Describe the physics involved in the safety features in cars. Introduction Every minute, on average, at least two people die in a crash. If you read this essay from start to finish, 20 or more deaths will have occurred across the globe by the time you are done. Road traffic injuries represent about 25% of worldwide injury-related deaths (the leading cause) with an estimated 1.2 million deaths (2004) each year as said by the World Health Organization. Car crashes will also injure at least 10 million people this year, two or three million of them seriously. All told, the hospital bills, damaged property, and other costs will add up to 1-3 percent of the world's gross domestic product, according to the Paris-based Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. For the United States alone, the tally will amount to roughly US $200 billion. This essay will discuss how engineers have been chipping away at these staggering numbers over the past 50 years. History Car safety has been an issue since the automobile was first invented, and was highlighted when Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot crashed his steam-powered "Fardier" against a wall in 1771.One of the earliest recorded automobile fatalities was Mary Ward, on August 31, 1869 in Parsonstown, Ireland. In the 1940's there was much work being done with safety in airplanes. A lot of this work focused on the take off and landing process, as this was were most plane crashes occurred. This resulted in many improvements with the overall workings of the planes, such as brakes and engines, but also resulted in many safety features being created for the inside of the plane and its passengers. This research was the first of its kind, and many of its results started to flow over into the car-making field, and before long, safety features in cars became an industry...
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Science has an overwhelming way of trying to find a reason for anything and everything that occurs on, under and over the surface of the earth. If a thing cannot be explained by science then it is either dubbed as superstition or coincidence. One such mystery churned out after years of inhabiting this earth is the Bermuda triangle. For years, it has baffled scientists worldwide and evaded any logical explanation for its existence other than perhaps as a symbol of Nature's superiority over mankind. In the past 100 years over 1000 lives have been claimed by the Bermuda triangle. This barely results in about 10 lives per year. It is not the 'number' of lives lost that is astounding but 'how' these lives were lost. The term 'Bermuda Triangle' was first coined by Mr. Vincent H. Gaddis in his article, which featured in the magazine 'Argosy: Magazine of Masterpiece fiction' in 1964. The advent of the legends, shrouding the 'Bermuda Triangle', date back to the times of Christopher Columbus. In fact much about him is known through his journals itself, thus leaving no roam for doubt as to the validity of his findings. Columbus first ran into problems in the Sargasso sea, where his crew members spotted sea weed and land birds even when land was no where in sight. To add to his troubles his compass refused to respond properly and the following day he spotted a large meteor falling from the sky. His crewmembers even saw what they termed as 'dancing lights' in the horizon. This turned out to be just the beginning. Since that day over 100 ships and planes have disappeared while traversing this region. Some of the notable instances date back to 1945 when 5 Navy avengers disappeared (Flight 19). A more recent one is in 1972 when...
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Chaos, making a NEW science????? Now wait, you might be thinking now that you are very familiar with chaos. Well, it's been in your room for as long as you can think back and some might even admit that it's in their minds… So what's so very new and amazing about it???? Don't we encounter chaos everywhere in our everyday-lives, for example if we repeatedly curse the poor weather forecaster on TV for the wrong prediction and in fact it can't be more than a prediction or have you ever wondered who designs the beautifully complex snowflakes???? And what about the column of smoke from a cigarette which first rises steadily, but then breaks into wild swirls??? And have you ever thought of chaos as a science or theory like the quantum theory or Einstein's theory of relativity? Probably not and this is exactly what scientists still thought just 20 years ago because the problem of chaos is a deep problem. Author: James Gleick, the author of this truly captivating book, has actually created an account or a kind of collection of all the research on chaos done by more than hundred scientists since the Sixties. He was born in New York City and graduated from Harvard College. Furthermore, he was an editor and reporter at the New York Times for ten years and currently lives in New York with his wife and son. "Chaos, making a new science" or "The amazing science of the unpredictable" was a 1987 National Book Award and Pulitzer Prize nominee, the famous prize for journalism and letters. The laws of chaos can be understood in so many ways that not even scientists could agree on them, but I will try my best at introducing you to this new scientific world step by step in the presentation to come. One...
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The foundations of the Endocrine System consist of hormones and glands. These glands are ductless and their secretions are sent through the bloodstream. Endocrine glands also control bodily metabolic activity. The major glands that make up the human endocrine system are the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pineal body, the pancreas, and the reproductive glands, which include the ovaries and testes. The endocrine system has three basic functions, regulate metabolic functions of the body, regulate rate of chemical reactions in various cells, and to influence the ability of substances to transport themselves through cell membranes. The endocrine system works in the following way, a hormone is secreted, it travels from the endocrine gland through the bloodstream to the target cells. Along the way to the target cells, special proteins bind to some of the hormones. The special proteins act as carriers that control the amount of hormone that is available to interact with and affect the target cells. Also, the target cells have receptors that latch onto only specific hormones, and each hormone has its own receptor, so that each hormone will communicate only with specific target cells that possess receptors for that hormone. When the hormone reaches its target cell, it locks onto the cell's specific receptors and these hormone-receptor combinations transmit chemical instructions to the inner workings of the cell. There are many things that can go wrong with the endocrine system. For example, Adrenal insufficiency, which causes weakness, fatigue, abdominal pain, nausea, dehydration, and skin changes. Malfunctions in the endocrine system also result in diabetes type 1 and 2. Diabetes is when the pancreas, an endocrine gland, fails to produce enough insulin. Some symptoms include excessive thirst, hunger, urination, and weight loss. Another malfunction of the endocrine system can be growth hormone problems. Growth hormone in children who are...
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Galileo a great Italian astronomer, mathematician, and physicist. By his persistent investigation of natural laws he laid foundations for modern experimental science, and by the construction of astronomical telescopes he greatly enlarged humanity's vision and conception of the universe. He gave a mathematical formulation to many physical laws. His mission was to study the chemical composition and physical state of the largest planet in the solar system, its atmosphere, and four of its moons, for almost two years. The spacecraft encountered the asteroid 951 Gaspra on Oct. 29, 1991, and took the first close-up photographs ever of an asteroid in space. On Aug. 28, 1993, it passed by asteroid 243 Ida and took close-up photographs, which revealed that Ida has a tiny moon. Upon arrival at Jupiter, Galileo released a probe into the planet's atmosphere that descended for 57 minutes before it was destroyed by the planet's extreme temperature and pressure. In 1996, Galileo visited and photographed Jupiter's large moons Io, Callisto, and Europa and made flybys of Io, Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto in 1997. Galileo was named for the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei, who discovered the four great moons of Jupiter that were the major targets of this mission. Galileo initially worked with and established his expertise in the study of terrestrial dynamics. Galileo's beginning experiments with the pendulum, and it's movement, were what later spurred on the very important mid 17th century development of the pendulum clock timepiece by Hautefeuille. If Galileo had only chosen to stick with his primary field of scientific endeavor, then he would have most likely gotten lost among a larger field of astronomers and inventors of his time and age. Galileo ended up fathering a brand new branch of astronomy, laying the building blocks of modern astronomy, and changing his own life and destiny...
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In 1905, Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity was proposed. The reason that it is so "special" is because it was part of the more complex and extensive Theory of General Relativity, which was published in 1915. His theory reshaped the world of physics when it contradicted all previous laws of motion erected by Galileo and Newton. By mathematically manipulating these previous laws of motion, physicists in the nineteenth century were able to explain such phenomena as the flow of the ocean, the orbits of planets around the sun, the fall of rocks, and the random behavior of molecules in gases. At first, Einstein faced great opposition when he came up with his radical new theory because the previous laws of motion proposed by Galileo and expanded upon by Newton had remained valid for over two hundred years. However, it wouldn't be long before the "cement" in the foundation of Newtonian and Galilean physics would begin to crumble. Galileo had determined in 1608 that merely addition and subtraction could calculate relative speeds. Suppose that an observer stands on the side of the highway, and they watch two cars approach each other at 30 and 40 miles per hour. If they were to ask the question, "how fast is the 40 mile per hour car moving relative to the 30 mile per hour car?" They could solve the problem easily by adding the two speeds of the cars, which would equal 70 miles per hour. This means that the 40 mile per hour car sees the 30 mile per hour car advance at a speed of 70 miles per hour and vice versa. At the core of Newtonian physics was the fact that space and time were absolute. Newton's absolute space was the space of everyday experience with its three dimensions: east-west, north-south, and...
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Black Holes: Infinity and Beyond What are black holes? Black Hole Dynamics Research Essay If theories of their existence are true, black holes are the most powerful force in the known physical universe. Many people are familiar with the term black hole, but few people actually know anything about them. A black hole forms as a result of a massive star running out of fuel to burn (Chaisson, 193). Once the star is no longer exerting outward force by burning off gases, it begins to collapse under it's own intense, inward gravity (Chaisson, 193). It is like slowly letting the air out of a balloon. Once the star is compacted to a certain size, while it's mass, or weight, remains the same, it's gravity becomes so powerful that nothing can escape it (Hawking, 87). This critical size to weight ratio is known as the Schwarzchild Radius (Hawking, 87). Once a black hole is created in this way, an invisible area, or line around it exists. If any object crosses this line, it can no longer escape the gravitational force of the black hole (Hawking, 87). This line is called the event horizon (Hawking, 87). If black holes are proven to exist, beyond theoretical physics, then they would probably be a very common anomaly in this universe. In 1915, Albert Einstein put forth the first real proposition of such an anomaly in his "Theory of Relativity" (Bunn, Black Holes FAQ). In the 1930s, three physicists, doctors Volkoff, Snyder and Oppenheimer, were able to prove the validity of black holes mathematically. Since then, black holes have become a very important and integral part of science and the over all understanding of the universe. It has been proven, mathematically, that black holes have infinite, gravity based, escape velocities and an immense effect on light, time...
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In this study, I studied the topic of arranged marriages. Some of the areas that I covered were the history of arranged marriages, the future of them, what is in involved in the process as well as how people feel about them in today's society. I followed 3 methods of research. The first was reading through books and journals as well as searching on the Internet for other people's theories and background information on this topic. The second method was conducting a survey that led me to see how normal people in today's society felt towards arranged marriages. And the last method was interviewing a couple who had married back 25 years ago in the form of an arranged marriage and we discussed how they felt about it and whether or not they would impose that upon their children. In today's society, arranged marriages amongst South Asians is not as common as it once was. In this literature, we will explore the different aspects or arranged marriages mainly in the South Asian culture but also in other cultures as well. This review also makes reference to the other cultures that participate in this custom, as well as how society has portrayed it then and now. The Process As far as India is concerned, arranged marriages have been taking place since the beginning of time. It was very simple. The man needed a wife, the young woman a husband. Interested friends and relatives created opportunities for them to meet (MacMillan, 1988). Back even before the 1800's, it was highly unlikely that the women be aloud to meet or even speak to who had been chosen for her. When one's parents felt that it was time for their child to be married, they would spread the word around their village. Suitable matches would be found....
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Charles Robert Darwin The controversial argument between what man has grown up believing and the facts of science would set a landmark in the modern scientific community today. This landmark would be set in history by the English naturalist Charles Robert Darwin and his theory of man's evolving genes in natural selection. Charles Robert Darwin was born on February 12, 1809 in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England. He was the fifth child and second son of Robert Darwin and Susannah Wedgwood . Charles Darwin's father, Dr. Robert Darwin, was a well respected figure in Shrewsbury by both rich and poor. Dr. Robert Darwin was also a member of well-read people with strong Whig leanings. A Whig is a person that belonged to the Wig Party that championed for parliamentary reform . As a young child Charles, in his mind, was not a normal child for he was fond of doing very strange things. Some of these weird things were like the time when he beat a puppy just for the feeling of power. Another one of the strange things that Charles as a child did was that he would collect eggs but only take one egg from a bird nest at a time. The education that Charles received as a child was at first from his sister before going to day school. Unsucceful at school he was removed two years before completion. That summer he spent his time accompanying a doctor on his rounds. Later that year he went with his brother to Edinburgh University. Edinburgh University is England's best University for medicine. The Darwins had been studying medicine there for three generations. This knowledge of medicine would come to great use when dissecting specimens. Charles Darwin had heard many times during his childhood from his father that, "people with powerful minds generally had...
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In modern Euro-American culture, if a man were to simply mention the idea of buying a wife he would face certain ridicule and would be considered sexist. Wife buying is not a 'pc' option in today's society as it stands in direct opposition to the mainstream idea of women's liberation and independence. That is not to say that it doesn't happen (remember the show "Who wants marry a Millionaire?") it is just to say that it is not overtly accepted. Waterlily, by Ella Cara Deloria, details the religious and cultural rituals of a Dakota woman in the nineteenth century. In the novel the protagonist, Waterlily, faces the prospect of being 'purchased' for marriage. If one applies the mainstream world-view to this situation, it suggests that the Dakota culture may have been oppressive to women. However, although often forgotten, the mainstream Euro-American world-view is not the only one that exists. "The ultimate aim of Dakota life, stripped of accessories, was quite simple; one must obey kinship rules; one must be a good relative. No Dakota who has participated in that life will dispute that. In the last analysis every other consideration was secondary – property, personal ambition, glory, good times, life itself. Without that aim and the constant struggle to attain it, the people would no longer be Dakotas in truth. They would no longer even be human. To be a good Dakota, then was to be humanized, civilized. And to be civilized was to keep the rules imposed by kinship for achieving civility, good manners, and a sense of responsibility toward every individual dealt with. Thus only was it possible to live communally with success; that is to say, with a minimum of friction and a maximum of good will" (Deloria, Waterlily x) In the case of Waterlily's marriage, of which she...
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Archaeology is a similar job to anthropology. Both study the various different cultures through out the world. The major difference is where their information is gathered from. Anthropologist get most of their info from living people and their skeletal remains. Where as an archaeologist finds the artifacts left behind. They gather these artifacts by excavation and are able to tell us a lot about our ancestors. Certain artifacts or sites can tell us all sorts of things such as the type of government, human behavior, how the culture ran itself, social organization, and especially the contact between other groups around the world. All this does not come without its problems. Dig sites (a term used to signify an excavation site) are being destroyed in many ways. Environmental issues, political change, everyday expansion of the human race, thieves searching for buried treasure, and poor excavation are just a few problems that affect an archaeologist job. The Paleolithic era is divided into three periods. The Lower, Middle, and Upper. Much of our advancement from "cavemen" to modern humans happened in the Upper Paleolithic. This portion of time is then separated into 5 groups based on the technology and tools. They are Chatelperronian, Aurignacian, Gravettian, Solutrean, and Magdalenian. Some of the new ideals and beliefs that came out of the Paleolithic time concerned nature. Nature was seen as a wild threat and home of the barbarians and beast. We went from our equality with nature to the Greco-Roman era to the Judeo Christian days and now into science. Some more changes were everyday tools. Such as spears. A simple point would let a fish slide off after stabbing it or the spear would fall out of a running deer. A spear designed with notches similar to today's fish hooks. The materials that tools were made of also...
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A quiet, graceful testimonial to a vanishing way of life, I Heard the Owl Call My Name was Margaret Craven's first book, written when she was sixty-nine. It tells of a young vicar named Mark, sent to a remote Kwakiutl village not knowing he has less than three years to live. In the village, Mark comes to understand the Kwakiutl Indians around him and sees how their traditions are being destroyed through the influence of white men. He watches the "English woman anthropologist" who comes to study the natives and insists upon calling the villagers "Quackadoodles;" he experiences the impact when the government declares it legal for Indians to buy liquor and when traders cheat the villagers out of their cultural treasures; he sees the children lose their ties with their families and heritage while living in residential schools among whites. In striking contrast to the avarice and arrogance of most whites is the selflessness of the Kwakiutls and the beauty of running salmon, tall trees, and tribal festivals. Mark becomes a part of the Kwakiutl world, learning its language and ways, until finally "Time had lost its contours. He seemed to see it as the raven or the bald eagle, flying high over the village, must see the part of the river that had passed the village, that had not yet reached the village, one and the same." Gentle, full of profound philosophy, this is a book that both calms and disquiets, saddens and exhilarates. -- For great reviews of books for girls, check out Let's Hear It for the Girls: 375 Great Books for Readers 2-14....
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The spiritual, religious and cultural beliefs the Native Americans of Kingcome village possess are strong and tightly bound. They are connected physically and mentally to everything that surrounds them. The land, nature and people are a fundamental part of who they are. Yet the opportunities waiting for them in white society provide hope for a different life of freedom, independence, education and wealth. In Margaret Craven's epic novel I Heard The Owl Call My Name, both characters, Gordon and Keetah face the problem of living in two completely different and contrasting worlds, the 'Indian' world and the 'White' world. In the novel the importance of land, nature and people form the basis of the Kwakwala tribes' Indian culture and religious belief system. "The Indian knows his village and feels for his village as no white man for his country, his town, or even for his own bit of land" (Craven, 1976: 12) The idea of living in 'both worlds' causes inner and external turmoil for both Gordon and Keetah. Both know and feel for their village, yet have different hopes and aspirations as to what their futures may hold. They worry about fulfilling their own personal desires whilst at the same time trying to please the disapproving tribal elders, who believe that young Indians are lured into white society through temptations of education and a 'better' life. " When the young leave, the world takes them, and damages them. They no longer listen when the elders speak. They go, and soon the village will go also. (Craven, 1976: 50) To the elders white society 'damages' young Indians, stripping them of their respect and understanding of Indian culture and influences them to practise what they see as the 'negative' ways of the whites'. It is through the so called 'advantages' present in white society that the...
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In the southwestern United States, above northern Arizona, are three mesas. The mesas create the home for the Hopi Indians. The Hopi have a deeply religious, isolated, tribal culture with a unique history. The Hopi stress group cooperation. The tribe is organized around a clan system. In a clan system, all the members consider themselves relatives. The clans form a social glue that has held the Hopi villages together. Clan membership provides a singular Hopi identity. The Hopi have a highly developed belief system which contains many gods and spirits. Ceremonies, rituals, dances, songs, and prayers are celebrated in year-round. The Hopi believed they were led to the arid southwestern region of America by their creator, because he knew they had the power to evoke rain with power and prayer. Consequently, the Hopi are connected to their land, its agricultural cycles and the constant quest for rainfall, in a religious way. The religious center of the community is the kiva, which is an underground room with a ladder protruding above the roof. The kiva is very important for several reasons. From the kiva, a connection is made with the center of the earth. Also, the kiva is symbolic for the emergence to this world. The room would represent the underworld and the ladder would represent the way to the upper world. In fact, a room is kept in the house to store ceremonial objects. A sacred ear of corn protects the room and symbolizes the ancestry of the family members. Kachinas are also a focal point of the religion. For a Hopi, they signify spirits of ancestors, dieties of the natural world, or intermediaries between man and gods. The Hopi believe that they are the earth's caretakers, and with the successful performance of their ceremonial cycle, the world will remain in balance,...
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Thousands of years ago, during the last ice age, mile-thick glaciers covered a vast portion of North America, and the Asian continent was joined to North America by a land bridge. The Arctic areas of Alaska, Beringia, and Siberia were free of ice. Vast herds of caribou, muskoxen, and bison migrated to these plains. Following them were the nomadic Asian ancestors of today's Inuit and Indians. The doorway to Asia closed about three or four thousand years later as the glaciers receded and melted. These people: the Inuit (meaning the people), adapted to their harsh tundra environment and developed a culture that remained untainted for a long time. The Inuit people relied solely on hunting for their existence. With summers barely lasting two months, agriculture was non-existent. Animals such as caribou and seal were vital. Groups of hunters would stalk and kill many caribou with fragile bows made of driftwood, and their bounty was split evenly amongst the tribe. Bone spears were fashioned to hunt seals which provided food, oil, clothes, and tents. The seal skins were also used to construct kayaks and other boats that the Inuit would use to travel and to hunt whales. One advantage of the sterile cold of the arctic was that it kept these people free of disease (until they met the white man.) Inuit tribes consisted of two to ten loosely joined families. There was no one central leader in the group: all decisions were made by the community as a whole. Nor was there any definite set of laws; the Inuit, though usually cheery and optimistic, were prone to uncontrolled bursts of rage. Murder was common amongst them and it went unpunished unless an individual's murders occured too often. At that point, that person was deemed unstable, and the community appointed a man to...
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Two types of division of labour in two different hunting-gathering societies The division of labour in these hunter-gatherer societies is well balanced, and is organised to suit the needs of all of the members of the society. Every member of these societies plays a contributes in some way to the community throughout their life. The !Kung San Bushmen, Kalahari Desert, South Africa- Although a large group, it is divided into small bands, with each band being made up of between twenty and sixty people and having its own territory, within which the members of that band have rights to gather wild vegetable foods. However, hunters of larger animals may step into the territories of other bands quite freely if they are in the pursuit of game. The !Kung are almost entirely dependant upon hunting and gathering for their food supply. These people hunt and gather daily, and return in the evening to distribute all the food that has been collected equally among every single member of the band. The labour division of the !Kung San is by gender and age. The people in the 20-60 age group provide the food, while the younger children and adolescents are not expected to provide regular food until they are married (most commonly between the ages of fifteen and twenty for the females, and about five years later for the males years later), and instead have their older relatives provide food for them. The older members of the band are well respected and have a high position in this society, and their role is to be the leaders of the camps, and to carry out activities such as ritual curing and making decisions. For many years after they stop hunting and gathering, the aged are fed and cared for by their children and grandchildren. The women between the...
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Examining the ideas and beliefs within ones own cultural context is central to the study of Anthropology. Issues of Race and Ethnicity dominate the academic discourses of various disciplines including the field of Anthropology. Race and Ethnicity are controversial terms that are defined and used by people in many different ways. This essay shall explore the ways in which Anthropologists make a distinction between race and ethnicity and how these distinctions serve as frames for cross-cultural comparison and analysis. It is important to accurately define these coined terms before one is able to make accurate comparisons and distinctions between them, and their relation to the concept of culture. This essay attempts to produce accurate definitions of the concepts of race, ethnicity and culture, and the reasons why Anthropologists discredit the nature of particular views of these notions within Anthropological study. To create a deeper understanding of the distinction between racial and ethnic relations within the New Zealand cultural context, case studies and theories between the Maori and Pakeha population will be drawn upon. The idea of 'race' is a problematic concept in various academic fields. In the discipline of Anthropology, the definition of this term carries much controversy. The concept of race that many people hold is in a sense, a social construct that changes amongst different cultures, one could look at different cultures to see racial definition as a cultural phenomenon in action (Kottak, 2000:139). King supports this idea that races are not established by a set of natural forces, rather they are products of human perception, "Both what constitutes a race and how one recognises a racial difference are culturally determined" (1981:156). Cashmore provides a brief definition of race as "a group of persons connected by common origin" (1988:235). However, Cashmore goes on to argue that the terminology of...
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Three problems that occur when living on a farm are taking care of the farm animals, tolerating the wild animals, and keeping everything in order. Although these problems don't seem very big, they are huge chores and are often way too much for one person to handle by him or herself. Usually, just as everything appears to be in order and all hard work has paid off, something breaks or a water line burst and chaos, once again, takes control of my life. Taking care of the farm animals is my biggest and most important problem. Carrying feed and grain to the horses may sound very simple, but if an animal does not eat, he may be sick or overgrazed. Horses are very moody toward each other, and an older and stronger male will sometimes fight the other colts and mares away from feeding. If something like this happens, I have to isolate the horses and carry each one of them a certain amount of feed. Later, I have to return and open the stalls to let them out to water. Once a week the horses are washed and groomed, and I ride them at least twice a week to make sure that they are staying fit and in good health. Although the horses are given the most attention and require the most care- taking, I also take care of other farm animals. I throw range pellets to the cattle, which have to be counted on a regular basis, and I feed the chickens and dogs, which have to have water carried to them by hand every day. Along with having to care for the animals on the farm, I am often forced to tolerate wild animals that decide to come along and do whatever they please to the animals on the farm...
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For ages people have been determined to explicate on everything. Our search for explanation rests only when there is a lack of questions. Our skies hold infinite quandaries, so the quest for answers will, as a result, also be infinite. Since its inception, Astronomy as a science speculated heavily upon discovery, and only came to concrete conclusions later with closer inspection. Aspects of the skies which at one time seemed like reasonable explanations are now laughed at as egotistical ventures. Time has shown that as better instrumentation was developed, more accurate understanding was attained. Now it seems, as we advance on scientific frontiers, the new quest of the heavens is to find and explain the phenomenom known as a black hole. The goal of this paper is to explain how the concept of a black hole came about, and give some insight on how black holes are formed and might be tracked down in our more technologically advanced future. Gaining an understanding of a black hole allows for a greater understanding of the concept of spacetime and maybe give us a grasp of both science fiction and science fact. Hopefully, all the clarification will come by the close of this essay. A black hole is probably one of the most misunderstood ideas among people outside of the astronomical and physical communities. Before an understanding of how it is formed can take place, a bit of an introduction to stars is necessary. This will shed light (no pun intended) on the black hole philosophy. A star is an enormous fire ball, fueled by a nuclear reaction at its core which produces massive amounts of heat and pressure. It is formed when two or more enormous gaseous clouds come together which forms the core, and as an aftereffect the conversion, due to that impact, of...
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Orion has been recognized as distinct group of stars for thousands of years. The Chaldeans knew it as Tammuz, named after the month that the familiar belt of stars first rose before sunrise. The Syrians called it Al Jabbar, the Giant. To the ancient Egyptians it was Sahu, the soul of Osiris. However in Greek mythology, Orion was a beautiful giant hunter. There are many legends about Orion and several variations about his death and why he was placed in the stars. One story tells of his boast that he would eventually rid the earth of all its wild animals. When the Earth goddess Gea heard of this she became upset and sent a Giant Scorpion to sting him to death. Now even after death that scorpion chases him around the sky. If you notice scorpio and Orion are never in the sky together. Another story says that Artemis the goddess of hunting fell in love with Orion. And when Orion was swimming Artemis was speaking to her brother Apollo. He bet her that she could not shoot a dot on the distance. She hit the target right on but had been tricked. She had shoot Orion. She put her love, Orion in the sky. And yet another tells how Orion raped Artemis. And she took her revenge upon him, when she shot him. Now seeing as there are several variations of his death you would have to choose which one you like best and go with it. There are two stars that are well know in the constalation of Orion. The first one is know as Betelgeuse, also called Alpha Orinis. It is one of the brightest stars in the constelation of Orion. It is an irregular because it changes brightness and size but has no regular periods of veration. It is classified...
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