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Psychology
Consciousness is the awareness of the sensations, thoughts, and feelings being experienced at a given moment. Consciousness is divided into two broad states: waking and altered states of consciousness. In waking consciousness, we are awake and aware of our thoughts, emotions, and perceptions. When we enter an altered state of consciousness, our mental state differs from waking consciousness. Sleeping and dreaming our natural altered states of consciousness. Unnatural ones include hypnosis, and ones caused by drug use. Sleep occurs in four different stages of sleep. Stage 1 sleep is the state of transition between wakefulness and sleep, characterized by relatively rapid, low-voltage brain waves. Stage 2 sleep is a sleep deeper than that of stage 1, characterized by a slower, more regular wave pattern, along with momentary interruptions of "sleep spindles". Stage 3 sleep is a sleep characterized by slow brain waves, with greater peaks and valleys in the wave pattern. Stage 4 sleep is the deepest stage of sleep, during which we are least responsive to outside stimulation. Several times a night, when sleepers are in stage 1 sleep, sleepers heart rate increases and becomes irregular, their blood pressure rises, their breathing rate increases, and males have erections. This is known as rapid eye movement sleep or REM sleep. There are several theories that try to explain why we dream. There is the unconscious wish fulfillment theory, which is Sigmund Freud's theory that dreams represent unconscious wishes that dreamers wish to fulfill. According to Freud, the disguised or real meanings of dreams, hidden by more obvious subjects are known as latent content of dreams. The overt storyline of dreams is known as the manifest content of dreams. Today scientists don't really agree with Freud and his view. According to the dreams-for-survival theory, dreams permit information that is critical for our daily...
pages: 4 (words: 846)
comments: 0
added: 04/30/2011
Abstract In April 20; 1999.Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold launched an attack on Colombian High School in Littleton, Colorado, killing 13 people and wounding at least 23 others before turning the guns on themselves (Pooley, 1999).This incident ignited a lot of interest in this area with several studies being carried out to determine whether a relationship existed between the habit of playing violent video games and aggression in the youth. Craig Anderson and E. Dill carried out two studies to examine the effects of violent video games on aggression and other related variables. A correlational design was used to examine the nature of the relationship between long term exposure to violent video games and several variables such as world view, academic achievements, aggressive behaviour, and delinquency. This study found that violent games had a positive correlation to aggression and delinquency, at least in the shortrun.This relation was however, found to be stronger in individuals that were characteristically aggressive. Achievements in academics were also found to deteriorate with longer hours that students were involved in the play of violent games. Notably, the results ignored the fact that poor grades in academics could have resulted from other factors and not uniquely on playing violent video games. In the second study, it was found that lab exposure to potentially violent graphic video games resulted to increased aggression and aggressive thoughts. In Both studies men were found to have a more hostile view of the world than their female counterparts. The researchers concluded that the results of these studies were in agreement with the General Affective Aggression Model which postulates that too much exposure to violent video games would ultimately increase aggressive behaviour. It must be noted that these studies may have been relatively conclusive in the short run, but inconclusive in the long run...
pages: 8 (words: 1931)
comments: 0
added: 11/07/2011
Psychology is the science of human behavior and mental processes. Psychologists study four important themes including action-oriented research, the brain and behavior, the relationship between nature and nurture, and the influences of human diversity. My own personal psychological motto would be "no excuses." The perspective that I most agree with in psychology is the functionalist perspective. The functionalist perspective integrates behavior into the structure. It is also similar to the belief of "survival of the fittest." I can relate well to the functionalist perspective because I believe through behavior you may determine your own success. The perspective that makes the least amount of sense to me is the psychoanalytic perspective which declares that the emotional problems people encounter throughout life are the result of anxiety causes by unresolved conflicts. I do not agree with this perspective because it blames problems on conflicts that I believe can be overcome. If I selected Psychology as a major I would be most interested in the study of behaviorism because I believe we are conditioned to act a certain way in each situation. I learned that there are many different forms of intelligence and just because a person is considered intelligent in one form does not mean he is intelligent in another. Creativity is another form of intelligence in which a person has the ability to see a problem in a different light and come up with untraditional solution to the problem. I learned that looking at problems through different point of views such as practically and analytically can help me improve my own ability to solve problems. The theory of intelligence I most agree with is Sternberg's Triarchic Theory because he underlying principle is that I doesn't matter how much intelligence we have, it only matters whether or not we use it. I also...
pages: 3 (words: 788)
comments: 0
added: 04/30/2011
Abraham Maslow and the Heirarchy of Human Needs Abraham Harold Maslow was born on April 1, 1908 in Brooklyn, New York. He was the oldest of seven children born to his parents, who were uneducated Jewish immigrants from Russia. His parents, wanting the best for their children in the "new world", pushed him hard in his academic studies. He was smart but shy, and remembered his childhood as being lonely and rather unhappy. He sought refuge in his books and studies. His father hoped he would study as a lawyer, and Maslow enrolled in the City College of New York. After three semesters at CCNY, he transferred to Cornell and then back to CCNY again. He married his first cousin Bertha, against his parents wishes and moved to Wisconsin, where he would attend the University of Wisconsin for graduate school. Here he met his chief mentor Professor Harry Harlow, and became interested in psychology, and his schoolwork began to improve dramatically. He pursued a new line of research, investigating primate dominance behavior and sexuality. He recieved his BA in 1930, his MA in 1931, and his PhD in 1934, all in the field of psychology, all from the University of Wisconson. Ayear after he graduated he returned to New York to work with E.L. Thorndike at Colombia, where he studied similar topics. From 1937 to 1951, Maslow worked full-time on staff at Brooklyn College. In NY he found two more mentors, anthropologist Ruth Benedict and Gestalt psychologist Max Wertheimer, whom he he admired both professionally and personally. These two people were so accomplished in what they did and such "wonderful human beings", that Maslow began taking notes about them and their behavior. This would be the foundation for his lifelong research and thinking about mental health and human potential. He...
pages: 5 (words: 1370)
comments: 0
added: 11/30/2011
Analysis of "Emotional Intelligence" by Daniel Goleman Daniel Goleman's book Emotional Intelligence is phenomenal. Rich with insight and valuable information, it provides answers to some questions that have perplexed professionals and lay persons alike for some time: Why do some people achieve far beyond what we might expect of them based on their circumstances and innate abilities, and why do some children thrive in a modem environment that seems intent on preventing them from even surviving? The answer, Goleman says, lies in emotional intelligence. He writes, "My concern is with. . emotional intelligence, abilities such as being able to motivate oneself and persist in the face of frustrations, to control impulses and delay gratification; to regulate one's moods and keep distress from swamping the ability to think; to empathize and to hope"(34). Emotional intelligence is further described as a "meta-ability," determining how well we can use whatever other skills we have, including raw intellect (36). The book goes on to explain that it is our ability to successfully manage our emotional lives, and therefore our relationships with others and our view of ourselves, that determines our success in life. Interestingly enough, the book doesn't t focus to any extent on communication per SE, but brings us just to the door of that issue on many occasions, almost as if it is a foregone conclusion that the ability to communicate about one's emotional state, and read others effectively is critical to achieving emotional intelligence. In all of the book 's many pages about empathy, for example, very little air time is given to the fact that one needs to first establish a personal empathetic state by observing and interpreting another's distress, and then communicate that response to the distressed person. However, a specific nod is given to effective communication in the...
pages: 10 (words: 2592)
comments: 0
added: 10/25/2011
Everyone has felt anger or aggression many times in there life. It happens all of the time. We all face the same challenge of trying to control our temper. It may be easier for some people than it is for others. Many studies show that it is healthy for a person to let out their anger once in a while. They believe that it will help in your relationship with others and that it will increase your self-esteem. They also believe that holding anger in is bad and unhealthy for your body. If you let the anger build up it could go from just being a verbal argument to a point in which someone or something is hurt or destroyed. To control your anger you should release your aggression in a way that is not harmful to others or yourself. People that look into a problem more closely can control their anger better. These people get all of the facts and make a proactive decision. Also by looking into the problem your may find out that it wasn't as bad as you first thought. Looking into the problem will also help you look at the consequences of the action you are going to take. Researchers also believe that tv and movies have an impact on the ways we release our aggression. They believe that in some way we are all influenced in some way by movies and tv shows that we watch. If we can learn to control our anger we will see that our life, and everyone else's life is a lot safer and more peaceful. Some people may ask, "What causes a person to feel angry?" There are two answers to the question. The first is that you may feel angry with yourself or something that you may...
pages: 6 (words: 1382)
comments: 0
added: 11/19/2011
Everyone has felt anger or aggression many times in there life. It happens all of the time. We all face the same challenge of trying to control our temper. It may be easier for some people than it is for others. Many studies show that it is healthy for a person to let out their anger once in a while. They believe that it will help in your relationship with others and that it will increase your self-esteem. They also believe that holding anger in is bad and unhealthy for your body. If you let the anger build up it could go from just being a verbal argument to a point in which someone or something is hurt or destroyed. To control your anger you should release your aggression in a way that is not harmful to others or yourself. People that look into a problem more closely can control their anger better. These people get all of the facts and make a proactive decision. Also by looking into the problem your may find out that it wasn't as bad as you first thought. Looking into the problem will also help you look at the consequences of the action you are going to take. Researchers also believe that tv and movies have an impact on the ways we release our aggression. They believe that in some way we are all influenced in some way by movies and tv shows that we watch. If we can learn to control our anger we will see that our life, and everyone else's life is a lot safer and more peaceful. Some people may ask, "What causes a person to feel angry?" There are two answers to the question. The first is that you may feel angry with yourself or something that you may...
pages: 6 (words: 1382)
comments: 0
added: 11/20/2011
Behavioral And Cognitive Approaches In The Management Of Anxiety Compare and Contrast Behavioural and Cognitive Approaches in the Management of Anxiety The Behavioural Model sees the cause of abnormality as the learning of maladaptive habits. It aims to discover, by laboratory experiment, what aspect of the environment produced this learning, and it sees successful therapy as learning new and more adaptive ways of behaving. There are two kinds of basic learning processes that exist: Operant and Pavlovian conditioning. These have generated a set of behavioural therapies. Pavlovian or Classical therapies begin with the assumption that emotional habits have been acquired by the contingency between a conditioned stimulus and an unconditional stimulus. The formerly neutral conditioned stimulus now produces a conditioned response, which is the acquired emotion. Two Pavlovian therapies, Systematic Desensitisation and Flooding, extinguish some maladaptive emotional habits quite successfully. Systematic Desensitisation is a behaviour therapy primarily used to treat phobias and specific anxieties. The phobic is first given training in deep muscle relaxation and is progressively exposed to increasing anxiety-evoking situations (real or imagined). Because relaxation and fear are mutually exclusive, stimuli that formerly induced panic are now greeted calmly. A classic demonstration of this therapy was carried out by Jones (1924). She successfully treated a young boy's fear of rabbits by having him eating in the presence of a rabbit, while gradually bringing the rabbit closer to him over a number of occasions. The encourage of a pleasant response such as eating is incompatible with fear. In Flooding the phobic is exposed to situations or objects most feared for an extended length of time without an opportunity to escape. In one study, agoraphobics went through several sessions in which they had to go out into the street and walk alone until they could no longer manage. A few...
pages: 5 (words: 1109)
comments: 0
added: 10/20/2011
Lather, Rinse, Repeat. Repeat. Repeat. This may sound like a skipping record, but it is not. Tragically, it is just one of the many intense rituals that may plague the mind of someone who has Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, or OCD. Perhaps what is worse though is that these people are widely misunderstood, especially as children and teenagers. If the public was more educated about the causes, behaviors, and treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, the people who suffer with it would not have to suffer in silence. The misconceptions about OCD are not all new. In the Middle Ages, for example, the Catholic Church thought that the symptoms of OCD were brought on by the devil. Unfortunately, things did not get any better as time progressed. Many years later in Victorian times, OCD sufferers were mocked as insane (Hollander, 1999). OCD even made an appearance in a classic piece of literature. In his play Macbeth, Shakespeare's Lady Macbeth was a textbook example of someone with OCD. Her character, however was a madwoman, whose compulsive handwashing gave her lines like "Out damn spot! Out I say!" (Hollander, 1999). This type of public ridicule only added to the pain of those with OCD. This disorder does not only plague adults, it can start very early in childhood, and it impacts every aspect of what we know as normal life. A few years ago, a young girl appeared on an episode of Oprah to tell her story. "I get stuck in the mirror and have a hard time getting out" Darcie [an eleven-year old girl with OCD] said, fighting back tears. "I know I look okay, but I don't feel right. I don't feel comfortable if I leave. To people who hear this, it might sound strange. When you have OCD you know how it feels...
pages: 9 (words: 2327)
comments: 0
added: 10/18/2011
Use the behavioral perspective to assess the extent to which differences in culture are related to differences in behavior. The behavioral perspective, pioneered by Ivan Pavlov and B.F. Skinner, contends that reinforcers, both positive and negative, determine the actions of an animal or individual. Since cultural values at least partly define what is perceived as a reward and to have value, culture must have a large effect on behavior, and, of course, its differences. Pavlov, famous for his experiments with dogs, found that dogs could be "classically conditioned" to salivate at the sound of a bell. An unconditioned response, their salivation to food, was paired with an unconditioned stimulus, a bell, just before food was given, and thus it was made a conditioned response to the bell. Skinner furthered these experiments and found that animals could be "operantly conditioned" or conditioned to act on their environment to attain a positive or negative reinforcer. A positive reinforcer is something that gives pleasure, while a negative reinforcer removes pain or discomfort. As mentioned previously, culture may help define reinforcers, such as encouragement or the removal of anxiety in a group of strangers. In Western Europe and North America, parents, according to cultural values, condition children to be independent and more outgoing than in Asian societies that value social harmony and loyalty. While a child who left his family in America to create a thriving business would be encouraged and revered, a child who left his family in China to survive on his own might receive a punishment of sorts in the way he was socially treated for abandoning his home. Western societies also often encourage the "get rich" mentality while Asian societies encourage hard work and determination. This has resulted in the spectacular success of the lottery, game shows, and the like....
pages: 2 (words: 452)
comments: 0
added: 11/15/2011
Bipolar Disease Description: What is unipolar illness? When the mood is just depressed. This is far more common than bipolar illness. What is bipolar disease? Bipolar disorders (manic-depressive illness) are marked by periods of manic, greatly elated moods or excited states as well as by periods of depression. Although the manic-depressive psychosis may alternate from one of its phases to the other, one or the other phase is usually dominant for a while. Depression is more often dominant than mania. Manic-depressive patients often recover spontaneously for periods of time, but relapses are fairly common. Most often this disease is genetic. Bipolar is a severe mental disorder. There are 2 types of the bipolar diseases: Bipolar 1 & bipolar 2. Bipolar 1- person experiences at least one, and usually many more, manic episodes, alternating with episodes of major depression Bipolar 2- the individual experiences periods of hypomania alternating with episodes of major depression. What is cyclothymia? Similar to bipolar disorder since it is characterized by mood swings from mania to depression. However, there are several important differences between the two. A person with cyclothymia experiences symptoms of hypomania but never a full-blown hypomanic episode. A person with cyclothymia is never symptom-free for longer than two months. The Affective Spectrum- Some people who have bipolar disorder (manic depression) or unipolar disorder (depression-only) have co-existing conditions such as migraines, attention deficit disorder, fibromyalgia, eating disorders, etc The following have been identified (so far) as part of the medical spectrum, which may accompany affective disorders: · attention deficit disorder (ADD & ADHD) · body dysmorphic disorder · cataplexy · eating disorders (bulimia, anorexia, binging) · fibromyalgia (includes chronic fatigue) · impulse-control disorders · irritable bowel syndrome · kleptomania · migraine/severe headache · narcolepsy · intermittent explosive disorder · pathological gambling · pyromania · personality...
pages: 5 (words: 1307)
comments: 0
added: 11/07/2011
The phenomenon of bipolar affective disorder has been a mystery since the 16th century. Bipolar disorder or as the alternate names, manic depressive illness or affective bipolar disorder can be classified as a mood disorder characterized by mood swings from manis (exaggerated feeing of well-being) to depression. History has shown that this affliction can appear in almost anyone. Many famous and historical individuals have been said to have suffered from this disorder, most notably the great painter Vincent Van Gogh is believed to have had bipolar disorder. It is clear that in our society many people live with bipolar disorder; however, regardless of the abundance of people suffering from the it, we are still waiting for concrete reasoning for the causes and cure. The one fact of which we are painfully aware is that bipolar disorder severely undermines its' victims ability to obtain and maintain social and occupational success. It is also believed that the lithium level is what causes these mood swings. Suffers of bipolar disorder suffer from a large varity of symptoms that can be broken into manic and depressive episodes. The depressive episodes are characterized by intense feelings of sadness and despair that can become feelings of hopelessness and helplessness. Either the manic or the depressive episodes can predominate and produce few mood swings or the patters of mood swings my be cyclic. Some of the symptoms of a depressive episode include anhedonia, disturbances in sleep and appetite, psycomoter retardation, loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness, guilt, difficulty thinking, indecision, and recurrent thoughts of death and suicide (Hollandsworth, Jr. 1990 ). Some of the other symptoms that may occur in the depressive stage can be also fatigue that can last anywhere from weeks to months and a person may not be aware of why this is actually...
pages: 8 (words: 2198)
comments: 0
added: 11/05/2011
No single theory of personality can adequately explain the full function of human behaviour. Psychodynamic approaches often come under a lot of criticism as they fail to be explicit about the underlying bases of the theory. Cognitive theories are not very comfortable with explaining emotions and behavioural theories have difficulty explaining the mechanisms of improvements. It has become quite clear in the field of Psychology, and to some Psychologists like Windy Dryden (Individual Therapy) explicitly clear that there is a missing linkand that somewhere amongst the mass of theories on personality, the answer is staring them in the face. These Psychologists often practice a form of Psychology called Eclectism, which takes a little out of each theory and unites it during therapy with a client. You can't use this sort of therapy as a theory however because all the Eclectic Psychologist is doing is ignoring the fundamental ideological underpinnings of the particular theories he is using and taking the parts relevant to their client in therapy This essay will explore one of the possible combinations of theories on personality and explain how it can be applied in practical therapy. Eysenkes theory of biological bases in behaviour is the base of this essays approach. It provides the rules within which the other two personality theories (Kellys Personal Construct Theory and Maslows Hierarchy of Human needs) can function. Using Eysenkes theory on extravert and introvert behaviour it is possible to determine from birth, very general traits about which a person is willing to work within (aggression, anxiety tolerance and sociability etc) which is where this essay believes Kelly slightly misunderstands this concept and defines it as his Range Corrollary. Really the person is experiencing a fundamental shift from Extravert behaviour or thinking to Introvert or vice versa which causes slight unease and...
pages: 4 (words: 1074)
comments: 0
added: 09/26/2011
Sleep Disorders Child Sleep Disorders Current research has confirmed that children are not getting the sleep they need these days. Children these days appear to be doing worse in school and have reduced attention spans. Most parents are not aware of a common problem effecting thousands of children in this country: sleep disorders. Parents often fail to follow there children's sleeping patterns which can result in some serious side effects if that child has a sleep disorder. A study done at Tulane University in New Orleans studied about 300 first graders that preformed poorly in school. They found that 18 per cent showed signs of a sleeping problem. The percentage of children with bad grades found to have sleeping problems was six to nine times higher than found in a previous study done over all of the childhood population. (The Toronto Star). Most people believe that sleep disorders only affect adults but in reality 30% of all children have some sort of sleep disorder. (Burcum). Sleep disorders are defined as a group of syndromes characterized by disturbance in the patient's amount of sleep, quality or timing of sleep, or in behaviours or physiological conditions associated with sleep. To qualify for a diagnosis of sleep disorder, the condition must be a persistent problem, cause the patient significant emotional distress, and interfere with his or her social or occupational functioning. (Frey p265). Some sleep disorders can affect children of all ages. The sleep disorder that children are subject to often depends on their age and development. Sleep disorders change most frequent in the middle-school years. Children often experience more anxiety at this time. (Burcum). The source of the certain sleep disorder cannot normally be pin pointed in every case. Many factors come in to play when dealing with the cause of a...
pages: 10 (words: 2652)
comments: 0
added: 10/23/2011
Sleep Disorders Child Sleep Disorders: Is Your Child at Risk? Recent research has proven that children just are not getting the sleep they need these days. Kids today seem to be doing poorer in school and have less attention spans. Most parents are not aware of a common problem effecting thousands of children in this country: sleep disorders. Parents often fail to follow there children's sleeping patterns which can result in some serious side effects if that child has a sleep disorder. A study done at Tulane University in New Orleans studied about 300 first graders that preformed poorly in school. They found that 18 per cent showed signs of a sleeping problem. The percentage of children with bad grades found to have sleeping problems was six to nine times higher than found in a previous study done over all of the childhood population. (The Toronto Star). Most people believe that sleep disorders only affect adults but in reality 30% of all children have some sort of sleep disorder. (Burcum). Sleep disorders are defined as a group of syndromes characterized by disturbance in the patient's amount of sleep, quality or timing of sleep, or in behaviors or physiological conditions associated with sleep. To qualify for a diagnosis of sleep disorder, the condition must be a persistent problem, cause the patient significant emotional distress, and interfere with his or her social or occupational functioning. (Frey p265). Some sleep disorders can effect children of all ages. The sleep disorder that children are subject to often depends on their age and development. Sleep disorders change most frequent in the middle-school years. Children often experience more anxiety at this time. (Burcum). The source of the certain sleep disorder cannot normally be pin pointed in every case. Many factors come in to play when dealing...
pages: 10 (words: 2660)
comments: 0
added: 11/12/2011
Childhood Depression Essay In recent years, we have heard of depression and the affects of the disorder, and what medications and theories help to prevent depression in adults. Many people are not aware that not only is depression diagnosed in adults, recently studies show that depression is diagnosed in adolescents. Not only adults become depressed. Children and teenagers also may have depression. Depression is defined as an illness when it persists. Childhood depression is one of the most overlooked disorders. Depression probably exists in about 5 percent of children in the general population. Children under stress, who experience loss, or who have, learning or conduct disorders are at a higher risk of depression. Studies show that depression is more likely to show up in boys than in girls. Depression in men and meal adolescents most of the time is over looked are misdiagnosed. Men for instance, have higher rates of drug abuse and violent behavior that do women or young female adolescents do, and some researchers belie that this behavior masks depression or anxiety (Canetto, 1992; Kessler al., 1994). Some Psychologists believe that the reason that young males are more likely to suffer from depression because of the stigmatism of being a male and being taught by adults that expressing there feelings are wrong. According to Carol Wade, Travis, Depression (Major Depression) is a disorder that is sever enough to disrupt a person's ordinary functioning (Physiology filth edition, 586). The diagnoses of depression might be the same for adults and adolescents, but the behavior of depressed children and teenagers differs from the behavior of depressed adults. Child and adolescent psychiatrists advise parents to be aware of signs in there youngsters such as persistent sadness, A major change in sleeping and eating patterns and increased activity or irritability. Depression is accompanied...
pages: 3 (words: 762)
comments: 0
added: 10/14/2011
Through what they experience on television, children are forced into adulthood at too young of an age. The innocence of youth is lost when children stare endlessly at a screen displaying the horrors of murder, rape, assault, devastating fire, and other natural disasters. Although these are occurrences in everyday life, things adults have grown accustomed to hearing about, children do not have the maturity level to deal with these tragedies appropriately. Children's behavior changes because they become desensitized to the violence. There are many preventative techniques that can be applied to ensure that negativity on television will not interfere with a child's development. Children see violent acts on television and make an attempt to process it, and in doing so, their innocence is lost. According to Dr. David Elkind, president emeritus, National Association for the Education of Young Children, "Television forces children to accommodate a great deal and inhibits the assimilation of material. Consequently, the television child knows a great deal more than he or she can ever understand. This discrepancy between how much information children have and what they can process is the major stress of television." (160) Children's minds are not fully developed; therefore, they can not be expected to understand the violence on television. The media, specifically television, has become more and more violent, in not all too subtle ways, exposing many children to behaviors not appropriate to a young audience. Remember "the Menendez brothers, who ruthlessly shot their parents as they ate ice cream and watched TV in their family room, planted in children's minds the worst possibility -- that a parent could die violently at the hands of a child." (Medved, et. al. 243) Seeing the violence, hearing about it, watching news reports about violent acts committed by real people, especially other children, affects the...
pages: 8 (words: 2079)
comments: 0
added: 11/20/2011
Moving to a new place often involves the highest levels of conformity. When you move, you are losing all that you had in the past, and having to fit into a brand new environment that often contains very different people and very different interests. Since we are always trying to feel good about ourselves as people, fitting into the new environment is very important. We use conformity to get this accomplished. My moving story takes place in the middle of my sixth grade year. I went to a very small elementary school in St. Louis. I had been in the same class with the same group of kids for three years. Socially, I was universally well liked by all in the school. Things were great for me within this environment. Then I moved to Charlotte, NC. This was a very different environment for me. The kids had different interests and there were a lot more of them to fit in with. I immediately felt uncomfortable. So, I began to listen to the kids talk, and there was a universally "cool" thing to do in my new school. Mountain biking was the "in" thing. So, I ran home to my parents and begged for the coolest mountain bike they could get me. I began talking to people about my new wheels, and started to ride more and more. I didn't necessarily like biking, but it was allowing me to fit in, which was most important. This story is great when looking at issues of conformity. It deals mostly with normative conformity. Normative conformity is the term used to describe actions that involve trying to be liked by another person or group of people. This matches up well with my story. I decided to start mountain biking because I wanted to fit...
pages: 3 (words: 776)
comments: 0
added: 10/24/2011
Do you have a brother or sister, who is a pest? I am one of the pest controllers for my twin sisters, who will stop at nothing to satisfy their endless list of needs. After eleven years of being an only child, I wasn't exactly thrilled about having twin sisters appear in my life. Between the stories I had heard of the constant crying and the out-of-control tantrums that babies have, I wasn't about ready to go into this willingly. I would have to put up with double the trouble, which would deprive me of the many advantages I had when I was an only child. I was stunned, when on the way home from picking up Chinese food at Yangtze, my mother said, "How would you like to have a sibling? I laughed at first, but my laughter soon turned into a serious reality of what it would be like to have a brother or sister. Having a brother might be cool, but I wasn't looking forward to the responsibility I would have of taking care of him and watching him. I hadn't even considered the thought of having sisters, better yet two. Thirty-eight weeks later on the day of delivery, I found out that I had twin sisters. I was ecstatic and jumping for joy. Yeah right. I was the first to see them up close. I saw two big, cute, newborn babies with their names, Brittany and Melanie, and their birth information on a sticker that was on the side of their basinets. When I first saw my sisters, they were fast asleep in their hospital basinets with a passiphire to prevent an outburst of crying, from two potential screech-professionals. After my sisters woke up, my parents told me that I should read to them. The first...
pages: 6 (words: 1415)
comments: 0
added: 11/07/2011
Criminal Rehabilitation Prison inmates, are some of the most "maladjusted" people in society. Most of the inmates have had too little discipline or too much, come from broken homes, and have no self-esteem. They are very insecure and are "at war with themselves as well as with society" (Szumski 20). Most inmates did not learn moral values or learn to follow everyday norms. Also, when most lawbreakers are labeled criminals they enter the phase of secondary deviance. They will admit they are criminals or believe it when they enter the phase of secondary deviance (Doob 171). Next, some believe that if we want to rehabilitate criminals we must do more than just send them to prison. For instance, we could give them a chance to acquire job skills; which will improve the chances that inmates will become productive citizens upon release. The programs must aim to change those who want to change. Those who are taught to produce useful goods and to be productive are "likely to develop the self-esteem essential to a normal, integrated personality" (Szumski 21). This kind of program would provide skills and habits and "replace the sense of hopelessness" that many inmates have (Szumski 21). Moreover, another technique used to rehabilitate criminals is counseling. There is two types of counseling in general, individual and group counseling. Individual counseling is much more costly than group counseling. The aim of group counseling is to develop positive peer pressure that will influence its members. One idea in many sociology text is that group problem-solving has definite advantages over individual problem-solving. The idea is that a wider variety of solutions can be derived by drawing from the experience of several people with different backgrounds. Also one individuals problem might have already been solved by another group member and can be...
pages: 4 (words: 960)
comments: 0
added: 11/07/2011
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