camps — stood firm. Even as the son of a hereditary nobleman, Lenin's philosophy was molded leftward. Born on April 22, 1870, Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov was immersed as an adolescent in his family's dedication to bettering the lot of the common folk. Perhaps because his parents were teachers, he was also drawn to a life of the mind. He played the piano and excelled at chess, being equally magnanimous in victory and defeat. While he studied law at the University of St. Peters-burg, his older brother Aleksandr was hanged for plotting to assassinate Czar Alexander III. By the time Lenin passed his final examination, he...
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The old world had many great leaders. Alexander the Great, Hannibal and even Julius Caesar met with struggle on their rise to power. Perhaps Genghis Khan was the most significant of all these rulers. To prove that Genghis Khan was the greatest ruler, we must go back to the very beginning of his existence. We must examine such issues as; Genghis¹s struggle for power/how his life as a child would affect his rule, his personal and military achievements and his conquests. Genghis Khan was originally born as Temujin in 1167. He showed early promise as a leader and a fighter. By 1206, an assembly of Mongolian chieftains proclaimed him Genghis Khan. Which meant Universal or invincible prince. This was a bold move for the assembly. They obviously saw some leadership qualities in Genghis that others didn¹t. When Genghis Khan was little, his chieftain father poisoned. With no leader left, the tribe abandoned Genghis and his mother. They were left alone for many years to care for themselves. Throughout these years, his family met many hardships such as shortage of food and shortage of money. Though unable to read, Genghis was a very wise man. His mother told him at a very early age the importance of trust and independence. "Remember, you have no companions but your shadow" Grolier Encyclopedia. (1995) CD ROM This quote was to mean to Genghis, don¹t put to much trust in anyone, trust no one but yourself and if you must go your own way then do so. In 1206, Genghis Khan proclaimed the ruler of Mongolia. Genghis was a very respected leader. Like other leaders he knew what his people wanted. They want everything that is good and nothing that is bad. Genghis knew he could not promise this so instead he pledged to share...
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U.S. Air Force pilot Charles ("Chuck") E. Yeager was born on February 13, 1923, in Myra, West Virginia. Yeager was the first person to fly a plane faster than the speed of sound. His father was a driller for natural gas in the West Virginia coal fields. As the United States began mobilizing for World War II, Yeager enlisted in the Army Air Force in 1941 at the age of 18. In 1943 he became a flight officer, a non-commissioned officer who could pilot aircraft. He went to England where he flew fighter planes over France and Germany during the last two years of the war. In his first eight missions, at the age of 20, Yeager shot down two German fighters. On his ninth mission he was shot down over German-occupied France, suffering flak wounds. He bailed out of the plane and was rescued by members of the French resistance who smuggled him across the Pyrenees Mountains into Spain. In Spain he was jailed briefly but made his way back to England where he flew fighter planes in support of the Allied invasion of Normandy. On October 12, 1944, Yeager took on and shot down five German fighter planes in succession. On November 6, flying a propeller-driven P-51 Mustang, he shot down one of the new jet fighters the Germans had developed, the Messerschmidt-262, and damaged two more. On November 20 he shot down four FW-190s. By the end of the war, at which time he was 22 years old, he was credited with having shot down 13.5 German planes (one was also claimed by another pilot). In 1946 and 1947 Yeager was trained as a test pilot at Wright Field in Dayton, Ohio. He showed great talent for stunt-team flying and was chosen to go to Muroc Field...
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Henry Philippe Petain was born into a family of peasants in Cauchy-a-la-Tour on April 24, 1856. Petain played an important role in World War II and he is recognized for his achievements. He was known for being the head of the Vichy government by using military tactics. His whole life revolved around the military, trying to make it stronger. At the age of twenty, Petain joined the French Army. He attended a military academy, St. Cyr, and graduated at the age of 31. He later became a teacher at the Ecole de Guerre Military School. There, he studied the Russo-Japanese War and thought of some military tactics that he would later use. He believed that a powerful defense would consist of an increased number of shots made with modern weapons would cause the enemy to retreat. Many believed the opposite of his ideas, including Ferdinand Foch (Spartacus). At the beginning of World War I, Peatain was near retirement but still fought in the war but only was a colonel of infantry. During the first couple of months, he began to advance very rapidly in rank. By the middle of 1915, he became a general of the Second Army. All of his soldiers trusted him because he seldom made mistakes. In February of 1916, Joseph Joffre ordered him to defend the fortress of Verdun. He stopped Germany's attack that lasted six months. Petain directed the French armies in the offensives that later ended the war (Sacklunch). Many with higher power trusted his ideas of not waging an offensive war and started the construction of the Maginot Line during World War II. In May of 1940, Premier Paul Reynaud invited Petain to join the cabinet. Everyone wanted to hear what he had to say about the situation where the French Military had...
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Gaius Julius Caesar was a brilliant general, a great politician, and a powerful dictator of the Roman republic. He was born on July 17, 100 BC and he was assassinated on March 15, 44 BC. Caesar's rise to power was not an easy one, in 73 BC he was made a pontiff in Rome. He gained alot of popularity because of this and because he sided with those seeking power outside the circle of nobles, who at that time dominated the Roman senate. He also gained popularity with the Gauls in 68 BC by supporting them for Roman citizenship. Caesar became the governor of Spain in 61 BC after Crassus had helped pay his creditors after some financial issues. Military actions in Spain helped further restore Caesar's financial security. Caesar outwitted his political enemies by passing up his triumph. He did this in order to win the election to the consulate with the support of Pompey and Crassus. At this time Crassus was the richest man in Rome. Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus formed what was known as the first triumvirate, which means a government of three men, in 60-59 BC. These actions were takin to further their political success. While the triumvirate ruled , the senate became very angered. This led to the breakup of the senate, which gave the triumvirate even more power. Caesar also recieved the governorships of Lllyricum, Cisalpine Gaul, and Transalpine Gaul. He was also given control over a large army that he used to rule over Gaul. He gained alot of political strength from the Gallic Wars which lasted from 58 to 51 BC. With Caesar spending most of his time in the north, Pompey gathered most of his power by making a good relationship with the senate. The Gallic Wars were not Caesar's most...
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Napoleon Bonaparte attendted military school in france, graduating as an artillery officer. As he continues gaining power and winning war after war his marriage with Joesaphine was loosing pasion. In the end Napoleon was beaten and exiled to island of Elba, where he prepared troops and marched back to Paris. Bonaparte was born in 1769 on the island of Corsica. He attended a military school in FRance and every day he would trade his sandwiches for military rasions. After graduating he became one of the greatest generals of all times at the age of 26. In 1796 he started fighting wars which were known as the Napoleonic wars. He won every war he fought until his last few years on the battlefield he used his old technuies that gave him advantages over the other army. His small but forcefull army won the war with the sardines and defeated the Austrians twice. He made them sighn humilating treaties which gave napoleon full control over northern italy. Finally Prussia, Austia, Great BRitian andSweden joined together with Russia to defeat Napoleon. Napoleon tried all of his old techniques but his enimies were to big and pwerful and napoleon could not beat them. So in october of 1813 He was exiled to the small island of Elba. Then he made his way back to France landing in France on 3/1/1815. He march to paris and everyone was so happy to see him. The king sent out troops to destroy him but instead they joinned napoleon. When he reached paris he clamed the throne but the peole didn't like that so they exiled him the the island where he died....
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Robert E. Lee was born in Virginia on January 19, 1807. Robert E. Lee's father fought in George Washington's army. As a child Robert and his brother begged his father to tell them about what he did in the army. Roberts father told them the stories many times, but they never got sick of them and always wanted to hear them again. Soon Roberts father had to go on a trip to the West Indies. Roberts Father took him and his brother for a walk before he left. He told them "To be good while he was away, and to always do what you think is best." A short time after that Roberts father went to the West Indies. Robert never ended up seeing him again. But he never forgot what his father said that day. Robert and his brother weren't the only children. There were three other children besides Smith and Robert. They were Carter, Ann and a baby named Mildred. Robert loved to ride horses. Robert was speaking to one of his family friends Mary Custis. Mary was a step great- granddaughter of George Washington. He was discussing that he wanted to go to college but it was too expensive. He wanted to go to West Point, a Military Academy, but only a few boys from each state were accepted. Mrs. Lee asked and Roberts's relatives wrote letters to the Secretary of War saying that Robert was a fine young man. One morning Robert found a letter, which he would find out that he was accepted to West Point. He went through many weeks of training. Robert graduated from West Point as second rank in his class. Robert Fought in many wars and became very powerful and victorious. He fought in the Mexican War, his first war. Later...
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Napoleon Bonaparte was born on August 15, 1769 in Ajaccio on the Mediterranean island of Corsica. Through his military exploits and his ruthless efficiency, Napoleon rose from obscurity to become Napoleon I, Emperor of France. He is both a historical figure and a legend -- and it is sometimes difficult to separate the two. The events of his life fired the imaginations of great writers, film makers, and playwrights whose works have done much to create the Napoleonic legend. Napoleon was one of the greatest military commanders in history. He has also been portrayed as a power hungry conqueror. Was he a megalomaniac, and was this an advantage or disadvantage to his rule over France? Napoleon denied being such a conqueror. He argued that, instead, he had attempted to build a federation of free peoples in a Europe united under a liberal government. But if this was his goal, he intended to achieve it by concentrating power in his own hands. However, in the states he created, Napoleon granted constitutions, introduced law codes, abolished feudalism, created efficient governments and fostered education, science, literature and the arts. He was a megalomaniac and because of his desire for complete control, he was defeated and exiled; therefore making it a disadvantage over his rule of France. One reason for napoleon's megalomania was his childhood. He was put into the finest military schools and was taught military tactics and warfare#. Without this napoleon would have probably never learned the skills he did at the school, and would have never become the power hungry leader he eventually became. Napoleon's childhood was different from an average child's life. He was a very small, fiery, hot tempered boy#. He loved to argue and fight with his brother and even elders#. He beat his brother when fighting, even...
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