In this study, I studied the topic of arranged marriages. Some of the areas that I covered were the history of arranged marriages, the future of them, what is in involved in the process as well as how people feel about them in today's society. I followed 3 methods of research. The first was reading through books and journals as well as searching on the Internet for other people's theories and background information on this topic. The second method was conducting a survey that led me to see how normal people in today's society felt towards arranged marriages. And the last method was interviewing a couple who had married back 25 years ago in the form of an arranged marriage and we discussed how they felt about it and whether or not they would impose that upon their children. In today's society, arranged marriages amongst South Asians is not as common as it once was. In this literature, we will explore the different aspects or arranged marriages mainly in the South Asian culture but also in other cultures as well. This review also makes reference to the other cultures that participate in this custom, as well as how society has portrayed it then and now. The Process As far as India is concerned, arranged marriages have been taking place since the beginning of time. It was very simple. The man needed a wife, the young woman a husband. Interested friends and relatives created opportunities for them to meet (MacMillan, 1988). Back even before the 1800's, it was highly unlikely that the women be aloud to meet or even speak to who had been chosen for her. When one's parents felt that it was time for their child to be married, they would spread the word around their village. Suitable matches would be found....
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Charles Robert Darwin The controversial argument between what man has grown up believing and the facts of science would set a landmark in the modern scientific community today. This landmark would be set in history by the English naturalist Charles Robert Darwin and his theory of man's evolving genes in natural selection. Charles Robert Darwin was born on February 12, 1809 in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England. He was the fifth child and second son of Robert Darwin and Susannah Wedgwood . Charles Darwin's father, Dr. Robert Darwin, was a well respected figure in Shrewsbury by both rich and poor. Dr. Robert Darwin was also a member of well-read people with strong Whig leanings. A Whig is a person that belonged to the Wig Party that championed for parliamentary reform . As a young child Charles, in his mind, was not a normal child for he was fond of doing very strange things. Some of these weird things were like the time when he beat a puppy just for the feeling of power. Another one of the strange things that Charles as a child did was that he would collect eggs but only take one egg from a bird nest at a time. The education that Charles received as a child was at first from his sister before going to day school. Unsucceful at school he was removed two years before completion. That summer he spent his time accompanying a doctor on his rounds. Later that year he went with his brother to Edinburgh University. Edinburgh University is England's best University for medicine. The Darwins had been studying medicine there for three generations. This knowledge of medicine would come to great use when dissecting specimens. Charles Darwin had heard many times during his childhood from his father that, "people with powerful minds generally had...
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In modern Euro-American culture, if a man were to simply mention the idea of buying a wife he would face certain ridicule and would be considered sexist. Wife buying is not a 'pc' option in today's society as it stands in direct opposition to the mainstream idea of women's liberation and independence. That is not to say that it doesn't happen (remember the show "Who wants marry a Millionaire?") it is just to say that it is not overtly accepted. Waterlily, by Ella Cara Deloria, details the religious and cultural rituals of a Dakota woman in the nineteenth century. In the novel the protagonist, Waterlily, faces the prospect of being 'purchased' for marriage. If one applies the mainstream world-view to this situation, it suggests that the Dakota culture may have been oppressive to women. However, although often forgotten, the mainstream Euro-American world-view is not the only one that exists. "The ultimate aim of Dakota life, stripped of accessories, was quite simple; one must obey kinship rules; one must be a good relative. No Dakota who has participated in that life will dispute that. In the last analysis every other consideration was secondary – property, personal ambition, glory, good times, life itself. Without that aim and the constant struggle to attain it, the people would no longer be Dakotas in truth. They would no longer even be human. To be a good Dakota, then was to be humanized, civilized. And to be civilized was to keep the rules imposed by kinship for achieving civility, good manners, and a sense of responsibility toward every individual dealt with. Thus only was it possible to live communally with success; that is to say, with a minimum of friction and a maximum of good will" (Deloria, Waterlily x) In the case of Waterlily's marriage, of which she...
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Archaeology is a similar job to anthropology. Both study the various different cultures through out the world. The major difference is where their information is gathered from. Anthropologist get most of their info from living people and their skeletal remains. Where as an archaeologist finds the artifacts left behind. They gather these artifacts by excavation and are able to tell us a lot about our ancestors. Certain artifacts or sites can tell us all sorts of things such as the type of government, human behavior, how the culture ran itself, social organization, and especially the contact between other groups around the world. All this does not come without its problems. Dig sites (a term used to signify an excavation site) are being destroyed in many ways. Environmental issues, political change, everyday expansion of the human race, thieves searching for buried treasure, and poor excavation are just a few problems that affect an archaeologist job. The Paleolithic era is divided into three periods. The Lower, Middle, and Upper. Much of our advancement from "cavemen" to modern humans happened in the Upper Paleolithic. This portion of time is then separated into 5 groups based on the technology and tools. They are Chatelperronian, Aurignacian, Gravettian, Solutrean, and Magdalenian. Some of the new ideals and beliefs that came out of the Paleolithic time concerned nature. Nature was seen as a wild threat and home of the barbarians and beast. We went from our equality with nature to the Greco-Roman era to the Judeo Christian days and now into science. Some more changes were everyday tools. Such as spears. A simple point would let a fish slide off after stabbing it or the spear would fall out of a running deer. A spear designed with notches similar to today's fish hooks. The materials that tools were made of also...
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A quiet, graceful testimonial to a vanishing way of life, I Heard the Owl Call My Name was Margaret Craven's first book, written when she was sixty-nine. It tells of a young vicar named Mark, sent to a remote Kwakiutl village not knowing he has less than three years to live. In the village, Mark comes to understand the Kwakiutl Indians around him and sees how their traditions are being destroyed through the influence of white men. He watches the "English woman anthropologist" who comes to study the natives and insists upon calling the villagers "Quackadoodles;" he experiences the impact when the government declares it legal for Indians to buy liquor and when traders cheat the villagers out of their cultural treasures; he sees the children lose their ties with their families and heritage while living in residential schools among whites. In striking contrast to the avarice and arrogance of most whites is the selflessness of the Kwakiutls and the beauty of running salmon, tall trees, and tribal festivals. Mark becomes a part of the Kwakiutl world, learning its language and ways, until finally "Time had lost its contours. He seemed to see it as the raven or the bald eagle, flying high over the village, must see the part of the river that had passed the village, that had not yet reached the village, one and the same." Gentle, full of profound philosophy, this is a book that both calms and disquiets, saddens and exhilarates. -- For great reviews of books for girls, check out Let's Hear It for the Girls: 375 Great Books for Readers 2-14....
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The spiritual, religious and cultural beliefs the Native Americans of Kingcome village possess are strong and tightly bound. They are connected physically and mentally to everything that surrounds them. The land, nature and people are a fundamental part of who they are. Yet the opportunities waiting for them in white society provide hope for a different life of freedom, independence, education and wealth. In Margaret Craven's epic novel I Heard The Owl Call My Name, both characters, Gordon and Keetah face the problem of living in two completely different and contrasting worlds, the 'Indian' world and the 'White' world. In the novel the importance of land, nature and people form the basis of the Kwakwala tribes' Indian culture and religious belief system. "The Indian knows his village and feels for his village as no white man for his country, his town, or even for his own bit of land" (Craven, 1976: 12) The idea of living in 'both worlds' causes inner and external turmoil for both Gordon and Keetah. Both know and feel for their village, yet have different hopes and aspirations as to what their futures may hold. They worry about fulfilling their own personal desires whilst at the same time trying to please the disapproving tribal elders, who believe that young Indians are lured into white society through temptations of education and a 'better' life. " When the young leave, the world takes them, and damages them. They no longer listen when the elders speak. They go, and soon the village will go also. (Craven, 1976: 50) To the elders white society 'damages' young Indians, stripping them of their respect and understanding of Indian culture and influences them to practise what they see as the 'negative' ways of the whites'. It is through the so called 'advantages' present in white society that the...
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In the southwestern United States, above northern Arizona, are three mesas. The mesas create the home for the Hopi Indians. The Hopi have a deeply religious, isolated, tribal culture with a unique history. The Hopi stress group cooperation. The tribe is organized around a clan system. In a clan system, all the members consider themselves relatives. The clans form a social glue that has held the Hopi villages together. Clan membership provides a singular Hopi identity. The Hopi have a highly developed belief system which contains many gods and spirits. Ceremonies, rituals, dances, songs, and prayers are celebrated in year-round. The Hopi believed they were led to the arid southwestern region of America by their creator, because he knew they had the power to evoke rain with power and prayer. Consequently, the Hopi are connected to their land, its agricultural cycles and the constant quest for rainfall, in a religious way. The religious center of the community is the kiva, which is an underground room with a ladder protruding above the roof. The kiva is very important for several reasons. From the kiva, a connection is made with the center of the earth. Also, the kiva is symbolic for the emergence to this world. The room would represent the underworld and the ladder would represent the way to the upper world. In fact, a room is kept in the house to store ceremonial objects. A sacred ear of corn protects the room and symbolizes the ancestry of the family members. Kachinas are also a focal point of the religion. For a Hopi, they signify spirits of ancestors, dieties of the natural world, or intermediaries between man and gods. The Hopi believe that they are the earth's caretakers, and with the successful performance of their ceremonial cycle, the world will remain in balance,...
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Thousands of years ago, during the last ice age, mile-thick glaciers covered a vast portion of North America, and the Asian continent was joined to North America by a land bridge. The Arctic areas of Alaska, Beringia, and Siberia were free of ice. Vast herds of caribou, muskoxen, and bison migrated to these plains. Following them were the nomadic Asian ancestors of today's Inuit and Indians. The doorway to Asia closed about three or four thousand years later as the glaciers receded and melted. These people: the Inuit (meaning the people), adapted to their harsh tundra environment and developed a culture that remained untainted for a long time. The Inuit people relied solely on hunting for their existence. With summers barely lasting two months, agriculture was non-existent. Animals such as caribou and seal were vital. Groups of hunters would stalk and kill many caribou with fragile bows made of driftwood, and their bounty was split evenly amongst the tribe. Bone spears were fashioned to hunt seals which provided food, oil, clothes, and tents. The seal skins were also used to construct kayaks and other boats that the Inuit would use to travel and to hunt whales. One advantage of the sterile cold of the arctic was that it kept these people free of disease (until they met the white man.) Inuit tribes consisted of two to ten loosely joined families. There was no one central leader in the group: all decisions were made by the community as a whole. Nor was there any definite set of laws; the Inuit, though usually cheery and optimistic, were prone to uncontrolled bursts of rage. Murder was common amongst them and it went unpunished unless an individual's murders occured too often. At that point, that person was deemed unstable, and the community appointed a man to...
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Two types of division of labour in two different hunting-gathering societies The division of labour in these hunter-gatherer societies is well balanced, and is organised to suit the needs of all of the members of the society. Every member of these societies plays a contributes in some way to the community throughout their life. The !Kung San Bushmen, Kalahari Desert, South Africa- Although a large group, it is divided into small bands, with each band being made up of between twenty and sixty people and having its own territory, within which the members of that band have rights to gather wild vegetable foods. However, hunters of larger animals may step into the territories of other bands quite freely if they are in the pursuit of game. The !Kung are almost entirely dependant upon hunting and gathering for their food supply. These people hunt and gather daily, and return in the evening to distribute all the food that has been collected equally among every single member of the band. The labour division of the !Kung San is by gender and age. The people in the 20-60 age group provide the food, while the younger children and adolescents are not expected to provide regular food until they are married (most commonly between the ages of fifteen and twenty for the females, and about five years later for the males years later), and instead have their older relatives provide food for them. The older members of the band are well respected and have a high position in this society, and their role is to be the leaders of the camps, and to carry out activities such as ritual curing and making decisions. For many years after they stop hunting and gathering, the aged are fed and cared for by their children and grandchildren. The women between the...
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Examining the ideas and beliefs within ones own cultural context is central to the study of Anthropology. Issues of Race and Ethnicity dominate the academic discourses of various disciplines including the field of Anthropology. Race and Ethnicity are controversial terms that are defined and used by people in many different ways. This essay shall explore the ways in which Anthropologists make a distinction between race and ethnicity and how these distinctions serve as frames for cross-cultural comparison and analysis. It is important to accurately define these coined terms before one is able to make accurate comparisons and distinctions between them, and their relation to the concept of culture. This essay attempts to produce accurate definitions of the concepts of race, ethnicity and culture, and the reasons why Anthropologists discredit the nature of particular views of these notions within Anthropological study. To create a deeper understanding of the distinction between racial and ethnic relations within the New Zealand cultural context, case studies and theories between the Maori and Pakeha population will be drawn upon. The idea of 'race' is a problematic concept in various academic fields. In the discipline of Anthropology, the definition of this term carries much controversy. The concept of race that many people hold is in a sense, a social construct that changes amongst different cultures, one could look at different cultures to see racial definition as a cultural phenomenon in action (Kottak, 2000:139). King supports this idea that races are not established by a set of natural forces, rather they are products of human perception, "Both what constitutes a race and how one recognises a racial difference are culturally determined" (1981:156). Cashmore provides a brief definition of race as "a group of persons connected by common origin" (1988:235). However, Cashmore goes on to argue that the terminology of...
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Three problems that occur when living on a farm are taking care of the farm animals, tolerating the wild animals, and keeping everything in order. Although these problems don't seem very big, they are huge chores and are often way too much for one person to handle by him or herself. Usually, just as everything appears to be in order and all hard work has paid off, something breaks or a water line burst and chaos, once again, takes control of my life. Taking care of the farm animals is my biggest and most important problem. Carrying feed and grain to the horses may sound very simple, but if an animal does not eat, he may be sick or overgrazed. Horses are very moody toward each other, and an older and stronger male will sometimes fight the other colts and mares away from feeding. If something like this happens, I have to isolate the horses and carry each one of them a certain amount of feed. Later, I have to return and open the stalls to let them out to water. Once a week the horses are washed and groomed, and I ride them at least twice a week to make sure that they are staying fit and in good health. Although the horses are given the most attention and require the most care- taking, I also take care of other farm animals. I throw range pellets to the cattle, which have to be counted on a regular basis, and I feed the chickens and dogs, which have to have water carried to them by hand every day. Along with having to care for the animals on the farm, I am often forced to tolerate wild animals that decide to come along and do whatever they please to the animals on the farm...
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