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Psychology
Schizophrenia is a mental disease that effects over 1 percent of the population. It can occur at any age but most commonly happens between 16-30. It leaves the patient confused in a chaotic state of mind with multiple debilitating mental confusion. The first of them being delusions, the patient is convinced that people around them can read their minds, and that they can read other peoples (British Journal of Psychology, 625). The patient then begins to believe that the people around them are plotting against them and are out to get them. Not only does the disease effect the patient mentally though, but also it starts to effect their physical sensations. The patients can`t interpret incoming sensations and can`t control their physical emotions, this effects the patients common sense of what to do in every day situations. For example when a person with normal mental health receives a gift their natural reaction would be to thank the person who gave it to them. A schizophrenic person would become confused and be unable to react and cope with the situation. The patient begins to get an altered sense of themselves and have an extremely hard time functioning in every day life. They start to believe they can control other people`s thoughts. They usually start to become violent because they get so confused with the thoughts of plots against them they believe they are defending themselves. A person who is diagnosed with a schizoid personality is basically on the way to having schizophrenia. It is considered a stage to the disease. The causes of each of the diseases are the same, and most of them are physical abnormalities of the brain. In over hundreds of studies on schizophrenia and similar mental conditions doctors have found some similar abnormalities in the brains of...
pages: 4 (words: 1001)
comments: 0
added: 10/14/2011
The teen brain consists of four main components that contribute to development. The first component is the corpus callosum, which is a nerve table that joins both sides of the brain. Although it is not completely stated what it is responsible for it is believed that it controls intelligence, consciousness, and self-awareness. This links to the teen brain model because it doesn't mature till your mid 20's which would explain why teens do so called "Dumb" things, because their brains are not fully developed. The second main component is the frontal lobe, which is located in the upper front part of the brain. The frontal lobe is responsible for self-control, judgment, organization, and regulation. The frontal lobe changes and undergoes a series of pruning. The first growth finishes at age five and then at about the age of 10 the brain begins to grow again. Which explains why most teens do not think things threw because this part of the brain is not fully developed. Another component is the changing in the Parietal lobes. The parietal lobe put together information and is in charge of senses like tactile or touch and sight, and makes it comprehensible. What happens to the parietal lobes is the long nerve fibers or white matter that is coated in fatty substance called myelin, allows the nerves to carry information faster and more efficiently when the process is finished. This process is developing until late teens early 20's. Which means the teen brain does not send or receive information as fast or effective. The final result of the parietal lobes is that they can't organize or incorporate the different signs that they receive. They do not adapt because the brain cannot react to it. Like the parietal lobe the temporal lobes are not developed during the...
pages: 4 (words: 1009)
comments: 0
added: 09/11/2011
In America, girls are given the message at a very young age that in order to be happy and successful, they must be thin. Given the value, which our society places on being thin, it is not surprising that eating disorders are on the increase. In America thousands of teenage girls are dealing with emotional situations daily and eating behavior can be affected by the way they are feeling. Eating disorders affect over five million men and women in the United States, and sadly enough thousands of them will die from the physical problems caused by conditions that are linked with eating disorders. Most people think of the extremes of anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating; the truth is that almost every American, at some point in his or her lifetime, will suffer from issues of weight loss, body shape, or self-image, if not all three. Due to these factors, eating disorders are a major concern for psychologists today (Harmon, 1999). This trend, however, is found mainly in America and countries with western ideals. Eating Disorders are primarily behavior disorders. Douglas Eagles (1987) states, "the behavioral disturbance leads to disorders of nutrition" (p. 71). The definition of Eating Disorders as defined by Harmon (1999), "a psychological disorder in which a person is unable or unwilling to maintain normal eating habits, and instead engages in self starvation, binging, purging, or some combination of these behaviors (83). Eating disorders are not just about losing weight and the search for the ideal body, they are mainly about expressing difficult feelings (Abraham & Llewellyn-Jones, 1999). Eating Disorders affect over five million Americans and thousands will die from these conditions (American Anorexia Bulimia Association [AABA], 2001). The prevalence of eating disorders has increased in the last forty years. It is believed that extreme eating disorders occur...
pages: 6 (words: 1553)
comments: 0
added: 11/04/2011
Schizophrenia is a class of disorders characterized by fundamental disturbances in thought processes, emotion, or behavior. It is also known as a "split mind"; the person is in a world that has nothing to do with everyday experiences. One to one and a half percent of the U.S. population will be diagnosed with it sometime over the course of their lives. Schizophrenia has a pattern of unique and predictable symptoms. There are two main types of symptoms: positive and negative symptoms. The positive symptoms are delusions or hallucinations; negative symptoms are deficits in behavior or an inability to express emotion. But what exactly are these symptoms and are they easy to detect? The more obvious types of symptoms are the positive. One characteristic that is often experienced is delusions, which are known as thoughts with meanings that are unrealistic. For example, people with this disorder tend to believe that they are someone else in disguise such as Elvis or Jesus. Another type of delusion is the delusion of grandeur, which is when an individual believes that they are more important than they actually are. A less common but very real type of delusion is a delusion of persecution, which is when an individual is convinced that others are plotting against him. But even more severe is perceptions known as hallucinations. Hallucinations are perceptions that can not possibly be real because there is nothing external to support them; however, to the person affected, they can be heard, seen, or even felt. Some individuals may see objects change shape or size, which is not very unusual for someone with schizophrenia. On some occasions, individuals claim to hear voices in their heads, telling them to do or say certain things. These voices appear to be so real, that in some instances individuals where...
pages: 3 (words: 582)
comments: 0
added: 07/17/2011
In the late Seventies, America became shocked and outraged by the rape, mutilation, and murder of over a dozen young, beautiful girls. The man who committed these murders, Ted Bundy, was later apprehended and executed. During his detention in various penitentiaries, he was mentally probed and prodded by psychologist and psychoanalysts hoping to discover the root of his violent actions and sexual frustrations. Many theories arose in attempts to explain the motivational factors behind his murderous escapades. However, the strongest and most feasible of these theories came not from the psychologists, but from the man himself, "as a teenager, my buddies and I would all sneak around and watch porn. As I grew older, I became more and more interested and involved in it, [pornography] became an obsession. I got so involved in it, I wanted to incorporate [porn] into my life, but I couldn't behave like that and maintain the success I had worked so hard for. I generated an alter-ego to fulfill my fantasies under-cover. Pornography was a means of unlocking the evil I had burried inside myself" (Leidholdt 47). Is it possible that pornography is acting as the key to unlocking the evil in more unstable minds? According to Edward Donnerstein, a leading researcher in the pornography field, "the relationship between sexually violent images in the media and subsequent aggression and . . . callous attitudes towards women is much stonger statistically than the relationship between smoking and cancer" (Itzin 22). After considering the increase in rape and molestation, sexual harassment, and other sex crimes over the last few decades, and also the corresponding increase of business in the pornography industry, the link between violence and pornogrpahy needs considerable study and examination. Once the evidence you will encounter in this paper is evaluated and quantified, it will...
pages: 16 (words: 4167)
comments: 0
added: 10/03/2011
Do you suffer from sleep deprivation? Most teenagers need 8-12 hours of sleep. Lack of sleep can cause delayed reactions or even learning disorders. Prolonged loss of sleep occurs for physical and mental reasons and has harmful physical and mental effects to the human body. Prolonged sleep is caused by many different functions of the body. An important cause of prolonged sleep is a teenagers biological phase-delay or a tendency to fall asleep and wake up at different times. Changes that occur at puberty in the internal body clock governing their circadian biological rhythms can cause them to sleep irregularly(Johnson, 3). Another good reasons why teenagers do not get enough sleep is because they simply do not make time for it. Some schoolwork, sports, jobs, girlfriends or boyfriends may take up most of a teenagers time or cause them to have stressful sleep(Johnson 3). Sleep deprivation can cause slow reactions of time. It may also cause headaches and nightmares more frequently. The mind will fall asleep if it cannot get enough sleep causing it to not function properly. Some side symptoms of chronic lack of sleep are feeling fatigue or depression as body becomes drained (Haynes). A major problem caused by sleep deprivation is behavioral changes such as: irritability, short temper, impatience, and stressful situations with more anger or sadness, also can cause more fear than they would normally have. If you continue to have prolonged lack of sleep your immune systems will begin to break down and become unstable to fight diseases (Haynes). To show how this is caused the researcher has done a study on how much sleep he/she got and how they felt that day. Sleep deprivation has many harmful effects and there are some reasons you cannot stop prolonged lack of sleep. Sleep is essential to...
pages: 2 (words: 327)
comments: 0
added: 11/17/2011
Smoking: Onset And Maintenance Discuss the role of psychological factors in explaining the onset and maintenance of smoking. A health behaviour is defined as a 'behaviour aimed at preventing disease', such as eating a healthy diet (Karl & Cobb, 1996). Health impairing habits are those that include the use of behaviour pathogens, such as smoking (Matarazzo, 1984). Studies have been done which look at the extent to which our own behaviour is responsible for our health. In 1979, McKeown stated that 'contemporary illness is influenced by the individual's own behaviour and it is on modification of personal habits that health primarily depends'. He also found that the main cause of death in affluent societies is people's own behaviours and in 1981, Doll & Peto found that of all cancer deaths, around thirty percent can be directly attributed to the behavioural factor, tobacco smoking. It is now widely recognised that regular cigarette smoking is harmful to health and smoking cessation would have major and immediate health benefits for men and women of all ages (Novello, 1990). These include the risk of diseases such as lung cancer, first reported in 1954 (Doll & Hill), heart disease and emphysema (Peto et al. 1994). However, in spite of all the evidence about the detrimental effects of smoking, the world consumption of cigarettes is estimated at around six hundred billion cigarettes per year (Bawazeer et al. 1999). In Britain, the amount of cigarettes smoked per person, the prevalence of smoking, is decreasing, much more in men than women, but in comparison, women are starting to smoke more, therefore stopping more, whereas men may start less than women, but they are quitting less too (Ogden, 2000). A General Household Survery conducted in 1994 found that two-thirds of people want to give up smoking and the majority...
pages: 8 (words: 2174)
comments: 0
added: 11/06/2011
What made him abuse his newly wedded wife? Why did his son become an aggressive child? There is no way I would have expected this from such a considerate and loving person. Everything in their relationship seemed to be thriving. It may be possible that we never know someone until they are pushed to the point in which he or she are forced to act in response to a situation. I witnessed this happening and never could have predicted what transpired. My Aunt Natalie (not her real name) has always been an independent iron-willed woman. Natalie encountered a man named Ricky (not his real name) who was selfless, candid, and courteous. During their courtship Ricky was a perfect gentleman. They went out to drink at bars, attended social gatherings, and celebrated holidays with each other's families. Within a year Natalie and Ricky fell in love and decided to get married. Shortly after the wedding Natalie became pregnant and gave birth to my cousin Justin (not his real name). Everything seemed blissful until Natalie was able to get back on her feet and involve herself in recreational activities once more. Ricky did not have a formal education. He crossed the threshold of America only one year before he married Natalie, so it became very challenging for him to find a job. Ricky desired that Natalie stay home and tend to the responsibility of raising her son, but Natalie disagreed with Ricky's views. Natalie nurtured and cared for her child, but on occasion she would attend a local tavern or social gathering. Ricky eventually became fed up with what he felt was blatant neglect for his aspirations of having a similar household to those of his homeland, Peru. In Ricky's family wives cater to the needs of their immediate family without much...
pages: 4 (words: 884)
comments: 0
added: 07/23/2011
I attended middle-school in Washington, D.C. My family and I had lived there for seven years and became much atoned to an urban way of life. At the end of sixth grade my parents decided for me to switch schools for high-school. We moved two hours south to Charlottesville, Virginia. The move was a complete culture shock and a role reversal to me. Everything was different about being in the rich, southern, country town. I had to make new friends and develop new interests in order to fit in and have a fun time. Living in an historic mill on the James River gave me the opportunity to pick up fishing. This was a foreign activity for me, although it proved to be a lot of fun. Fishing for me became a great outlet and a great way to make new friends at school. I now had a similar interest with my new group of peers and a great piece of property to take people fishing on. I really began to like fishing and the whole idea of living in the country. This story is a great example of the conformity theory. It picks up on key aspects of normative and informational social influences. There are also different types of power at work as well as some unintentional conformity. My conformity was mainly due to normative social influence and the fact that I wanted to be liked by my new friends. I was following implicit and reciprocity norms as well. I would invite people fishing not merely to fish with them because it was something people around Charlottesville did, but also because in the future I hoped they would invite me fishing. I exhibited a bit of public compliance, whereby I would fish to show others that I indeed liked...
pages: 3 (words: 644)
comments: 0
added: 11/13/2011
Obesity has become increasingly more prominent in American society. The Unites States has even been termed an overweight nation. Some twenty to thirty percent of American adults are now considered obese (Hwang 1999 and Hirsch et al 1997). With this in mind, Americans constantly look around themselves determining their weight status as well as that of those around them. While some Americans do fit the healthy category, others enter the underweight, overweight, and even obese categories, all of which can be unhealthy. Obesity can be termed deviant for a variety of reasons. Not only is it unhealthy, but it is also a widely unaccepted behavior in US society. The obese are labeled "...obscene, lazy, slothful, and gluttonous" (Adler and Adler 2000). People are ostracized, often never to regain full societal acceptance. According to Hammarlund et al (1998) prevention is necessary to decrease prevalence of obesity because few adults who actually do lose weight are able to keep it off. Obesity is attributable to many factors, nature and nurture included. Some individuals are inclined to blame the obese individual for his or her health status. Still others blame the heredity and/or ethnicity of the person. Many place the blame on more environmental sources. These might include, but are not limited to, education level, peer group, and scocio-economic factors. The American Medical Association identifies genetic, environmental, and psychological influences on obesity (Hwang 1999). According to the American Medical Association, being obese means that 30% of your ideal body weight is constituted by fat. As a general idea, the American Dietetic Association provides these thresholds for obese weight. Certain stipulations, such as muscle content and build would alter the given thresholds. In Feet and Inches In Pounds 5' 153 5'3 169 5'6 186 5'9 203 6' 221 6'3 240 Obesity occurs when a...
pages: 9 (words: 2471)
comments: 0
added: 10/18/2011
Popularly known as the Slimmer's disease, this is an extreme example of older children or young adults using food as a weapon to cope with what they see as insoluble problems in their lives. It can be interpreted as a weapon against family, teachers and themselves. Anorexia may start at different ages, but usually it is at a time when the issues of independence and self-esteem come to a head. Many anorexics feel they are in a struggle for independence they can't win. That would explain why anorexia arises frequently with the on set of puberty. Many Anorexics get depressed because they may not weigh as much as another person but our body's are built for a certain amount of weight and too little could be fatal. The term Anorexia Nervosa literally means loss of appetite due to nervous causes. An insecure girl may feel that in a culture that regards the thinner figure as desirable, it is tempting to go on a strict diet in order to maintain a slim shape. Anorexia must be thought as a state of mind and not a physical illness that can be cured like a cold. The symptoms of this disease are – • Extreme thinness • Cessation of menstruation • Growth of soft downy hair • Inability to eat to the point of starvation • Secretive eating habits to mask the true food intake Having Anorexia is also related to lack of Nutrients so to nurse someone with Anorexia back to health they need a diet with the following nutrients – • Protein • Calcium • Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) • Vitamin B3 (Niacin) • Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin) • Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) • Vitamin D • Vitamin E • Phosphorus • Iodine What needs to be taken into consideration when preparing meals...
pages: 3 (words: 554)
comments: 0
added: 10/31/2011
Divorce has many effects on many different people. It is a common misconception that divorce is for the "good" of the children . When in fact divorce takes quite a toll on children of all ages, races, and sex. An average of approximately 36,252 children in Canada are involved in divorces , which is not a very low statistic. As well single – parent families account for 46% of children living n poverty . Divorce affects children educationally psychologically and emotionally. Although divorce can make for a calmer environment in the long run, it can also cause a lot of stress on the adult and child in the beginning . Children have a tendency to blame themselves for the divorce and those who don't blame either the mother or father for causing their devastation. Males and females have different emotional side effects and it is very hard to determine what type of effects divorce has on them because many studies have conflicting information, some say mates become more aggressive , but others show mates are not affected at all. Studies on females show they become depressed, and distracted . "Problems seen in children of divorce are due to the parents psychological problems" . Out of 60 divorced couples in counseling, one third had adequate mental health, ½ of men and almost ½ of females are moderately disturbed or are incapacitated by a disabling neurosis or addiction i.e.; chronic depression, suicidal tendencies and difficulty controlling rage. 15% of men and 20% of females have severe mental illnesses. Researches have shown that many children from these families have trouble in school and struggle with anger and sorrow . Although some studies show that divorce ahs no effect on children, it will inevitably have some sore of effect, it may not be long...
pages: 6 (words: 1576)
comments: 0
added: 08/27/2011
The Effects of Representations of Spaces How do representations of space affect our relationship to a place? To answer this question, we should perhaps ask ourselves an equally important question: how can we probe nature to learn about it without changing it. By analyzing this question using six main representational themes – cartographic, political, Cartesian perspectivalism, optical, transcendental, and biological – we will answer the original question. I believe that there are no representations of space that would not in some way affect our relationship to a place. Likewise, there are no representations of space that do not alter perspectives of everything and everyone around us. Human psychology and its biological representation of space force us to interact with nature and influence our relationship to places. Before we begin, we must be clear on the definition of our terms. A space in this context is any real or imaginary area with real or artificial boundaries. The space represents a place, which is a tangible entity in reality. There are several ways in which spaces can represent places. We will analyze the representations with regards to cartographic, Cartesian perspectivalism, political, transcendental, and biological points of view. Cartography, the study of maps and surveying, is an ancient science and is mostly a thing of the past. At one time cartographers possessed much power and were held in high esteem. Kings and lords would patronize cartographers to draw out maps of their lands. Due to benefaction, cartographers would often embellish the area of the land on the map to favor the patron. These incidences led to a variety of political silencing, omitting, and highlighting in maps. Eventually because of human nature, what started out as a scientific study became a corrupt and political practice as the people in charge of making and distributing...
pages: 5 (words: 1245)
comments: 0
added: 11/18/2011
The words "ego" and "id" are Greek, and we have carried them into the English language and then nominalized. By doing this our consciousness solidifies them as things within our brains. The word "ego" means "I" or "self". The word "id" means "non-I" or "non-self", or "it." We dont say "the I" when we refer to ourselves. But so often we say "the ego" as if to refer to a specific part or thing of our minds. The other confusion that adds to nominalization is then believing the rest of the book is about things in space. Yet, Freud specifically says, "The state of things which we have been describing can be represented diagrammatically, though it must be remarked that the form chosen has no pretensions to any special applicability, but is mere intended to serve for purposes of exposition (p. 18)." What Freud is saying is that in order to communicate clearly what is happening in ones psyche, or mind, there needs to be a working model of the psyche. That is to say, a model meaning a diagram with its parts that do not act as the psyche itself (or of reality), but shows what the psyche consists of. He does this by discerning that which is "descriptive," and that which is "dynamic." The descriptive only describes through language or imaginative use, while dynamic is more at the process that actually occurs. Now the model Freud eventually used as a diagram is not a very good model. In fact it is a bit unwieldy and clumsy and in the end served little purpose (later in he updated the model in 'New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis', 1933). Because Freud is the first to devise the model, it is primitive and modifications would be neccessary. Actually Freud seemed to have...
pages: 5 (words: 1312)
comments: 0
added: 09/29/2011
Love and hate is as clearly defined as black and white. Love, is an emotion like no other, the emotion that combines, affection, warmth, fondness and any feelings that makes us glow inside. Hate is also an intense feeling of dislike, pain and any feelings that make us bitter. The difference between the two is all but a thin line. The line can be crossed at an instant from the love between two siblings to hatred. These two feelings are an important part of my relationship with my sister. The only purpose that I served when I was of a younger age was to annoy and irritate my sister. Lorna, my dear sister, found without a doubt that I did this job remarkably well. My bothersome behavior came in my different forms. My constant laughing at any time of day or night for no particular reasons. I deliberately disturb my sister by jumping up and down in front of her face. Making noises just to annoy her such as "lala…haha…burp..." are also accompanied by funny faces such as sticking my tongue out and rolling it, crossing my eyes and walking in a non-sensible manner, all this to distract Lorna from her duty. Also, I would make up pointless and nonsensical remarks: " What are you doing?…Do you like that pen?" while she was doing homework. Yet, all my annoyance and irritation is my sign that I love her and her importance to me. If my surrounding were without the present of Lorna then my life would be full of emptiness and boredom. Her screams of "Get Lost" would be missed dearly. My restlessness would grow greater as I would not have my sister to bother If she was not there for me to annoy as a daily reminder of the...
pages: 4 (words: 874)
comments: 0
added: 11/16/2011
Philosophical thought begins with the Milesians, where intellectual curiosity propelled thinkers like Anaximander and Heraclitus to attempt to explain the phenomena of the universe by means of specific physical elements. During the 6th century BC, Eleatics, like Parmenides and Zeno, had rejected physical phenomena and propounded metaphysical paradoxes that cut at the roots of belief in the very existence of the natural world. Parmenides uproots the theories of his predecessors by bearing to light the logical possibilities of any philosophical inquiry. He argues that that the only things about which we can inquire about must exist, else our search is fruitless. Through deductive reasoning, Parmenides proves that if something exists, then it cannot come to be or perish, change or move, nor be the subject to any imperfection. His proteges were left with an enormous problem: how could one reconcile Parmenides' rejection of change with the possibility of giving a rational account of the changing world of sense experience? By accepting only certain parts of his doctrine of being, his successors ultimately fail in their attempts to explain the changing universe in light of the Parmenidean paradox. How does Parmenides draw the conclusion that if something is, then it is unchanging? A more formal examination of his arguments regarding subjects of inquiry shows how he comes to the conclusion that all is one. The only ways of inquiry there are for thinking: the one, that it is and that it is not possible for it not to be, is the path of Persuasion (for it attends upon the Truth), the other, that it is not and that it is necessary for it not to be, this I point out to you to be a path completely unlearnable, for neither may you know that which is not (for it is not...
pages: 5 (words: 1233)
comments: 0
added: 07/16/2011
How the Sandinista Revolution Changed Traditional Gender Roles Before the Nicaraguan Sandinista Revolution had taken place in the late 1970s, male and female gender roles had been clearly and traditionally defined as to how one should behave and conduct one's self. Men and women identified these ideal traits and behaviors for potential husbands and wives, or as guidelines in how to raise their children, and even so that the family order of gender role was not upset. Traditional male behavior had originally been based around the notion of machismo. In this way, they are meant to act aggressive, violent, dominant, sexually conquer and drink and gamble. Women on the other hand were expected to be soft spoken, obedient and caretaker of the household. Once the Revolution started, and as times were getting harder, the idea of the ideal New Man and woman had changed. "Two sets of values coexist, compete, and more than occasionally blur: the ideals of machismo, with its cult of aggressive masculinity, defined as a mode of sexual and physical conquest; and the ideals of the revolutionary New Man, who is envisioned as hard working, devoted and family oriented (Lancaster, 1992; pg. 40)." For women, her traditional role was in the household taking care of the children, cleaning, cooking and washing as would be expected. Furthermore, she was unable to voice her objections or opinions to her husbands' sometimes abusive tendencies, and from that the New Woman had evolved also. Women started to lose faith in the war, growing tired as they were losing many husbands and sons to the war. Throughout Lancaster's Life Is Hard, one can watch as the behaviors and society gender roles start to change as the Sandinista Revolution continued. "The new idea of a good man- that is, the revolutionary New Man-...
pages: 9 (words: 2455)
comments: 0
added: 09/17/2011
There appears to be a particular trend in research on leadership. Most of it subsumes vision within charisma. Some scholars even suggest that it is the vision that leads to the attribution of charisma to the leaders in the first place. However, we think that charisma and vision are two distinct concepts and as such a leader may be charismatic but not visionary, or visionary but not charismatic, both charismatic and visionary, or neither. To us, charisma is an emotion-based construct or a "heart" thing and charismatic leaders understand their social environment very well and are masters of social skills. Vision, on the other hand, is a competence-based construct, a combination of intellectual ability and experience, largely a "head" thing. In this paper, we distinguish between charisma and vision in detail and suggest that some of the confusion clouding the "new genre" of leadership theories becomes clear once we treat charisma and vision separately. LEADERSHIP AND FOLLOWERSHIP There is a particular trend in research on leadership; much of it subsumes vision within charisma (Weber, 1968; House, 1977; Bass, 1985; Bennis & Nanus, 1985; Conger & Kanungo, 1987; Avolio & Bass, 1988; House, Spangler & Woycke, 1991). One possible explanation for twining of the two concepts is that many well-known charismatic leaders had powerful visions. And, that is why charisma and vision exist together in our implicit theories on leadership. Some scholars (Weber, 1968; Conger, 1989) even suggest that it is vision that leads to the attribution of charisma to the leaders in the first place. Conger (1989:92) described charismatic leaders as "meaning makers" and noted that the amount of charisma attributed to a leader increases as the leader's vision becomes more idealized in the minds of followers. In a review of charismatic leadership literature, "Connor et al. (1995:530) noted that vision is...
pages: 20 (words: 5316)
comments: 0
added: 10/05/2011
Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a serious brain disorder. It is a disease that makes it difficult for a person to tell the difference between real and unreal experiences, to think logically, to have normal emotional responses to other, and to behave normally in social situations. People with schizophrenia may also have difficulty in remembering, talking, and behaving appropriately. Schizophrenia is one of the most common mental illnesses. About 1% of the world population has schizophrenia. In the United States, there are about 2.5 million people with the disease. Schizophrenia is the cause of more hospitalizations than almost any other illness. Schizophrenia most commonly begins between the ages of 15 and 25. Although it strikes men and women equally, the symptoms may appear later in women than in men. Very rarely, the symptoms of schizophrenia can appear before the age of 12. Childhood schizophrenia has a more chronic disease course and involves poor early language development. People with schizophrenia can have a variety of symptoms. Sometimes, these symptoms come on suddenly. Usually, though, the illness develops slowly over months or even years. At first, the symptoms may not be noticed or may be confused with those of other conditions. For example, people with schizophrenia may feel tense, be unable to concentrate, or have trouble sleeping. They often become increasingly isolated and withdrawn as their grip on reality loosens. They do not make or keep friends. They may stop caring about the way they look. Dropping out of school or doing badly at work are other early signs of schizophrenia. As the illness progresses, symptoms of psychosis develop. The person starts to act strangely and talk nonsensically. People with schizophrenia may develop paranoid delusions. Examples of this would be that they might see, feel, smell, or hear things that are not really there. They...
pages: 5 (words: 1136)
comments: 0
added: 10/18/2011
Kushner, a Rabbi, tried to make sense of many of the traditional arguments of God's existence and the reasons for some of the tragic events of the modern world. Overall, Kushner provides a usable argument for God as his idea rests on the fact that although God is not all-powerful, He is a God of love. There have been many times in life when I have turned to a "God" with problems and wanted answers or solutions and received nothing. When this happens, I take the time to reflect and ask myself, "Why, when I do some many good things, do I not receive any answers or solutions to my problems?" The book When Bad Things Happen to Good People, written by Harold S. Kushner, has brought some answers to my problems. This book explained and helps clarify why even though I am not a bad person, that sometimes bad things are bound to happen. When Kushner wrote this book I feel that, the meaning of his writings were that God does not mean to punish us, he just means to test us and present us with problems and see how we react to them. As put best he wrote, "The God I believe in does not send us the problem; he gives us the strength to cope with it."(127). Kushner makes many references to the bible and his belief in a higher power, "God". Many people personally may not think there can be one and only one God but I do believe in a higher being or power and I like how Kushner makes sure to point out that he is not calling it the God but "his" God. It shows an almost non-biast opinion and it shows a lot of respect towards all groups of people. I remember...
pages: 4 (words: 972)
comments: 0
added: 07/14/2011
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