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Psychology
Schizophrenia, a disease of the brain, is one of the most disabling and emotionally devastating illnesses known to man. But because it has been misunderstood for so long, it has received relatively little attention and its victims have been undeservingly stigmatized. Schizophrenia is not a split personality, a rare and very different disorder. Like cancer and diabetes, schizophrenia has a biological basis; it is not caused by bad parenting or personal weakness. Schizophrenia is, in fact, a relatively common disease, with an estimated one percent to one and a half percent of the U.S. population being diagnosed with it over the course of their lives. While there is no known cure for schizophrenia, it is a very treatable disease. Most of those afflicted by schizophrenia respond to drug therapy, and many are able to lead productive and fulfilling lives. What are its symptoms? Schizophrenia is characterized by a constellation of distinctive and predictable symptoms. The symptoms that are most commonly associated with the disease are called positive symptoms, that denote the presence of grossly abnormal behavior. These include thought disorder, delusions, and hallucinations. Thought disorder is the diminished ability to think clearly and logically. Often it is manifested by disconnected and nonsensical language that renders the person with schizophrenia incapable of participating in conversation, contributing to his alienation from his family, friends, and society. Delusions are common among individuals with schizophrenia. An affected person may believe that he is being conspired against (called "paranoid delusion"). "Broadcasting" describes a type of delusion in which the individual with this illness believes that his thoughts can be heard by others. Hallucinations can be heard, seen, or even felt; most often they take the form of voices heard only by the afflicted person. Such voices may describe the person's actions, warn him of danger...
pages: 5 (words: 1337)
comments: 0
added: 11/05/2011
It is very important to diagnose a case of dissociative identity disorder; if it is not diagnosed, it may lead to death. However, therapists have had many problems in diagnosing this type of disorder. This is due to two major factors. The first is that DID is seen as a very unusual disorder, and most cases of DID are mistaken for Schizophrenia. The second factor is that there is a lack of guidelines for the diagnosis of DID. Hence, even when DID is diagnosed it usually takes multiple weeks-or even months to recognize. There are three categories of special techniques that are used to diagnose DID. The first category is screenings tools that are used to identify patients at risk for any dissociative disorder, not exclusively DID. The second category is structured interviews, and the third category is informal interviews. There are three screenings tools that are used to identify patients at risk for a dissociative disorder. The first tool is the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). The DES is a twenty-eight question self-report that rates a patient's dissociative symptoms and experiences. The patient indicates his/her agreement with a question by circling a percentage from 0% to 100%. The sum of the twenty-eight scores is taken and averaged to determine whether or not the patient suffers from a dissociative disorder. The DES is reported to have 80% sensitivity, and DID patients usually score above forty points. The two other screenings tools are the Dissociative Questionnaire and the Questionnaire of Experiences of Dissociation, and are both very similar to the DES. There are four types of structured interviews that can be used to diagnose DID. The first interview is the Dissociative Disorder Interview Schedule (DDIS). This interview is very time consuming (it can take anywhere from forty-five minutes to three hours) and...
pages: 10 (words: 2743)
comments: 0
added: 11/02/2011
It is very important to diagnose a case of dissociative identity disorder; if it is not diagnosed, it may lead to death. However, therapists have had many problems in diagnosing this type of disorder. This is due to two major factors. The first is that DID is seen as a very unusual disorder, and most cases of DID are mistaken for Schizophrenia. The second factor is that there is a lack of guidelines for the diagnosis of DID. Hence, even when DID is diagnosed it usually takes multiple weeks-or even months to recognize. There are three categories of special techniques that are used to diagnose DID. The first category is screenings tools that are used to identify patients at risk for any dissociative disorder, not exclusively DID. The second category is structured interviews, and the third category is informal interviews. There are three screenings tools that are used to identify patients at risk for a dissociative disorder. The first tool is the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). The DES is a twenty-eight question self-report that rates a patient's dissociative symptoms and experiences. The patient indicates his/her agreement with a question by circling a percentage from 0% to 100%. The sum of the twenty-eight scores is taken and averaged to determine whether or not the patient suffers from a dissociative disorder. The DES is reported to have 80% sensitivity, and DID patients usually score above forty points. The two other screenings tools are the Dissociative Questionnaire and the Questionnaire of Experiences of Dissociation, and are both very similar to the DES. There are four types of structured interviews that can be used to diagnose DID. The first interview is the Dissociative Disorder Interview Schedule (DDIS). This interview is very time consuming (it can take anywhere from forty-five minutes to three hours) and...
pages: 10 (words: 2743)
comments: 0
added: 11/05/2011
Does entertainment influence society's attitude towards violent behavior? In order to fully answer this question we must first understand what violence is. Violence is the use of one's powers to inflict mental or physical injury upon another, examples of this would be rape or murder. Violence in entertainment reaches the public by way of television, movies, plays, and novels. Through the course of this essay it will be proven that violence in entertainment is a major factor in the escalation of violence in society, once this is proven we will take all of the evidence that has been shown throughout this paper and come to a conclusion as to whether or not violence in entertainment is justified and whether or not it should be censored. Television with its far reaching influence spreads across the globe. Its most important role is that of reporting the news and maintaining communication between people around the world. Television's most influential, yet most serious aspect is its shows for entertainment. Violent children's shows like Mighty Morphin Power Rangers and adult shows like NYPD Blue and Homicide almost always fail to show human beings being able to resolve their differences in a non-violent manner, instead they show a reckless attitude that promotes violent action first with reflection on the consequences later. In one episode of NYPD Blue three people were murdered in the span of an hour. "Contemporary television creates a seemingly insatiable appetite for amusement of all kinds without regard for social or moral benefits" (Schultze 41). Findings over the past twenty years by three Surgeon Generals, the Attorney General's Task Force on Family Violence, the American Medical Association, the National Institute of Mental Health, the American Psychiatric Association, the American Psychological Association, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and other medical authorities indicate that televised...
pages: 7 (words: 1892)
comments: 0
added: 11/26/2011
This dissertation endeavours to explore the link between absent fatherhood and the effects that this may have on the criminality of children. This topic has been selected due to the scale of interest and concern being afforded to it compared to the disproportionate amount of conclusive research actually conducted into the area. The paper will take the form of a library based investigation; this is due to the complexity involved in gathering participants with a criminal background whose criminality can be attributed to the absence of their fathers; it is often very difficult and time consuming to negotiate access to such individuals and is thus unrealistic within such a limited time frame and without any funding to conduct a research based project. These limitations and further methodological reasons concerning this dissertation will be discussed in-depth in the methodology section. Although the paper is not based on primary research this is not an indication that new conclusions and the solutions to previously unanswered questions cannot be attained, outstanding issues shall be addressed within the paper and recommendations shall be made as to how to proceed in order to further investigate this topic. Absent fatherhood is an issue which is often brought to the attention of the public particularly by politicians and religious leaders; this is largely due to the moral panic surrounding youth crime that exists within the UK. Youths have become stigmatised and criminalised, particularly within the media, and have now come to be viewed as what Jock Young would refer to as "folk devils". Recent panics concerning gun and knife crime have also tended to focus on groups of criminal youths and have increased the public's fear of this supposed subculture of adolescents. However, throughout this debate little time is afforded to discussing the reasons why these youths may...
pages: 18 (words: 4868)
comments: 0
added: 11/10/2011
This is a review of literature that covers five studies on attachment. In each study it was concluded that negative life experiences could affect an individual and possibly change the attachment style they have with their parents from infancy. The four different attachment styles are Secure, Insecure-Avoidant, Insecure-Resistant, and Insecure-Disorganized. From the studies presented it was shown that each attachment style a child had with their parents could change due to negative life experiences. While studies of the development of attachment among children have been helpful in understanding the young minds of children, ages varying from one to seven. There are also studies of how certain kinds of attachment can affect you later in life especially if a negative life experience occurs. This paper will primarily discuss the effects of negative life experiences and how that affects an individual. Published data will be presented in this paper to show how a negative life experience can change an attachment style over a period of time (Infancy to adulthood). First, each attachment will be defined, attachment style will be discussed, and information about attachment will also be included. Attachment can be defined as an emotional bond between a child and their caregiver that developed over time, it is the most important form of social development that occurs during infancy. The attachment is expressed in behaviors such as approaching, following, clinging, and signaling (smiling, crying, and calling). It is believed that attachment evolves in the first year of life. Studies of attachment development, using the Strange Situation, were administered to infants and their mothers primarily after birth. The Strange Situation is a procedure between the mother and the child where the mother leaves her child in a room by him/herself. Depending on the child's reaction to this they are characterized under one of...
pages: 13 (words: 3340)
comments: 0
added: 10/31/2011
Discovery Of Being It seems as though every Sociologist creates his or her own definition of Anxiety. Each definition of Anxiety being ghastly different, however, tying back to three common situations: Fear, Encounters with primary groups, secondary groups, and the public, and Anxiety towards Self-Growth. In analyzing Rollo May's "The Discovery of Being," we find that May incorporates many different definitions of these situations from other Sociologists, as well as ties in many of his own thoughts and ideas. Also at times, May disregards strongly other Sociologist's views on these situations, creating an interesting and unique view of society and Psychology. In this analysis of "The Discovery of Being," we will examine May's particular definitions and thoughts on Anxiety and Being, Anxiety and Encounter, and Anxiety and Self-Growth. Early in the book, May touches on his views of Anxiety, he discusses Anxiety as being something that does not arise from a fear of "lack of libidinal satisfactions or security," but rather out of fear of our own powers, and any pertaining conflicts. He discusses this as a present day problem, which has been significantly influenced by society and present societal goals. Libidinal satisfactions are so easily encountered in our day that it becomes hard to avoid them. The prevalent Anxiety is found upon self-reflection and our own realizations of what we actually can do, but for some reason neglect to do so. Our constant outlook to go further in society than our neighbor is tied to our Anxiety of Being and Non-Being. May looks closely at the concept of Being, and notes at one point that "Being" is a participle, also meaning in the process of "being something." An individual's Being is constantly changing throughout life, never reaching a set point. More specifically, May defines Being as an individual's pattern...
pages: 5 (words: 1159)
comments: 0
added: 10/03/2011
My aim in this paper is to use historical analysis as a way of reflecting on the deepest philosophical assumptions of psychoanalysis. In preparing it, I have been very influenced by its venue, reflecting what I hope is an interest in the study of life, human nature and society. I have a certain sense of occasion about the growth of interest in the history of the human sciences. In fact it is a quarter of a century since I embarked on a doctoral dissertation in this area. It was, I don't mind saying, lonely work, and I cannot sufficiently convey my pleasure that there now appears to be a real interest in this country in humanistic scholarship about the history of the disciplines which seek to understand our humanity. I wish it well and I will do all I can to help it on its way. When I became a professional historian of psychology, it was considered sufficiently noteworthy that the main entrepreneur in the field, Robert I. Watson, dubbed me the 'first person ever to receive a doctorate in the history of psychology in the Anglo-Saxon world'. (I have never known if that was true or not, but it felt nice at the time.) I have moved on more than once, but I have remained preoccupied with human nature, the constraints on it, what can be hoped for and perhaps achieved, in a variety of guises: researching, teaching, supervising, editing, agitating a bit, making films about it, writing and publishing. I came to Britain to look into the issues lying conceptually beneath and historically behind Freud's metapsychology, in particular his first book On Aphasia (1891), and the philosophical assumptions conceptual confusions underlying psychoanalytic metapsychology. The doctoral dissertation I did was on the history of cerebral localization from the first...
pages: 34 (words: 9277)
comments: 0
added: 11/29/2011
A terrifying disease indeed, Alzheimer's has to this date caused confusion and much speculation in the medical world. What is Alzheimer's? How does it occur? How can it be detected? Who is most susceptible to contract it? All of these are common questions doctors and medical researchers ponder on; questions that are investigate the fundamental roots of Alzheimer's [as well as other diseases]. With these questions being unanswered, it can be only known that Alzheimer's exists and takes over the lives of approximately 4% of US 's elderly population every year with the number on the rise. Alzheimer's is a terrible disease that is growing in numbers every single year. People over the age of 65 are the ones that need to worry most about getting it, yet some people that are younger can still get it. This disease is a terrible disease and can be scary and frustrating. Doctors have a very difficult time diagnosing it because there are so many things that are similar to this disease. This disease not only destroys the lives of the victims, but also can ruin the lives of the people that take care of them. At this time there is not a cure, but many scientists are working very hard to find a cure for this terrible disease. Today there are almost 4 million Americans that suffer from Alzheimer's disease. It is estimated that this disease will claim 14 million victims by the year 2050. Experts believe this because of greater life expectancy (Beck 36). Meanwhile, almost 4 percent of Americans between the ages of 65 to 74 will get this disease. For the people between the ages of 75 through 84 it is expected to strike ten percent, and people over the age of 85 have a 17 percent chance of...
pages: 9 (words: 2258)
comments: 0
added: 10/14/2011
The Simpsons is one of Americas most popular television shows. It ranks as the number one television program for viewers under eighteen years of age. However, the ideals that The Simpsons conveys are not always wholesome, sometimes not even in good taste. It is inevitable that The Simpsons is affecting children. Matt Groening took up drawing to escape from his troubles in 1977. At the time, Groening was working for the L.A. Reader, a free weekly newspaper. He began working on Life in Hell, a humorous comic strip consisting of people with rabbit ears. The L.A. Reader picked up a copy of his comic strip and liked what they saw. Life in Hell gradually became a common comic strip in many free weeklies and college newspapers across the country. It even developed a cult status. (Varhola, 1) Life in Hell drew the attention of James L. Brooks, producer of works such as Taxi, The Mary Tyler Moore Show, and Terms of Endearment. Brooks originally wanted Groening to make an animated pilot of Life in Hell. Groening chose not to do so in fear of loosing royalties from papers that printed the strip. Groening presented Brooks with an overweight, balding father, a mother with a blue beehive hairdo, and three obnoxious spiky haired children. Groening intended for them to represent the typical American family "who love each other and drive each other crazy". Groening named the characters after his own family. His parents were named Homer and Margaret and he had two younger sisters named Lisa and Maggie. Bart was an anagram for "brat". Groening chose the last name "Simpson" to sound like the typical American family name. (Varhola, 2) Brooks decided to put the 30 or 60 second animations on between skits on The Tracy Ullman Show on the unsuccessful...
pages: 10 (words: 2519)
comments: 0
added: 11/29/2011
The transition of power is about to take place. The old leader, looking worn and weary speaks of all the year has meant; thanks the many who have helped. There is measured applause and the old leader shakes the hand of the new leader. As practiced words are spoken outlining the vision for the following year, neither leader's attention is on the words. The departing leader feels renewed, relieved and saddened at the same time. The new leader has moments of self congratulation, self doubt and terror. Both have sought the mantle of leadership and on this day in some way, both have reached the defining moment. Leadership is a learned behavior. Rarely is one born with the ability to lead. Even charisma is learned. Though many may dream of a leadership role, it is often dismissed as "impossible." We often think of leaders as a single personality type, "born to lead." But in reality all that leaders have in common is the initiative and the desire. There is no one leadership personality. Leaders are forged from all types. Leadership is the ability to get people to follow. Leadership is more than getting people to do what is asked. A good leader motivates people to want to do what is asked. A leader must provide a clear vision, a direction. They must know where they are going and why. They must communicate that vision clearly and with a passion. The passion and logic of the vision must motivate the followers to make the vision their own. Developing Leadership Skills Self analysis: There are many tools (such as the Personal Profile System from Carlson Learning Company) that will help to define strengths and weaknesses. You may be asked to take them as part of a business or leadership course. There is...
pages: 5 (words: 1307)
comments: 0
added: 11/23/2011
This essay is about handling the stress of University studies. We will be looking into many ideas and different people¹s views on how to handle stress. I will also be giving my own opinions on how I think stress can be controlled or relieved. The first thing we must do is ask ourselves one very important question, ³what is stress²? According to an Australian born physician, Hans Selye (1979), stress is the nonspecific response of the body to any demand made upon it. The body responds in many ways. One is to the loss of blood and the other is to the lack of sleep. Both of these are nonspecific responses, however all demands made on the body evoke generalized, nonspecific responses. For example, they all unable you to concentrate as would normally be expected, they activate one¹s sympathetic nervous system, and they also increase the amount of the hormone epinephrine that is being released into your body. When people say they¹ve been under going a lot of stress they are usually referring to a couple of unpleasant experiences. Now that we have an idea on what stress is the next question we should ask ourselves is ³what is or can cause stress². There are many different things that cause stress. One may be if you have a big term paper due and you want to do your best to impress your seminar leader. Another may be peer or family related. All in all it is things, events, situations, and people that cause stress. It is how we perceive them that will determine whether or not stress will be a result from the encounter. Not only negative situations are the cause of stress. Joy and happiness can also cause stress even though they are positive. In a sense, it is...
pages: 8 (words: 2034)
comments: 0
added: 09/08/2011
Languages, colors, cultures and also the way one behaves may differ from one nation to another. Yet, each and every one of us living on the surface of this planet have several things in common. One of these similarities is that we all have a way of regarding our own self. It is believed that a large amount of individuals feel very good about themselves. Nevertheless, from time to time even the best of us get a dose of negative emotions. Very heartbreaking stories about self dislike were told by many depressed teenagers and older people. What are the causes of this kind of low self esteem and how can one person get solutions to outcome them? Self Esteem is defined as confidence in your own merit as an individual#. Such concepts as self-esteem and self-image have been regarded by some social psychologists as useful, while others have regarded them as unnecessary. There is a considerable amount of research on such topics but it would be very difficult to find the exact definition because volumes have been written about self esteem. Definitions given in self esteem literature run a yard long. But after cutting through all the scientific words, the question of self-esteem really centers down to something quite simple: How do a person feels about hisherself? If the person feels good about himherself, they have a high self-esteem. If they feel bad about himherself, they have a low self esteem. Since low self esteem is a worst problem than the higher one, let's examine it to find some solution by investigating a number of low self esteem causes and personal cases. Individuals with truly high self esteem feel good about themselves and continue believing in themselves regardless of what others think of them. Some people feel good about themselves...
pages: 9 (words: 2362)
comments: 0
added: 10/15/2011
A survey was conducted to help understand the level of relationships between male and females. The three levels of human relationships included social, personal, and intimate. Of the men and woman surveyed the ages ranged from 18 years of age to 62 years of age. The questions asked the number of the three types of relationships and what seemed to be the most involved, enjoyed, and most important. As a group, we tried to determine if men or woman had more relationships than the other sex in any type of relationship. On a level of social relationships, a social relationship is people that you know or associate with. For example: co-workers, people you do business with all the time, or distance family members, the answers could not be studied due to the extreme high and low numbers between the two groups. It is known that humans deal with too many people on a daily basis to accurately count social relationships. We did not count this into our survey and later discarded the question. Personal relationships seemed to be the most popular among men and woman. A personal relationship is considered someone you have a close friendship with but no intimacy. A best friend or immediate family member may be considered a personal relationship. It was very clear in the surveys that woman had a larger number of personal relationships than the men. Their numbers almost doubled what the men surveyed. Intimate relationships surveyed very equally between the men and woman. An intimate relationship is being very close to an individual, having physical attraction for one another, having physical touch, strong emotions, and physically close to each other. The men seemed to pull ahead with the number of intimate relationships. Most of the surveys were equal between the two, but half...
pages: 2 (words: 543)
comments: 0
added: 10/07/2011
Background Bulimia nervosa (BN) is reported to co-occur with childhood abuse and alterations in central serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) and cortisol mechanisms. However, findings also link childhood abuse to anomalous 5-HT and cortisol function, and this motivated us to explore relationships between childhood abuse and neurobiological variations in BN. Methods Thirty-five bulimic and 25 nonbulimic women were assessed for childhood physical and sexual abuse, eating symptoms, and comorbid psychopathological tendencies. These women provided blood samples for measurement of platelet hydrogen-3–paroxetine binding and serial prolactin and cortisol responses following oral administration of the partial 5-HT agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP). Results Bulimic women showed markedly lower mean ±SD density (Bmax) of paroxetine-binding sites (631.12 ±341.58) than did normal eaters (1213.00 ±628.74) (t54 = -4.47; P = .001). Paroxetine binding did not vary with childhood abuse. In contrast, measures of peak change on prolactin levels after m-CPP administration (peak prolactin) indicated blunted response in abused bulimic women (7.26 ±7.06), nonabused bulimic women (5.62 ±3.95), and abused women who were normal eaters (5.73 ±5.19) compared with nonabused women who were normal eaters (13.57 ±9.94) (F3,51 = 3.04, P = .04). Furthermore, individuals reporting childhood abuse showed decreased plasma cortisol levels relative to nonabused women who were normal eaters. Conclusion Findings imply that BN and childhood abuse are both generally associated with reduced 5-HT tone but that childhood abuse may be somewhat more specifically linked to reduced cortisol levels (ie, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis) activity. Findings link traumatic experiences to alterations in central serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) and cortisol systems. For example, data have linked posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to reduced platelet binding of the selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor hydrogen-3–paroxetine ([3H]-paroxetine)1 and childhood abuse (in women with personality disorders) to "blunting" of prolactin and cortisol following the partial 5-HT agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP).2 Various traumas have similarly been associated with decreased...
pages: 14 (words: 3705)
comments: 0
added: 09/11/2011
Abstract The effects of conventional and unconventional name spelling on perceived employment suitability is to be studied. Based on theories of learning and stereotype formation and activation, it is expected that unconventionally spelled names will be rated more negatively then conventionally spelled names. 120 participants (60 male and female) will be given a job application, with either a conventionally spelled or unconventionally spelled name, and asked to rate its suitability based on specific criteria. Participants will respond using a five item, 6-point Likert scale measuring five dimensions: education, qualifications, previous experience, references and personal details. Validity and reliability measures are also discussed. It is expected that group means will show conventionally spelled names score higher then unconventionally spelled names. Suggesting that unconventionally spelled names can facilitate negative personality appraisal, as congruent with previous research. Conclusions about methodological assumptions and implications are discussed. The Effect of Name Spelling on Perceived Employment Suitability Wading through the vast wealth of possible first names is a time consuming and arduous journey that every parent must face, and in many cases, some parents prefer to select unusual or unconventional names in the hope of making their child uniquely different. In doing so however, they may inadvertently burden the child with a range of negative connotations often associated with unconventional names. For example, individuals with uncommon names are often rated as less intelligent and less desirable by their peers (Levine & Willis, 1994). To counter this, many parents select names with unusual spelling, in the hope of retaining unique qualities within the name without exposing their child to the negative effects of unconventional naming. Studies have shown however, that unconventional spelling may exert the same negative effects as unconventional naming (Mehrabian & Piercy, 1993). An unconventional name is one that employs a culturally unusual or uncommon...
pages: 10 (words: 2645)
comments: 0
added: 11/23/2011
When I was a young child, people always used to squabble over whether I was more like my mother or my father. Some people swore that not only was the physical resemblance to my mother similar, but our personalities were eerily identical. Others argued that my father and I were carbon copies of each other, right down to our Scorpio wit. Then later in life I found myself assimilated more and more to my best friend, who I hadn't grown up with, but had begun to spend every waking minute with during my early teenage years. People swore we were sisters, and agreed that we were twins separated at birth. So is the development of my personality mapped out before my birth, thanks to my parent's genes, or is my personality a result of my day to day experiences? This is the essence of the controversial nature-nurture issue. The nature-nurture issue is the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions of genes and experience to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. In my mind, heredity is without question a major factor in the development of people's personalities, and nowhere is this more apparent than in my life. Some of my similarities to my parents are so unintentional that I find myself a bit irritated when I realize that I am emulating them so closely. An excellent example of this issue is my similarities to my father presently. Even before I was born, my father was always a good talker. He was the salesman type, the type that could sell anything to anybody. He is a fast talker, and also used his gift to get things for free wherever he went. God only knows where his gift came from (perhaps his father) but somehow I wound up with it. I was...
pages: 4 (words: 1042)
comments: 0
added: 10/23/2011
The definition of Brain as given in the Taber's Cyclopaedia Medical Dictionary is "Brain- a large soft mass of nerve tissue contained within the cranium; the carnal portion of the central nervous system. The anatomy of the brain is composed of neurons (nerve cells) and neuroglia or supporting cells. The brain consists of gray and white matter. Gray matter is composed mainly of neuron cell bodies and is concentrated in the cerebral cortex and the nuclei and basal ganglia. White matter is composed of neuron processes, which form tracts connecting parts of the brain with each other and with the spinal cord. The brain consists of three major parts: the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem ( medulla, pons, and midbrain)."(257) The brain is the heaviest organ in our bodies and the most important organ besides your heart. In this discussion you will be able to understand the brain a little better and will be more educated about the brain when you finish. Nerve, as defined in Tabers, is "a bundle of nerve fibers outside the central nervous system(CNS) that connect the brain and spinal cord with various parts of the body." (1280) Nerves are bundles of nerve fibers. Neuralgia were once thought only to fill spaces and surround or support neurons. Nerves are essential in our everyday functions, they can effect everything we do. The neuralgia cells provide assistance, support, nutrition and protection to neurons in the central nervous system. There are four types of neuralgia cells which are oligodendroglia, astrocytes, microglia and ependymal. Neurons as defined in Taber's is " a nerve cell, the structural and functional unit of the nerves system. A neuron consists of a cell body (perikaryon) and it's processes, an axon and one or more dendrites."(1292) Neurons function in initiation and conduction of impulses. " They...
pages: 5 (words: 1322)
comments: 0
added: 10/07/2011
Steven V. has been psychologically treated chronically since kindergarten. He had been previously diagnosed with schizoid personality, paranoid schizophrenia and manic depressive psychosis. All of his of his psychological treatment had been suggested by his parents due to his very intense childhood. Steven V. was the only child of a very wealthy couple. His father was a business man who was rarely home and did not seek the time to form a relationship with his son. The one emotion Steven did receive from his father was disappointment because his father felt he lacked the toughness to be successful in the world and was too timid. His mother Mrs. V. also spent little time with her son, but she did manage to show him a little more affection and love then his father did. Steven opened up to his mother more. She portrayed her love for him through hugging and kissing and even letting him sleep in her bed with her while Mr. V. was away on business, but this all ended when Steven was twelve. His mother awoke very alarmed to find her son masturbating next to her. Although this was a very natural act she forbid Steven to sleep with her from now on. Steven was raised mostly by a full time maid. Being alone most of the time, due to lack of parental and peer interaction, Steven kept busy by using his imagination. When he was younger he imagined himself as super heros and acted them out in extremely violent ways. As Steven grew older he became strongly interested in pornography. He would become intensely aroused by watching woman who were sexually violated. This lead to his interest in violent horror movies, such as The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, in which he frequently imagined his parents as the victims....
pages: 4 (words: 937)
comments: 0
added: 11/07/2011
In the preceding pages we dealt with certain definitions of the words (frequently used interchangeably) dealing with illusion and glamor. We found that: Illusion is primarily of a mental quality and was characteristic of the attitude of mind of those people who are more intellectual than emotional. They have outgrown glamor as usually understood. It is the misunderstanding of ideas and thought-forms of which they are guilty, and of misinterpretations. Glamor is astral in character, and is far more potent at this time than illusion, owing to the enormous majority of people who function astrally always. Maya is vital in character and is a quality of force. It is essentially the energy of the human being as it swings into activity through the subjective influence of the mental illusion or astral glamor or of both in combination. The Dweller on the Threshold, always present, swings however into activity only on the Path of Discipleship, when the aspirant becomes occultly aware of himself, of the conditions induced within him as a result of his interior illusion, his astral glamor and the maya surrounding his entire life. Being now an integrated personality (and no one is a disciple, my brother, unless he is mental as well as emotional, which is a point the [27] devotee oft forgets) these three conditions (with the preponderance of the effect in one or other of the bodies) are seen as a whole, and to this whole the term the "Dweller on the Threshold" is applied. It is in reality a vitalized thought-form - embodying mental force, astral force and vital energy. The problem, therefore, before all of you in this group is to learn first of all: To distinguish between these three inner illusory aspects. To discover what conditions in the environment or in the individual...
pages: 8 (words: 1957)
comments: 0
added: 11/26/2011
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