A 45 year old man who is a vegetarian ( ovo-lacto), does not smoke or consume alcohol presents with the following blood work up. Blood pressure is typically 138/90. Asses his risk of coronary heart disease and describe changes associated with progressive atherosclerosis. Describe the disease process and pathological changes in his arteries. What lifestyle changes would you recommend? The blood work up that the patient has returned, is not a glowing health report but on the other hand its not reason to do into 'you are going to have a heart attack in the next 10 minutes' mode. But the consensus is not good and if the man does not do something about certain components presented in the blood work up he will definitely fall into the heart attack in minute's category. Due to his below level HDL s and the high level of his LDL, also he is above the reference range for cholesterol. It seems that he is very much at risk for coronary heart disease. This is because low levels of HDLs in the blood and high levels of LDLs is characteristic of the risk factor elevated serum lipids. ' High levels of low-density lipoproteins and low levels of high density lipoproteins place a person at extremely high risk of having a heart attack at a relatively young age – under 60.'(Whilmore J, Costil, D 647, 1999) What is wrong with having low levels of HDL? The letters HDL are an abbreviation for the words, high density lipoproteins. Lipoproteins are proteins that help transport cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood to and from certain components of the body. Lipoproteins help out with transport because cholesterol and triglycerides are non-polar. Non polarity makes lipoproteins highly insoluble in blood. High density lipoproteins are essential to the body because they transport cholesterol from the...
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This article from the New York Times states that a devastating insect, the Asian long-horned beetle, has reached America. Two workers for the USDA inspect these trees daily for signs of this retched insect, but they aren't allowed to inspect indoors, where over half the trees in New York City are. The beetles work like drills, within the hole they create, they lay their eggs, which eat away the wood and they came to America by infested crates of goods. Our government has spent $2.4 billion dollars trying to eradicate the beetle in North America. My opinion on this article was that it explained the problem of the beetle to readers. This beetle should be destroyed in our country because of the harm it can do. This is an example of why new species shouldn't be brought to a new ecosystem. I can understand why some people might not let inspectors onto their property, they may think they are lying and may steal stuff. I wouldn't let them in if they asked to be, even though they are federal agents. Some people may later notice tell the agents that their trees are dying, this would only happen if they were educated on the matter. The idea of sending brochures to people in New York is good because this way they understand what is happening and are more alert to it. I personally would be frightened id I say the beetle on a tree. In addition, New England's maple syrup industry may be threatened if the beetle reaches that far north, this would devastate the national economy more than it already is. I think the agents should capture some of the beetles and study them so they can create an insecticide for the beetle. In conclusion, this beetle is devastating our environment,...
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Assess the view that knowledge is justified true belief. "All men by their nature feel the urge to know" (Aristotle). To feel the urge to know to have the need to understand all we see, feel and touch in our world is the fundamental basis for being human. Without our ability to question, to prove and to understand we would still be in the realms of 'simple' animals. But to say we know something is not enough, we need irrefutable proof, we need reasons for what we believe. This is where the tripartite definition of knowledge comes in; knowledge as justified true belief, the clearest, surest way we have of determining knowledge. But this method could be flawed, as I will show later on in this essay, as we cannot truly know anything. Using a series of tests we can get to a state of almost inarguable truth. But being human and full of doubt we can always argue the flaws inherent in these tests. Human perceptions are as individual as the shape of our ears. Even the most logical mathematical testing is still at the mercy of the individual examining the results. What follows are the tests and their flaws, what beliefs are and what justifies those beliefs. But without sharing this knowledge what do we have? Nothing, to show what we know and how we know is the reason for knowledge. If I knew everything there was to know but was unable to show or prove this knowledge then I really know nothing, it is my personal belief, unjustified and untrue. If I could share and prove this knowledge and get the world to believe it then I would justify my belief as to what I know. There are three tests we can employ for determining the truth or the truth...
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Space exploration has always been intriguing to me. Ever since I was a kid, I have wanted to go to space. The thought of being weightless and able to float around is mind boggling. I love to watch the videos of astronauts eating. They can eat the food from the air. It just floats there. It is so weird to think about. Space exploration is much more than fun and games though. We do not know nearly anything about our universe, or even our galaxy. What is a black hole? What happens to plants at zero G. What is it like for bees to fly if there is no gravity? These are all questions that could not be answered without the help of astronauts. Black holes are among the most puzzling phenomenon's known to man. What are they? Well, we do know that whatever is at the center of these galactic vacuum cleaners has to be incredibly massive. There is a relationship between mass and gravitational force. So, theoretically if you had two pencils in the middle of space that were not affected by another mass, they would attract each other. This is a weird concept to think about. Not just anyone can be an astronaut. The men and women who go into space are finely tuned space exploring machines. They go through years of training for missions and have to pass extensive exams to even be considered for a mission. They have to be in top shape to withstand the G loads and strain on the body from being in space. When someone is in space, the lack of gravity gradually causes their bones to disintegrate. This was not a problem on the early space missions where the astronauts were only in space for a limited period of time. Recently however,...
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Laser beams, intergalactic thrusters and space tourism, sound like a sci-fi movie? Well as weird as it may be, the above proposals and other many similar ideas that once seemed only of imagination may soon be possible. Ever since the first days of man, the human race has been baffled by the heavens above always wondering what is out there and if the moon really is made of "Swiss cheese"? Over time the human race has developed machines and other devices to help itself and to explore our boundaries, from the invention of the wheel to the horse and cart, to trains, boats and cars and now the modern day space shuttle. Technology has greatly been a factor in what we have achieved in travel, being a limiting aspect to what can be achieved. To achieve adequate technology for further development, research must be conducted. Research and material development are one of the most expensive aspects of space travel in that there is so much that has to be taken into consideration for the pilot and/or the shuttle to arrive safely whilst staying under budget and using appropriate resources. Without space vehicles it will be practically impossible to learn more detail about the rest of the universe and of course the fact that the sun will eventually destroy all life on earth is another reason why humans may need space vehicles to survive in the future. Ever since Armstrong landed his spacecraft on the moon, the quest for more efficient, stronger space vehicle components and materials has continued. With more than just two countries showing interest in space research nowadays, the technological advances have significantly improved the equipment and techniques used. For space vehicles to be light yet durable, many are conducted of high quality yet metallic alloys including titanium for strength , resilience and high melting point. For long-distance journeys...
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Astronomy 20 Essay: Comparison of Astronomy Videos The Scale of the Cosmos, The Infinite Frontiers, Tools of Astronomy, The Sun, and Heaven and Hell Reviewed by Bobby Babaknia and Astronomy 20 (2:00-3:30 M-W) The following video tapes contain interesting facts about the universe and how it came about. In Cosmos, the Greeks studied and analyzed the skies in their own way. They discovered that the moon is a quarter of the size of the earths mass. The Greeks also found out that Neptune has eight moons revolving around it. After the Greeks, the Astronomers observed the universe and how it works. They are the new scouts for an entire human race, whom watch over the skies for any asteroids, comets, or any unidentified objects. In this video, I observed that the Greeks were true people to identify the universe and the stars. They are also very intelligent people that started the whole observation of the stars and what they mean. The Greeks have discovered many historical facts that have created many numeric systems, such as the calendar. After the Greeks, many other countries continue the constant change of the universe. Observing the video Infinite Frontiers, I discovered that the Chinese constellations have a system to identify stars in the universe. Hipparchus, an observer, identified the stars by their brightness. The lower the number on a star, the brighter the star glows. The Sun is also known as a source of life and nature. Another great fact was discovered by the ancient Babylonians, which saw the sun as a god or a spirit. The Heel Stone, which was discovered by the Greeks, has the sun rising in the middle, during the summer season. Following the Greeks, the Chinese observed the stars. The Stars helped navigate the Greeks and ran their calendar. The Greeks had a very...
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In the times of ancient Egypt and Greece, the early astronomers didn't have binoculars or telescopes. Yet the astronomers those days gathered the information and pieced together the theories that we now refer too. How did they do this? They would go outside of their huts at night and observe the heavens. They would then repeatedly go out day after day at the same time and chart any differences or similarities they saw. Over a long period of time this produced outstanding results. One of the major things that these ancient astronomers noticed was that the stars looked a little bit like animals and other items if you connected the dots. So of course they decided to name them, and thus was the origin of the constellations. There are many different constellations, most are named after gods and animals or other general items, and each one has its very own story. That's how the ancient people amused themselves, they didn't have TV's or computers, they only had the stars, Stars that told stories about the "Great Bear", "Orion The Hunter" or "Taurus The Bull". The constellations were also an important tool the ancient people used like a calendar. They noticed that there were 12 major "constellations" that went throughout the sky and then repeated themselves. They noticed that it took approximately 30 days for an entire constellation to pass throughout the sky. The reason this is, is because of the apparent path that the sun takes among the stars is called the Ecliptic. While the sun is moving along the Ecliptic it passes threw the 12 constellations and this is what created the Zodiac. There were many different views on what the Earth's significance to the universe was and how it worked along with the sun. In 2000 B.C the ancient...
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Astronaut Formal Training In order to become an astronaut, there are many different training tests and programs you have to take and pass. People wanting to become astronauts begin their formal space transportation system training during the year they become candidates. The candidate starts off by reading manuals and by taking computer-based training lessons on the different Orbiter systems, which range from propulsion to environmental control. Next, the candidates have to do the single system's trainer (SST). In this process, each astronaut is accompanied with an instructor who helps teach about the operations of each Orbiter subsystem. The soon to be formal astronauts, are trained in the SSTs to operate each system, to recognize malfunctions, and to perform corrective actions. After the astronauts complete the SST training program, they begin training in the complex Shuttle Mission Simulators (SMS). The SMS provide the astronauts with knowledge in all the areas of shuttle vehicle operations and in all system tasks having to do with the major flight phases. The major flight phases include prelaunch, ascent, orbit operations, entry, and landing. The orbit training includes payload operation, payload deployment, retrieval, and maneuvers. Some of these parts are taught to the astronauts at various base crew stations. In the beginning, astronauts use generic training software in the SMS until they are assigned to a specific flight. Approximately ten months before flight, astronauts train on a flight simulator with actual flight-specific training software. During the last eleven weeks, the astronauts also train with the flight controllers in the Mission Control Center (MCC). The astronauts and flight controllers learn to work as a team, solving problems and working together. After the flight assignment, the astronauts are in the SMS for about 300 hours. In addition to all previous training, the astronauts also have to go through programs that...
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Throughout the ages the study of what we call today chemistry has evolved into a highly developed point of study. One distinct element of chemistry is atomic theory. Throughout the ages atomic theory has been developed and extended by many different men who were all well-known chemists and physicists in their day. They developed the study of atoms from pure conjecture into known facts. John Dalton originally was a schoolteacher in England. He thought about atoms as particles, which could make up the elements of our universe. Dalton reasoned about the nature of compounds, his theory became known as the "law of multiple proportions: when two elements form a series of compounds, the ratios of the masses of the second element that combine with one gram of the first element can always be reduced to small whole numbers" (43). Dalton created his theory on atoms and their nature. It was made up of four parts. First, "each element is made up of tiny particles called atoms." Second, "The atoms of a given element are identical; the atoms of different elements are different in some fundamental way or ways." Third, "chemical compounds are formed when atoms of different elements combine with each other. A given compound always has the same relative numbers and types of atoms." Fourth, "chemical reactions involve reorganization of the atoms-changes in the way they are bound together. The atoms themselves are not changed in a chemical reaction." Dalton, using the information that he had deduced and assumptions that he had made, created a table of the atomic masses, also known as atomic weights. Despite the fact that many of the masses on Dalton's table were proved incorrect the creation of a table was a major step in the field of chemistry. (45) The ideas and information that Dalton produced...
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Word Count: 1,053 Attack of the Human Clone Lee M Silver, an expert in behavioral genetics, informs his audience in his essay "Cloning Misperceptions" that many people fear the cloning of human beings simply because of confusion over the true meaning of cloning and what it encompasses. He allows the reader to recognize why people may have gotten the wrong ideas about cloning and how these ideas if scrutinized, don't have a just place and are based on fictitious beliefs and stubborn mindsets. Silver uses the popular belief based on books and movies to show where these misconceptions came from and further uses science to disrepute such beliefs and persuade the reader that cloning is harmless and should be accepted because human personality is based on life experiences which cannot be genetically cloned. First, Silver discusses the usage of cloning by popular belief and then contrasts it to what cloning is scientifically. He states, "In its popular usage, clone refers to something that is a duplicate, or cheaper imitation, of a brand-name person, place, or thing" and then argues that scientists are not capable of making exact replicas, "Xerox copies" of a human being. Scientists are only able to start the process of life at the cell level. He then tells of how there has been much debate, especially in the religious realm, over the soul of a cloned being and the moral objections to such, but again refutes this theory with science stating that each individual, whether cloned or not, has its own personalities based on "unique" experiences. Lastly, Silver engages the reader in some misconceptions based on a book that fantasizes about governments potential uses of human cloning and uses logic and science to show where the story stops at just a story. As his claim, Silver wants the reader to believe...
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What is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? Attention Deficit Disorder is defined as a disorder in individuals who have difficulty maintaining an attention span because of their limited ability to concentrate and who exhibit impulsive actions. There are three sub-categories of attention deficit disorder: a) Attention deficit – Have difficulty focusing consistently. b) Hyperactivity - Are generally very over active and cannot stay still for long c) Impulsive - Frequently act without thinking and cannot make sound judgment. EATING DISORDERS What are eating disorders? Eating disorders are real illnesses that affect how we eat and how we feel about food. People who have eating disorders have unhealthy ways, or patterns, of eating. They may eat too much and become overweight, or way too little and become very thin. Types of eating disorder a) Anorexia nervosa – this is a condition whereby someone eats so little, or nothing at all they actually begin to starve b) Bulimia nervosa – A person can also eat an extreme amount of food all at once and then do things like vomit to rid the body of food c) Binge eating disorder – this is a condition whereby a person may not be able to control the need to overeat, often keeping it a secret. How can you tell if someone has an eating disorder? Because many people with eating disorders keep them a secret, their conditions can go unnoticed for long periods of time, even years. With anorexia, signs such as extreme weight loss are easier to see. But, bulimics who can stay at their normal body weight may be better able to hide their illness. Family members and friends may notice some of the warning signs of an eating disorder. A person with anorexia may: a) Eat only "safe" foods, low in calories and fat. b) Have odd rituals, such as cutting food into small pieces or measuring food. c) Spend...
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When it comes to interpersonal attraction and intimate relationships, it is popularly believed that love is what makes the world go round, although Rubin and McNeil (1983) believed it had more to do with liking. They proposed that love, was not an 'intense physical symptom' but that it was a particular sort of attitude that one person has towards another. Dion et al (1972) picked up on this opinion of love being merely an attitude and devised the attractiveness stereotype. He found that photos of more attractive people were credited with more desirable qualities, thus forming the hypothesis that attractive people have more attractive personalities. Another hypothesis about attractiveness formed was the social exchange theory, proposed by Roger Brown (1986). This predicts that individuals who are willing to become romantically involved with each other will be fairly closely matched in their ability to reward one another. Brown's hypothesis seems to have similar grounds to that of Berscheid et al (1971). He claimed that couples who have affectionate relations should appear to be of the same level of physical attractiveness to outside observers. It is this statement, which may have led to Murstein's work on the 'matching hypothesis' in 1972. He took photographs of 99 couples. Participants (Judges) rated the photographs on a five-point scale on their level of attractiveness without knowing who the couples were. The couples also had to rate their own partners physical attractiveness. The participants' ratings strongly supported the matching hypothesis and partners received very similar ratings and theses were more alike than the same ratings given to random couples (i.e. the actual couples randomly sorted into couples to form a control group). He concluded that 'Individuals with equal market value for physical attractiveness are more likely to associate in an intimate relationship…than individuals with disparate values'. Cardwell et al (1992)...
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'Discuss the extent to which the three main theories of attribution plain how we attribute the behaviour of others.' The point of attribution theory is to attempt to understand personality from the behaviour of other people. It sets out to explain how individuals perceive the causes for events and their outcomes. When we make an attribution we are attempting to determine a cause for a particular event, essentially we attempt to answer the question "why do people act the way they do?" There are three main attribution theories and each attempt to explain how we attribute personality onto behaviour. Each has different perspectives and each have problems. The first of these theories was developed by Fritz Heider in the 1950's. Heider is considered the founder of attribution theory. His model is known as causal explanation. He suggested people systematically evaluate causes of behaviour in a commonsense search to understand why things happen. He believed this was because we need to form a coherent understanding of the world. Heider tried to specify the rules we follow, although these rules are unconscious, they allow us to arrive at a personality trait for individuals. What we must determine, in order to arrive at an accurate attribution, is whether the behaviour of a person was forced (externally by the situation or environment) or if it was by choice of the individual (internal). This is a very important distinction as it greatly effects the attribution. For example if a person works hard, are they forced (external) or if it is of personal desire (internal). Internal attributions consist traits such as friendly or aggressive, hardworking or lazy. External attributions are things such as luck/chance, the situation (beyond a persons control) and the influence of others. The second main attribution theory is the co variation principle devised by Kelley in 1967....
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Tasks. 1. Explain why the Chinese government introduced the one child policy in 1979. The one child policy was introduced to china in 1979 to limit china's population growth. It limits couples to only one child. The policy was adopted to ensure that China, a country that has historically been prone to severe flooding and famine, would be able to feed its people. The rapid population growth that occurred after the Communist Party came to power had put a strain on the government's efforts to help its people. So in an attempt to combat the widespread poverty and improve the overall quality of life, the one-child policy was gradually adopted. Family planning advocates delayed marriage and child bearing, fewer and healthier births, and one child per couple in the extremely urbanized areas, such as Beijing and shanghai. A couple in agricultural and pastoral areas may have a second child, and an even more flexible policy is held for farmers and herdsmen with difficulties such as a shortage of labor power. In such areas that are inhabited by a small population of ethnic minorities, there are no restrictions at all. So in reality. The "one child policy" really applies to only the already densely populated costal areas. 2. What will the consequences be for china if the One Child Policy does not succeed? Some of the consequences will be · Poorer living conditions · Chinas food and water supply dwindles. · Higher risk of health problems · More unauthorized children that won't be able to receive medical treatment or schooling. · Population might reach 1.4 billion by the year 2010 3. Outline the incentives and disincentives that the Chinese government has put into place in an attempt to make the one child policy work efficiently. Incentives There are many benefits to obeying the one child policy. The most important is the "One Child Certificate."...
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April 4, 2003 Biology P. 7 Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty Problem Statement What molecule allows the transfer of genetic information to transform Streptococcus pneunomoniae from a non virulent (R) strand to a virulent strand (S) of Streptococcus pneunomoniae? Background In 1928 an army doctor named Fred Griffith tried to develop a vaccine against Streptococcus pneunomoniae which caused a type of pneumonia. Griffith had no success in creating a vaccine, but he found out that the bacteria had two different forms. One form was the smooth (S) form and the other was the rough form (R). The rough (R) form of the bacteria was not harmful, but the smooth (S) form was lethal. He created an experiment in which he Heat-Killed the lethal smooth form of the bacteria and mixed them with the harmless rough form. When he did this he discovered that the rough form of the bacteria was "transformed" into the lethal smooth (S) form of the bacteria. Hypothesis If SIII, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and RNase (enzymes which break down sugars, proteins, and RNA) are combined with the S strand of Streptococcus pneunomoniae and it continues to transform the R strand into the S strand then DNA is the molecule that holds genetic information (DNA is the transformation principle). Variables Extraneous variables - Sterile equipment (droppers, test tubes, etc.) - Sterile enzyme solutions - Same temperature - Same humidity - Same ventilation - Same air - Same enzymes used - Same amount of time for enzymes to react - Same techniques used to mix enzymes Experimental variable - The ability of the S strand to transform the R strand into the S strand. Materials - Detergent (for lysing) - Enzyme SIII - Enzyme Trypsin - Enzyme Chymotrypsin - Enzyme RNase - Enzyme DNase - Alcohol (for precipitation of nucleic acids) - Test tubes - Droppers - Microscope - Wet slides - Bunsen burner - Live S strand Streptococcus pneunomoniae - Live R strand Streptococcus pneunomoniae Procedure 1. Put S strands of Streptococcus pneunomoniae into a test tube. 2. Heat-kill...
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Jamie and Will are set into the mountains of Colorado to investigate a bizarre tornado touchdown that did not produce precipitation. While they are in the mountains, they fine an area of forest that is being clear-cut by a secret government organization and used to launch rockets. Apparently, this government organization is sending up rockets to pull down lightning to create their own deadly weather. When Jamie and Will experiment this hypothesis by sending up their own rocket, dozens or balls of lightning fall from the sky and bounce along the ground. Although this is only a scene from the movie "Storm Chasers: Revenge of the Twister," ball lightning actually is thought to exist. The question researchers ask is, what is ball lightning? The only aspect scientists know for sure it that ball lightning is a type of lightning that appears as a glowing ball of energy floating or bouncing through the air. First of all, ball lightning is a sphere of light that can come in a multiple range of sizes, colors, and time of existence. According to Schonland lightning balls can range in size from a half of inch to six feet in diameter, the color can be red, white, yellow, or blue, and its life can last from a few seconds to a few minutes (54). He also explains the movement of ball lightning over the ground as bouncing, rolling, and hovering (54). Muir says that this type of lightning can shine like a one hundred watt light bulb but it does not seem to give off any heat (1). Many scientists say that ball lightning is an extremely rare event. Others go as far as doubt the existence of this phenomenon. This leads to the question of whether ball lightning is real or not. Meteorology textbooks in the...
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*Growth of bean plants* Control variables: Distilled water, vinegar, sugar water Experimental variables: water Title: Chemical and water affectance on bean plants Purpose: Do different chemicals such as distilled water, sugar and vinegar affect the growth of bean plants. Materials and apparatus: Materials Water Distilled water Sugar Vinegar Seeds (bean, color white) Natural sunlight Regular oxygen Regular CO2 Space Competition (other plants) Nutrients Temperature 12 plastic cups Soil Experimental variable; vinegar & water Apparatus 100 ml beaker Measuring spoon Cups 10ml graduated cylinder Soil Ruler Seeds Diagram Control Variable; water experimental variable; distilled water experimental variable, sugar water mmm,.nm Procedure: 1. Gather all materials 2. Put on safety goggles 3. Setup control experiment by, getting 60ml of soil and putting it in the bottom on the cup 4. Then place 4 seeds on top, being the same distance apart 5. Afterwards place 40ml of coil on top of seeds 6. When that's done, measure 20ml of water and water the plant 7. Do the same steps in 2 other cups 8. Get a piece of paper, and label, control experiment, water. 9. Do these same steps for Distilled, vinegar, sugar water, having 3 cups for each substance. 10. Water plants every 3 days, using the same amount of water (20ml) 11. Take data everyday, by measuring the height, width, color of leaves, # of leaves, and divide it by 12 each, to get average 12. Do all this for 15 days; observe the different changes a plant will go through. Hypothesis: I predict that the distilled water, will make a plant go faster because, its more pure and will probably make get its nutrients faster. After the distilled water, I say that vinegar & water will make the plant go faster also. However, it wont make it grow as fast as distilled, because probably the chemicals that the vinegar contains, are strong and it will take the plant longer to retain its energy because the...
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Running Head: BEHAVIORAL THEORY AND MYTHOLOGY Behavioral Theory and the Mythology that Surrounds Behaviorism Psychology 271, Fall 2003 - Burgess Jaclyn A. Shandy-Pinto California State University, Sacramento Behavior is a core part of our everyday experience. What we do and why we behave in specific ways has been a topic of debate for centuries. Over 3,000 years ago, the Greeks began to have philosophical discussions about our behavior, intelligence, emotions, thoughts and dreams. Early philosophers such as Socrates, Plato and Aristotle were among the first to question how we learn and what is knowledge, behavior and intelligence. It was around this time period that science and psychology (science of behavior) began to emerge. For many years, learning and behavior were attributed to "internal" causations. We behave in specific ways because we "want to" or because we "need to." It was thought that something inside of a person determined what that person did. It was not until the "theory of evolution" was formed that internal causations for behavior were questioned. Darwin suggested there was a continuity of species and humans and other organisms were part of an ongoing evolutionary process, subject to similar influences and principles such as natural selection and the survival of the fittest. This suggested that we were the same as other organisms and led to the research of animals, animal behavior and animal learning. If it is true that there is an internal cause to human behavior, than would it also be true that animals have "minds" since they display reflexes and had organs similar to the human? Watson was among the first to study this notion by looking at instincts and replacing "feelings" and "states of mind" with habits. He noted that behavior was the observed form of instincts and habits. Watson began an early movement in psychology that is referred...
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Bernoulli, Daniel (February 8, 1700 – March 17, 1782) is the most distinguished of the second generation of the Bernoulli family of Swiss mathematicians. He was a Swiss physicist and mathematician who made important discoveries in hydrodynamics. He was the only member of his family to make a mark in physics. He investigated not only mathematic but also such fields as medicine, biology, physiology, mechanics, physics, astronomy, and oceanography. Bernoulli's theorem, which he derived, is named after him. Daniel Bernoulli was the second son of Johann Bernoulli, who first taught him mathematics. After studying philosophy, logic, and medicine at the Universities of Heidelberg, Strasbourg, and Basel, he received an M.D. degree (1721); and in 1723-24 he wrote Exercitationes quaedam Mathematicae on differential equations and the physics of flowing water, which won him a position at the influential Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg, Russia. Bernoulli lectured there until 1732 in medicine, mechanics, and physics, and he researched the properties of vibrating and rotating bodies and contributed to probability theory. In that same year he returned to Basel to accept the post in anatomy and botany. By then he was widely esteemed by scholars and also admired by the public. Daniel's reputation was established in 1738 with Hydrodynamica, in which he considered the properties of basic importance in fluid flow, particularly pressure, density, and velocity, and set forth their fundamental relationship. The Hydrodynamica is both a theoretical and a practical study of equilibrium, pressure and velocity of fluids. He put forward what is called Bernoulli's principle, which states that the pressure in a fluid decreases as its velocity increases. He also established the basis for the kinetic theory of gases and heat by demonstrating that the impact of molecules on a surface would explain pressure and that, assuming the constant, random motion of...
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Fractals What are fractals? Fractal geometry provides us with a new viewpoint to see the world. For centuries scientists used the line as a building block to understand the objects around us. Chaos science uses a different geometry called fractal geometry. Fractal geometry is a new language used to describe, and examine difficult forms found in nature. Fractal is a name coined by Mandelbrot in the 1960's. Fractals are the division of geometry dealing with broken curves. Mandelbrot came up with the idea of a fractal as a way to manage problems of scale. He defined a fractal to be any curve or surface that is free of scale. This property, referred to as self-similarity, which means that any portion of the curve, if was divided in scale, would appear identical to the whole curve. Mandelbrot worked with fractals but it wasn't him that discovered them, he got the idea from other scientist that had worked with them before. When fractals were discovered they did not interest people, they thought that it did not affect there way of life. After some time a man named Mandelbrot stared to study fractals and then self-similarity, he then discovered that the concept of fractals was something with an extraordinary importance to the world. For example, if you look inside of a triangle you can see that the triangle if formed by identical little triangles, well excuse this picture for not being proportional but the real thing is. The world soon discovered that fractals could be used in engineering, physics, and biology. How? there are many kinds of fractals...
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