As Aristotle viewed the world around him, he observed that things are moving and changing in certain ways. Aristotle discovered that certain things cause other things, which in turn cause something else. Aristotle believed that an infinite chain of causation was not possible, thus, a prime mover of some kind must exist as the first cause of everything that changes or moves. The first evidence that Aristotle viewed was the world around him. He observed that everything is in motion, and that one motion causes another motion and so on. Much like billiard balls on a pool table. One ball hits another ball, that ball moves, hits a third ball, and the third ball moves. Like A causes B to move causes C to move etc. After careful observation, Aristotle noticed that everything is in motion, even the planets, and thus, there was a chain of causation. Aristotle believed that something can not come from nothing, that is, a thing can not pop in and out of existence, thus, there must either be an infinite chain of causation or a first cause/prime mover. Aristotle dismissed the possibility of infinite causation and instead attempted to prove that there is a prime mover or first cause. Aristotle also believed the universe was situated in a certain way. Aristotle believed that the heavens began just above the bottom of the moon and, 'the' everything above the lower portion of the moon was the heavens. In the heavens, Aristotle observed that everything was in a cyclical motion, and that the planets moved about each other in circles. If the planets moved about in circular motion then there must have been a cause to bring about their motion, thus, there must also be either an infinite chain of causation for heavenly bodies or a prime mover/first...
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Each day thousands of lives are threatened and sometimes lost from food-borne illnesses, or waiting for organ donations. It is reported by the Center for Disease Control that each year there are approximately 76 million cases of people infected with food-borne illnesses. ("Food-borne Illnesses", 1) Another source, The Gift of Life Foundation, indicates that over eighty thousand patients are currently on waiting lists for transplants. ("Organ Donor Awareness", 1) Which makes me wonder why anyone would protest or question animal cloning as a viable solutions to these problems. First of all, of the thousands of men, women and children on waiting lists, only twenty two thousand people received organ donations. From the remaining fifty eight thousand, six thousand died and the rest are still waiting for a life saving organ. ("Organ Donor Awareness", 1) The solution for organ shortages lies in the continuation of research of using animal organs in human transplant patients. One goal of the Human Genome Project researchers is to reproduce organs suitable and compatible for humans. This occurs by genetically altering organs created from single cells and adding human proteins. ("Cloning Fact Sheet", 2) Without this research, we will never know how many lives could have been saved. Secondly, another benefit of animal cloning would be improving the quality of the food we eat. As I stated earlier, many people have suffered from food-borne illnesses, some leading to death. The cause of these illnesses are bacteria's found in many meats. The bacteria's result from improper slaughtering, handling of meats, and undercooked meat. Many of the illnesses are left untreated, because people pass the symptoms off as the flu or minor indigestion. One bacterium in particular, Campylobacter, often found in chicken, can lead to a severe neurological disease called Guillain Barre Syndrome. ("Food-borne Illnesses", 2) With animal cloning, animals...
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The United States government should come up with alternatives to animal experimentation. The use of animals in research, testing, and education is an issue of increasing concern to the American public. An increasing number of adults and teenagers are concerned about the welfare of laboratory animals. Animal testing, or vivisection, is the testing of cosmetics, drugs, household products and many other everyday items on animals. Vivisection literally means "cutting alive". And that is exactly what happens. Every second, of every day, of every year, an animal dies in research labs in the United States. That means that while you have been reading this, about 30 defenseless animals have died in a laboratory (Harris). It is impossible to know the exact number of animals that have died in the name of science. This is due partly to the fact that some scientists refuse to disclose the details of their experiments. However, using the facts that are available, it is estimated that academic researchers in America alone use between 17 and 22 million animals per year. The cosmetics industry uses about a million more animals (Coleman). Animal experimentation is said to be necessary for the welfare and health of humans. This is simply not true. Animal experiments mislead doctors and the general public. Diseases such as cancer, which are artificially induced in laboratory animals, have no relationship to the diseases that affect humans, because these diseases are largely caused by lifestyle and pollution (Vivisection). Many people that are not familiar with the issue of animal experimentation are concerned that if we don't experiment on animals we will be forced to experiment on humans. Isn't this already the case? When we take a new drug, we are part of an experiment, because we differ from the animals on which the drug was tested. Drugs, which have minor...
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Did you know that every year 12,000 children are diagnosed with juvenile diabetes? Juvenile diabetes is also known as insulin-dependent diabetes, which requires insulin shots. However, new research now shows that taking the insulin shot can be avoided. Through animal research, scientists are discovering that there could be a new way to take insulin orally. Fortunately, this is not the only medication being tested. This type of research is a good example of how animal research is not a bad idea. It helps us to understand new medications to better the world for people who are not fortunate enough to have good health. Good examples of these people are the 12,000 young people who are forced to give themselves shots in order to remain in good health. Research on animals is a good way for scientists to better understand diseases and illnesses in more depth. A good outcome of animal research was the discovery and use of vaccines. Although there are many people for animal rights, it is necessary for scientists to research on animals, it is not like we can research on humans. A good thing to know is that scientists are not using animals for research for the fun of it. Animals that are used for research are used as a last alternative. Research on animals is a good way for scientists to advance the way we take medications and treat diseases. This paper will prove that animal research is necessary for advancements in the health field. It will inform the reader about research on animals that have improved life in the past for humans, research that is improving life now for humans, and ways in which scientists practice animal welfare and regulations. In the past, animal research has greatly influenced the way we live today. As early as...
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1: At dusk 3 days after a full moon, gather all the things you need for the spell and sit crossed-legged in your room. Close your eyes, then with your right hand, pick up the stone and hold it to the centre of your forehead - an area known as the third eye. Visualize your third eye opening, as if it had just woken up from a long sleep. At the same time, imagine your psychic powers increasing. When you feel ready, open your eyes, place the stone in the bowl and cover it with spring water. Take the blue pen and on you photograph draw a picture of an eye in the centre of your forehead (make sure this is a photo you don't mind drawing on.) Turn to face west and place the photo, picture-side up, into the bowl of crystal-energized water, and imagine it cleansing you're third eye. Keeping the picture submerged, say out loud: Water. water add to my power Give to me your magic this hour. Increase my vision, increase it tonight Help me use my second sight! 2: Now visualise the water starting to glow a beautiful gold colour. Allow your photo to soak up the energy as long as you feel is right. Next, go outside with the bowl of water and photo. Bury the photo in the earth so it can soak up the energy of the picture and release it's magic. Then pour the remaining water over the ground. Facing west again, hold your hands above your head, palms up, and say: My psychic power's growing stronger, Ignorant I'll be no longer. Thank you, stone, for your help this eve, In letting your power help me perceive. 3: The spell has been cast. If you like, you may carry the stone around for increased power. LOVE SPELL BOX First you need a box! If you are handy with wood go ahead a make a small wooden box with a lid,...
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Annually, millions of animals suffer and die in painful tests in order to determine the safety of cosmetics. Substances like eye shadow and soap are tested on rabbits, guinea pigs, rats, dogs, and many other animals, despite the fact that the test results do not help prevent or treat human illness or injury. Cosmetics are not required to be experimented on animals, and since non-animal alternatives exist, it's difficult to understand why some companies still choose to conduct these brutal and unnecessary tests. Cosmetic companies murder millions of animals every year just to put a few more dollars into their pockets. The companies who perform these tests claim that they establish the safety of both the products and their components. However, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which regulates cosmetic products, does not require animal testing in any way, shape, or form. Some of the tests used on animals are eye, toxicity, and skin irritant tests. In eye irritant tests, a liquid, flake, granule, or powdered material is placed directly into the eyes of rabbits. The animals are often immobilized in cages from which only their heads may show. They do not receive anesthesia during the tests. After placing the irritants into the rabbits' eyes, scientists record the damage to the eye tissue at specific intervals over a period of seventy-two hours. The tests sometimes can last anywhere from seven, up to eighteen days. Side effects from these experiments include swollen eyelids, ulceration, bleeding, swollen irises, massive deterioration, and blindness. During the tests, rabbits' eyelids are usually held open with clips. Many animals break their necks while restrained, attempting to escape. Toxicity tests, otherwise known as lethal dose or poisoning tests, record the amount of a material that will kill a percentage, sometimes even up to one-hundred percent, of a group of lab...
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Living in the twenty-first century society is beginning to raise questions about the importance and relevance of issues that could very easily alter our way of living. Animal testing is one of these issues. When an opinion regarding whether or not animal testing is ethical is mentioned in conversation or our news, citizens generally begin to question its morality. In debates, the issues on animal testing should be divided into two sub-categories: what is necessary for survival, and what is moral. In looking at research and examples, is seems as though animal testing for the common good of mankind should be socially accepted by those lobbying for the protection of animals because one day they, themselves, could be in need of the technology that was derived from the testing of animals. To improve medical science and to continue saving human lives, medical testing is the only proper path to success. On the flipside just for a moment, the only logical alternative to animal testing would be human testing. However, research using humans as the test subjects would be immoral as humans cannot be confined to a controlled environment such as those in which test animals dwell. "Human testing would be viewed by many as insanity towards science, insanity at its purest (Wong 1)." Due to the unethical treatment of humans that human testing would entail, this debate continuously leads back to animal testing. "Human testing and alternative methods are difficult and at times even impossible for obtaining valid scientific data" and in this case what better alternative exists than animal testing (Wong 3)? Animal testing for the benefit of humankind should without a doubt be accepted. However, animal testing for cosmetics and the pure vanity of the population should be considered cruel and immoral. In the past, animal testing has helped...
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Research on animals is important in understanding diseases and developing ways to prevent them. The polio vaccine, kidney transplants, and heart surgery techniques have all been developed with the help of animal research. Through increased efforts by the scientific community, effective treatments for diabetes, diphtheria, and other diseases have been developed with animal testing. Animal research has brought a dramatic progress into medicine. With the help of animal research, smallpox has been wiped out worldwide. Micro-surgery to reattach hearts, lungs, and other transplants are all possible because of animal research. Since the turn of the century, animal research has helped increase our life-span by nearly 28 years. And now, animal research is leading to dramatic progress against AIDS and Alzheimer's disease. Working with animals in research is necessary. Scientists need to test medical treatments for effectiveness and test new drugs for safety before beginning human testing. Small animals, usually rats, are used to determine the possible side effects of new drugs. After animal tests have proven the safety of new drugs, patients asked to participate in further studies can be assured that they may fare better, and will not do worse than if they were given standard treatment or no treatment. New surgical techniques first must be carefully developed and tested in living, breathing, whole organ systems with pulmonary and circulatory systems much like ours. The doctors who perform today's delicate cardiac, ear, eye, pulmonary and brain surgeries, as well as doctors in training, must develop the necessary skills before patients' lives are entrusted to their care. Neither computer models, cell cultures, nor artificial substances can simulate flesh, muscle, blood, and organs like the ones in live animals. There is no alternative to animal research. Living systems are complex. The nervous system, blood and brain chemistry, and gland secretions are all interrelated. It is...
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If you were to ask someone what Anthropology is, the first thing they might mention is Indiana Jones, digging up bones and artifacts, and at the same time, running away from big boulders in a dark cave. Although these facts are somewhat true, that is not all what Anthropology is about. Anthropology is the study of the human species, in the past, and the present (Park 2002). Through Anthropology, we are able to learn about our pasts and ancestors. Anthropology is basically, "digging up people's garbage," (Griffin 2002). But it's garbage that helps us to further expand our knowledge about the past. One day, thousands, and maybe even millions of years from now there will be people digging up our garbage and learning about us. Anthropology has many different subfields (Griffin 2002). The main topic that we are going to discuss is Biological Anthropology, also known as Physical Anthropology, which focuses on the study of the human species. The theory of evolution is an important factor that helps scientists, and ourselves, understand what Anthropology is all about. Charles Darwin was the first man to strongly believe in the theory of evolution, which by definition means, a species of living things change over time, and under the right circumstances, this change can produce new species of living organisms (Park 2002). Although he proved that evolution exists, there are still people out there who believe that man was created by God, and that we didn't evolve from other animals. So to this day, evolution vs. religion becomes a very controversial topic. To better understand the human species, scientists closely study and examine primates because we share derived characteristics which means that two groups share phenotypic features not found in other groups and if it can be supported that those features were derived from a common ancestor, the groups must be lumped from the same category at whatever taxonomic level is appropriate (Park 2002). Each...
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Anthropology has been accused of shoring up the colonial endeavour. How would you support or refute this? In order to answer this question it is firstly necessary to highlight the issues surrounding the colonial endeavour. We will firstly examine colonialism of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries in the context of anthropological development. To illustrate the impact of this we will focus on the African empire and demonstrate the influence of ethnography by giving an example of one particular anthropologist's input and comments on his project. Finally, drawing on a conclusion there will be an examination of the relationship between anthropology and colonialism aiming to show that the discipline needed colonialism perhaps more than the colonial government would like to admit they needed anthropology. There is much controversy surrounding anthropology's relationship to the colonial endeavour and some theorists have argued that European colonial projects provided the impetus for the discipline to grow and develop. The question as to whether anthropology is responsible for shoring up colonialism needs to be addressed and explained, however, firstly it is necessary to give a brief outline of the terms 'imperialism' and 'colonialism'. The terms imperialism and colonialism go hand in hand. Firstly imperialism refers to the practice of extending political power, especially through the acquisition of territory: In its classic form imperialism can be defined as "the military conquest of new territory by an expanding empire" (Seymour-smith:1986:146). Colonialism, on the other hand, can be described as "a specific form of imperialism in which territories annexed by a dominant power are clearly defined as subordinate in status," (Seymour-smith:1986:43) where local government and political institutions are replaced by colonial authorities. It is said to be a system which uses direct rule, as opposed to indirect rule which is where the aforementioned are simply incorporated into the colonial power...
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"Lake Creek: A Woodland Site in the Texas Panhandle" by Jack T. Hughes Jack Hughes wrote this journal to report the results of some initial investigations of an Indian campsite with probable Woodland affiliations in the Panhandle of Texas. Hughes reports this to help the reader better understand the existence and both lifestyles and habits of the Indians in this area. The site is located on the J.Evetts Haley Ranch in the eastern part of Hutchinson County in Texas. It is situated on the west bank of Lake Creek, which empties into the South Canadian River about 4 miles southeast of the site. For a better understanding of the background of the area, Hughes stated that this stretch in the Canadian Valley was a favorite wintering ground of the Comanche and their allies. Nearby, in a creek valley three miles east of Lake Creek are the remains of a fort built in 1840 by William Bent for trade with the Comanche. As the excavation of the site progressed, it was noted that the first foot dug consisted of a brownish humic sand which turned yellowish towards the bottom. At this depth, some flint chip specimens were found which indicated that more was to come as the archaeologists dug deeper. They were right, as many artifacts were found, with 132 in all. The artifacts that were found consisted of projectile points, knives, scrapers, gravers, blades, choppers, chopper-hammers, cores, manos, grinding slabs, bone beads and animal remains. The existence of these particular artifacts suggests that the Indians of the time were both hunters and gatherers. The projectile points and knives were undoubtedly used for hunting and skinning purposes, as the grinding slabs and scrapers were probably used for crops and other food preparatory purposes. Most of the objects were composed of Alibates flint, which is a...
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NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, headed the Apollo program, which lasted from 1963-1972. These Apollo missions cost approximately $20,443,600,000. Six of these Apollo missions were successful with landing on the moon they include Apollo 11,12,14,15,16,17. Two of the missions, Apollo 7 and 9 were used to test the lunar module and command module for future missions. Another two missions are 8 and 10 did test while orbiting the moon and took pictures of the lunar surface. Two failure missions were Apollo 1 and the infamous Apollo 13; we will go more in depth later in why they are the failure missions. Apollo 7, which launched on October 11 1968, was the first Apollo spaceship to go up that had men on it. These three men were: Walter Schirra, Jr, Donn Eisele, and Walter Cunningham. This mission was one of the Apollo Crewed Earth Orbiting Missions. "The primary objectives of the Earth orbiting mission were to demonstrate Command and Service Module (CSM), crew, launch vehicle, and mission support facilities performance and to demonstrate CSM rendezvous capability. Two photographic experiments and three medical experiments were planned."(Williams) The other tests performed on this mission included: sextant calibration, attitude control, evaporator, navigation, rendezvous radar, thermal control system, and service module propulsion systems. Apollo landed in the Atlantic Ocean on October 22nd, 1968; the mission's elapsed time was 260 hours, 9 minutes, and 3 seconds. Apollo 9 had been similar to Apollo 7; it just tested different type of spaceship going up into orbit. It launched on March 3, 1969. It was crewed by: James McDivitt, David Scott, and Russell Schweickart. The spaceship splashed down on March 13, 1969; the mission's elapsed time was 241 hrs and 54 seconds. Apollo 8 launched on December 21, 1968, first ship to successfully orbit the moon. The crew did...
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Tomography refers to the reconstruction of objects from projections. Tomography has had a revolutionary impact on diagnostic medicine, providing a non-invasive approach in which doctors can examine internal organs and metabolic activity. Modern computing technologies are essential tools to interpret the vast amounts of data and calculations required in tomography, and computerized tomograpy (CT) encompasses many disciplines including, electrical engineering, mathematics, computer science, physics, mechanics and biomedical sciences. Tomography, however, is not only limited to the medical field. Its principles have been applied to numerous and diverse arenas such as industrial evaluation, airport screening, microtomography, geophysics, oceonography, astronomy, and optical tomography and diffraction tomography. The concept of tomography was first published in 1826 by a Norwegian physicist named Able. In 1917, J. Radon, an Austrian mathematician, furthered Abel's ideas to prove than an arbitrary image of a three-dimensional object could be projected from its mathematical projections. However, it was in 1972 that the current excitement over tomographic imaging began, when Godfrey Hounsfield constructed the first experiment X-ray CT scanner in 1972. [This technique is also known as computerized axial tomography or CAT scans because the first CT machines were only capable of axial tomography.] Another man, Allan Cormack, made important contributions to the mathematics of X-ray CT, now the most prominent example of computerized tomography. [Though their work in the field of X-ray tomography was done independently of one another, Hounsfeld and Cormack shared the 1979 Nobel Prize in science for their contributions to computer-assisted tomography.] Essentially, the process involves a series of X-ray "slices" through the body that are then analyzed by a computer that constructs a cross-image from the data. CAT scans are used in the structural imaging of internal organs and in the detection of tumors. It can show the precise location and shape of a tumor, determine whether...
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Are Eyewitnesses Reliable? Michael D. Wells Research Report Psychology 123 Scientific Thinking and Design Instructor: Dr. Hantula 11-19-03 Abstract The present study investigated the effect that eyewitnesses (or no eyewitness) had on jurors. Participants read a crime and chose their guilt belief based on 1-7 scale. The ¡§unrefuted eyewitness¡¨ received the most guilt belief, ¡§discredited eyewitness¡¨ received moderate guilt belief, and ¡§no eyewitness¡¨ received little guilt belief. The experiment coincided with past experiments. Are Eyewitnesses Reliable? Would you be willing to sentence a human being to the death penalty based solely on an eyewitness testimony? That question proceeds through the minds of many jurors each and every day. Criminal investigators know that it often takes many pieces of converging evidence to solve a complex case. Freshly-schooled recruits and veteran investigators alike are trained to search for, detect, collect, and preserve ¡§obvious¡¨ physical evidence such as weapons, and stolen property, as well as trace physical evidence such as fibers, hairs, fingerprints, blood, and semen. Few police officers, lawyers, scientists, or people in general, would question the importance of using the best procedures available to obtain and preserve such evidence, not to mention adherence to relevant statutory and case law. Eyewitness testimony is a powerful tool within any field particularly that of justice, as it is a readily accepted form of evidence that allows for convictions. Test conducted in 1970 have shown an enormous (59%) swing form a non-guilty verdict, to that of a guilty verdict (Lofus, 1979). This alone displays the potency of eyewitness testimony, and asserts the theory that jurors tend to over believe, or at least weigh heavily on such evidence (Lindsay, Wells, & O¡¦Conner. 1989). Therefore, since eyewitness testimony has such a colossal impact on the justice system, should not we as a society be certain that eyewitness testimony is a reliable source of evidence? There have been numerous...
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In the past 8 years, astronomers have discovered over 100 probable planets around other stars. According to the standard model of planet formation (pre-1996), many of these planets are too close to their stars to have formed in their present locations. This has lead to a few astronomers suggesting that these are not, in fact, planets at all. Rather, the scientists argue, these objects are really small stars. Because our most successful detection method only gives a lower limit on the object's mass, distinguishing the two classes of objects is difficult. However, I feel that there is enough evidence to conclude that many, or even most, of these objects are really planets. Before explaining why I conclude that these are planets, allow me to remind the reader of how we have detected extra-solar planets. As a planet orbits its star, being pulled by the star's gravity, it exerts and equal and opposite force on its star. (This is in accord with Newton's 3rd law, which says that for every force of A on B, B exerts and equal force &emdash; opposite in direction &emdash; on A.) The parent star is much more massive than the orbiting planet, so the star accelerates much less than the planet does. (According to Newton's 2nd law, Force = Mass × Acceleration.) So that star orbits about the center of mass of the system in a manner similar to the planet, but with a much smaller semi-major axis. This motion is too small to see by looking for movement on the sky, but measuring the Doppler shift can tell us if the star is moving towards or away from us. Unfortunately, if we do not know the plane of the planet's orbit, we cannot tell what the mass of the planet is. (For a given amount...
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Are we alone in the universe? This has been One of the great existential questions of our time. It's a question that people have been asking since the fifties. The majority of people do not believe in existence of aliens, but there are those who, without any shred of physical evidence, still believe. Why do these people believe this? There are several reason why. Hundreds of people from all over the world claim they have seen u.f.o.'s (unidentified flying object) that belong to aliens and that the aliens have even abducted them. Many people believe in extraterrestrial life yet we the public have no positive proof. All of the accounts of people seeing U.F.O.'s have all been shocking similar. The sightings date back to the fifties. Many of the sightings can be explained as new military air craft being tested but not all. The claim is always the same a saucer or triangular type of air craft darting across the sky at incredible speed. There are many videos and pictures of the sightings but most have proven to be hoaxes. Although many of the witnesses have been thrown aside and ridiculed there are those who are creditable. Dr. Bruce Cornet is one who claims to have shared experiences with one and believes there are many intelligent races out there. He is a well educated man and has taught at the university of Conn. and Penn. st. He claims that there are more than one sentient intelligent life living on earth (cornet,1995 paragraph 16). He believes that the e. t. 's have been abducting people and performing surgery to remove their reproductive parts. This procedure is being done to save the e. t.'s race, to create a human hybrid of their own race. Most abductees think this is the race they have been taken by. They witness a tall, gray figure with dark eyes. Dr. Cornet is no regular abductee, he is credable. Most believers...
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Are we evolving? And if so, into what? I most definitely think that we are evolving. "Evolution is all the change that have occurred in living things since the beginning of life." The same fundamental characteristic is shared by every and all-living things. For example, the fossil records, development, and biochemistry. Also Charles Darwin theory of education. Evolution is described as a process that involves a change in gene frequencies within the gene pool of a sexually reproducing population. "The Hardy-Weinberg law states that the gene pool frequencies arrive at an equilibrium that is maintained generation after generation unless disrupted by mutations, genetics drift, gene flow, nonrandom mating or natural selection. Any change from the initial allele frequencies in the gene pool of a population signifies that evolution has occurred." To elaborate; there is proof of evolution. The fossil record-there were left over and traces of past life. Traces that were found are traits, burrows, footprints, preserved dropping, and worm casts. Development shows how closely each organisms are related. Population genetics also allows us to see when and if evolution has occurred. Charles Darwin realized from his traveling all over the world that 'life forms change overtime and from place to place.' Darwin made a principle of organic evolution. One of those principle was his theory of natural selection which elaborates on how a species becomes adapted to its environment. The environment acts on an organism to pick which one is more suitable to adaptation instead of an environment changes, things changes. For example, an increase in technology is a change. More technology, less work, meaning weaker bones and muscle for human and probably for generation to come. In conclusion, yes we are evolving. We will always or rather, there will always be change whether good or bad. Now what we're evolving into, 'I don't know.' Due to fossil records, development, biochemistry, and so many more; I do know that, that is a sign...
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Dawn Lodewegen Ledocq Areas as Limits In 250 B.C., Archimedes derived the formula for the area of a circle. We were instructed to find the formula of the area of a circle using the same method that Archimedes did. Everyone should be familiar with the formula giving the area of a circle as a function of it's radius: A = pr2. We were instructed to look at the combined areas of inscribed triangles, and increase the number of triangles until we get closer and closer to the actual area of a circle. In order to carry out the instructions above we must first determine the area of one of the inscribed congruent triangles in terms of the radius and some appropriate angle. In this figure, the angle q = p/4 radians. If one is to put it into a general form q = 2p/n, where 2p is the distance around the circle and n is the number of triangles used. If we take one of these triangles out of the picture you get something like this: Using trigonometry you know that the sin(q/2) = b/2r and the cos(q/2) = h/r. When you put this into a general formula for n, you then get sin(2p/2n) = b/2r and cos(2p/2n) = h/r. When the two's cancel you then get your basic formulas and you can solve for b and h. sin(p/n) = b/2r à b = 2rsin(p/n) cos(p/n) = h/r à h = rcos(p/n) Once you have these formulas for b and h, you can then plug then into the formula, ½nbh. The limit of this formula is what will give you the area of your circle. We know this because if n = the number of triangles used and ½bh is the formula of the area of the triangles. As stated before as the number of triangles gets infinitely...
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In the Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle discusses the nature of intellectual virtue (excellence) and moral virtue (ethike) and defines them. He defines virtue as a state of character concerned with choice and lying in a mean, the mean being relative to us. This mean he says, is determined by a rational principle. It is a mean between two vices namely, excess and defect. Now virtue is concerned with passions and actions in which excess is a form of failure and so is defect whilst the intermediate is regarded as a form of success. Virtue is also the mean because the vices fall short or exceed what is right in both passions and actions whilst virtue both finds and chooses the intermediate. Thus in respect of the definition which states it's essence, virtue is a mean with regards to what is best and extreme. Things like temperance and courage have no excess or deficiency because what is intermediate is an extreme. Also passions like spite, envy, shamelessness and actions such as murder and adultery are bad and there are no excesses or deficiencies of them. According to Aristotle also, virtues are in us by nature and also by nurture for he states, " we are by nature equipped with the ability to receive them, and habit brings this ability to completion and fulfillment"(1103a24-26). The idea of virtues existing in us by nature only is excluded because virtues are changeable and everything that is by nature is nit changeable. Senses are natural while intellectual virtue is acquired by teaching and it needs experience. Moral virtue is gained by habit , it needs time to be developed , and is connected with action and emotion. Certain actions can be repeated over many times making for practice. However this practice may be good or bad. So by...
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Aristotle was a 4th century Greek philosopher, educator, and scientist. His work and writings in the areas of physics, biology, metaphysics, psychology, logic, ethics and politics laid the foundation for most of the sciences we study today. Life Aristotle was born in 384 B.C. in the small town of Stagira, which is located in northern Greece. His father, Nicomachus, was a physician to the King of Macedonia. Because of this relationship Aristotle had close connections to the Macedonian court. When Aristotle was seventeen years old both his parents died so he went to the Academy to study under Plato. While there he was considered to be the brightest student and was called the "intelligence of the school" and "reader" by Plato and others. Aristotle stayed at the Academy for twenty years and then left after the death of Plato in 347 B.C. Aristotle then went to Asia Minor to join Hermeais, a former student at the Academy. While he was there Aristotle married Pithias, Hermeais' adopted daughter. After that he spent two years in Lesbos studying marine biology. Around 342 B.C. Aristotle was asked by Philip II to come to the Macedonian court and teach his 13 year old son Alexander. This boy would become the conqueror of the world known as "Alexander The Great." He taught Alexander until 336 B.C. when Alexander became the ruler of Macedonia. Around 334 B.C. Aristotle, with money from Alexander the Great, went back to Athens and founded his own school called the Lyceum. At the Lyceum he collected the first great library and established a museum. Because he walked while teaching, Athenians called his school the Peripatetic which means "to walk about." He led his pupils in research in all fields of knowledge including a detailed study of nature. They dissected animals and studied the habits of insects. Aristotle developed the science of observation in which one first looks carefully, accumulates data, and then comes up with a theory. This was the foundation for the "Scientific Method" we use in...
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