The earth, from its deep majestic oceans to its breathtaking mountains, is our home. But what goes undetected to humans is the violent cycle that is going on underneath our earth at this very moment. Volcanoes are spouting hot magma. Earthquakes are destroying cities and the continents we live on are moving around the ocean. But why do these phenomenon occur and what causes them to happen? From space the earth may look like one large floating mass. But underneath all of the oceans and continents there lies many large. These plates were once all formed together in one large continent called Pangaea. Over the millions of centuries the plates have shifted and formed the continents that we now see today. Scientists first discovered this theory when they noticed that the Northeastern part of South America seemed to fit into the Southwestern part of Africa. These plates have been very instrumental in the forming of our planet. They form the high mountains and the deep oceans. They form volcanoes and cause earthquakes. The plates underneath our earth are very important to us and I believe we need to pay more attention to them. The plates themselves are very large, the largest being the Pacific and Antarctic plates. There are two types of plates on the earth. The first, oceanic is made up of a heavy rock called basalt. This causes the plate to sink deeper into the earth's mantle causing our oceans to appear. The other type of plate is continental. These plates are made up of granite, which is much lighter than the basalt that makes up the oceanic plates. Oceanic plates are not as thick as continental plates. Oceanic plates average 5 kilometers in thickness while continental plates can be up to 100 kilometers thick. This allows the formations of...
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INTRODUCTION Antarctica, the last virgin spot of land on earth. It takes 20 days on a ship to get to Antarctica but only half as many hours in an aeroplane. Size: It is twice the size of Australia at 14 million sq km (est.) land area, its coastline is17,968 km. Climate: severe low temperatures Change depending on your latitude, elevation, and how far away from the ocean you are; Eastern Antarctica is colder than Western Antarctica because it is higher; The Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along the coastline and are normally just below freezing. Terrain: About 98% thick is continental ice sheet and 2% of it is barren rock, with average height between 2 000 and 4 000 meters. Mountain ranges go up to up to 4 897 meters high; ice-free coastal areas include parts of southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area, and parts of Ross Island on McMurdo Sound. Glaciers form ice shelves along half of the coastline, and floating ice shelves make up 11% of the area of the continent. This huge island is at the centre of one big and very important argument. Whether it should be exploited for its possible rich mineral content. Or whether it should just be left alone and made a world park. In this barren desert for half the year it is light and the other half it is dark. The Ownership of Antarctica. Many countrys claim to own Antarctica. The Antarctic Treaty of 1961 does not deny of accept any of these claims and so has avoided disputes over the matter. The Argument for Development Antarctica is very rich in minerals and has hidden in it gold, silver, nickel, tin and many other things. It has a commercial amount of coal so coal miners are attracted come and mess up...
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Argentina is the 8th largest country in the world. "The first people in Argentina were the Indians of the Americas. They were thought to have descended from Asia, crossing the Bering Strait from Siberia in prehistoric times" (Gofen, p.17). "The first Spaniard to land in Argentina was explorer Juan Diaz de Solis in 1516. He sailed into the Rio de la Plata estuary and claimed the land for Spain"(Argentina, p.1). Argentineans enjoy a climate that favors outdoor activities throughout the year. They camp, hunt, fish, hike, rock climb, ski, sail, windsurf, cycle, tennis, and golf. They take seaside vacations on the Atlantic coast and inland vacations in resort areas such as Bariloche. They also like all team sports, there most favorite being soccer, known as futbol. The English brought this game to Argentina in the last century. Among national teams, a passionate rivalry exists between Argentina and Brazil. More than 100,000 fans will turn to watch a game between the two countries. Vegetation varies greatly throughout the country. The scrublands produce mainly dwarf shrubs, while the rainforests support giant cedar and laurel trees. Quebracho trees, from which tannin extracted, are native to Mesopotamia. The wildlife is typically South American, with llamas, monkeys, jaguars, armadillos and many snakes. Bird life includes toucans, hummingbirds, parrots and the ostrich-like rheas. Fish, including piranhas, abound in the many streams, and there are sea lions off the coast. Pigs, introduced by European settlers, are to be found wild in Patagonia. Argentina is alive with festivals, or fiestas. Their colorful processions brighten the landscape from one end of the country to the other. Many different groups of people express their artistic, musical, and culinary creativity through festival celebrations. Argentinean festivals reflect the spiritual traditions of both native Indian religions and Christianity. Festivals and holidays may involve religious pilgrimages, feasts,...
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Introduction. Atlantis was a continent of the Atlantic Ocean where, according to Plato, an advanced civilization developed some 11,600 years ago. Plato affirms that, as the result of a huge volcanic cataclysm of worldwide extent, this continent sunk away underseas, disappearing forever. Official Science - the one you learn at school - rejects the actual existence of Atlantis, as it has so far been unable to find any traces of its reality. But the reason for that is simple to explain. Everybody has been looking in the wrong locations, as Atlantis indeed lies in the opposite side of the world. So been told, of course… What does the name Atlantis actualy means? The first thing to keep in mind is that mythical terms have a number of different etymologies, and are often interpretable in different languages, into which they were adapted when the myths were introduced locally. For instance, Atlas means, in Greek, "the one who could not withstand." Atlas was known as the "Pillar of Heaven", that is, its support. When Atlas became overburdened, the skies fell down, burying Atlantis. The names of Atlas and Atlantis originally came from the Sanskrit, which is the Holy Language of India, name of their Hell called Atala. This word means "Deprived of its Pillar" or, conversely "Bottomless" or, rather, "Sunken to the Bottom". Many further derivations are yet possible. Atlas is the personification of the Holy Mountain that is the support of heaven. He is the god that the Hindus equate with Shiva, also called Sthanu, meaning "Pillar of Heaven" in Sanskrit. The problem of Atlantis. Believers… Actually most of the scientists, scholars and researchers who have been studying the problem of Atlantis build up a lot of theories that are quite different from each other. If we have to report a survey about the possible existence of...
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Belize is currently an underdeveloped country—underdevelopment due to the negative effects of the British colonial rule over Belize. In order to understand the causes and effects of Belize's current situation, a definition of development in necessary. The term "sustainable development" was introduced in a 1987 report, Our Common Future, where the World Commission on Environment and Development defined it as "development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" (Nagpal 1995). Therefore, it makes sense to define a developed country as a country whose citizens' needs are met. Belizeans' needs are unfulfilled as evidenced by deficiencies in Belize's health and welfare, education, political dependency, economic status, and emigration patterns. Belize is a country the size of Massachusetts and is located on the Yucatan Peninsula of Central America. It is home to over 240,000 people of Creole, Mestizo, Garifuna and Mayan descent, and is by far the least densely populated country in the Central American realm (Famighetti 1997). The country's Gross National Product is $2,700, just $155 below the realm's average but $2000 below world averages (Muller 1999). One other important fact is that 50% of the population is rural—a statistic that has remained steady since 1921 (Woods 1996). These are just one of the many indicators of Belize's lack of development. The country's official language is English, an anomaly on the Central American mainland where all other countries are Spanish-speaking. The major economies of Belize are tourism, international banking and agriculture crops of citrus, wood and sugar. The Belizean government has taken great strides in improving the health and welfare of its citizens since independence in 1981. According to U.S. researcher Tim Merrill, life expectancy rose, and the death rate dropped considerably. Yet, many hurdles remain before healthcare meets the...
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The name Brazil comes from Pau Brasil. There are around 145 million people living in Brazil, most of them near the coast. The population is growing rapidly and half of all Brazilians are under the age of 20. By the end of the century, it is estimated that Brazil's population will have reached 180 million. Brazil borders on ten other Latin American countries. Most of the northern part of Brazil is low-lying and veined by the mighty Amazon River and its tributaries. The Amazon is the largest river in the world. The native peoples of Brazil lived in the forests and along the rivers, hunting, fishing, and gathering fruits and nuts. When the Portuguese arrived early in the 16th century, it is estimated that there were between 1 and 2 million native Amerindian people. They were used as slaves, and many thousands died from diseases brought by the Europeans. Recently Amerindians have been exploited and killed as land speculators and highways go farther into the rain forest. There are probably less than 150,000 Indians now. Portuguese settlers developed vast sugarcane estates in the Bahia region, and for 150 years these estates were in the world's main source of sugar. To work the estates, the owners used salves from Africa. Today there is still an African tradition in Brazil. Modern immigration began early in the 19th century. Only about 4.5 million foreigners, mostly from Europe, settled in Brazil after then. Most were Italians and Portuguese, but there were also Spaniards and Germans, and later Slavs from Poland, Russia, and the Ukraine, and Arabs from the Middle East. In this century the most significant immigrants have been Japanese. They have become the most prosperous ethnic group in Brazil, growing a fifth of the coffee, a third of the cotton, and all the tea. Traditionally...
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Feliz Navidad or Merry Christmas?: A Comparison of Christmas Traditions Kristen Santos 3rd Block- Sp. I Both the people of the United States and most of Mexico celebrate the holiday Christmas. Although this holiday is celebrated by both countries, each of their cultures have created their own traditions, making Christmas celebrations in the United States very different than Christmas celebrations in Mexico. The United States, like Mexico, tends to grace their homes with Christmas spirited decor. While many in the U.S. like to show their spirit with a highly traditional Christmas pine tree, Mexicans tend to focus on the true meaning, adorning their dining rooms with nativity sets. They ussually set these up so they can take time to remember the reason in which christians celebrate the day. In order to prepare for the day of symbolic commemoration of Christmas night, we have the Posadas. These celebrations are a Novena or nine days before the 24th which is the Noche Buena or Holy Night . (In America, they call this night, Christmas Eve.) The nine days, starting on the 16th represent Mary's nine months of pregnancy with the baby Jesus. The Posada begins with the procession of the pilgrims. At the beginning is Joseph holding Mary's hand as she ride on the donkey. Each family, in every neighborhood, will plan for a Posada to be held around the 16th. The Peregrinos, or neighborhood adults and children, will ask for lodging in three different houses but only the third one will allow them in. This represents the struggle Mary and Joseph went through to find an innkeeper on the birth of Jesus Christ. The third house will be the house that is supposed to have the Posada for that evening. Once the innkeepers let them in, the group of guests comes into the home and they all kneel around...
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Although there are many aspects of Cuba that are interesting, Cuba es muy interesante. I chose to focus my report on the relationship between the U.S and Cuba. Cuba and the U.S. haven't had a very good relationship for a very long time. Americanos no visitan a la Cuba. Mostly because of the fact that the U.S has a very big influence on Cuba. In terms of the influence, the immigration into the U.S. from Cuba, Immgraciὸn de Cuba, and the embargo against Cuba. One of the reasons for the bad relationship between the U.S. and Cuba are the influence that the U.S might have on Cuba. El relaciὸn entre la Cuba y Los Estados Unidos es muy mal. Fidel Castro the former ruler of Cuba believe that if U.S citizens travel to Cuba they will start to think low of Cuba and their culture. La Cuba tiene un cultura no mal. Fidel Castro recently allowed computers in few hotels, libraries and in homes in Cuba but many U.S sites are restricted. He also allowed cellular phones to be imported from the U.S to Cuban families that have been born or immigrated to the U.S to keep close contact. Cubanos puedan usan teléfonos celulares. He also allowed DVD's from America that have been approved. Fidel Castro also believes that the Americans will show the Cubans that living conditions in the U.S are much better than that of Cuba which might urge them emigrate out of Cuba. Ellos quieren a emigran. Fidel also believes that Americans that travel to Cuba might show them that the U.S government is better than that of Cuba because of the communistic-like government that exists in Cuba today. Another one of the reasons that there isn't a very good relationship between Cuba and the U.S is because of...
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The Yucatan Peninsula in Central America separates the Gulf of Mexico from the Caribbean Sea. Covering about 73,000 square miles, and mostly in southeastern Mexico. It comprises the states of Yucatan, Campeche, and Quintana Roo, Mexico; Belize; and part of Peten, Guatemala. Merida and Campeche, Mexico and Belize City, Belize are the chief cities of the Yucatan. The peninsula is largely a low, flat, limestone tableland rising to 150 meters in the south. To the north and west the plain continues as the Campeche Bank, stretching under shallow water 150 miles from the low, sandy shoreline. The eastern coast rises in low cliffs in the north and is indented by bays and paralleled by islands and cays in the south. Cozumel is the largest island. Short ranges of hills cross the peninsula at scattered intervals. The only rivers are those flowing east and northwest from Peten. In the northern half of the tableland, rainfall is light and is absorbed by the porous limestone. The land has tropical dry and rainy seasons, but generally in the north the climate is hot the dry, and in the south hot and humid. The north and west are arid grasslands dotted with cacti. In the south are swamps and dense rain forests. Water for people and livestock comes from a maze of underground rivers and wells (cenotes) from which it is often pumped by traditional Mayan windmills, and from surface pools (aguadas). The main crop is sisal (henequen); fishing is also economically important. Tropical beaches, inlets, peninsulas, and offshore islands (the largest of which is Cozumel) are popular tourist resorts. Most of the northern half, although covered with only a few inches of subsoil, is one of the most important henequen-raising regions of the world; the uncultivated area is under a dense growth of scrub, cactus,...
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Estonia Estonia was found in 3500 BC when the ancient ancestors settled on the Baltic Sea in Northestern Europe. It is surrounded by the Gulf of Finland on the North, Russia on the east, Latvia on the South, the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Rica on the the west. Tallinn is the capital city, the largest city and most important port. Estonia covers an area of 45 227 square kilometers and has more than 1 500 small and large islands. The biggest islands are Saaremaa Island and Hiiumaa Island. These islands separate the Gulf of Riga and the Baltic Sea. The mainland has a large coastline of 1 393 kilometers long. Estonia is mostly flat with some hills in the center of the country and in the southern regions. The wetlands and marshes cover more 20 percent of the land in Estonia. Also the lakes and rivers cover about 5 percent. Altogether there are about 1 400 natural and manmade lakes. The two largest lakes are Lake Peipus on the eastern boarder and Vortsjarv in the south central part of the country. The longest river in Estonia is the Parnu River. Amazingly 50 percent of Estonia's land is covered by trees and forest. The trees that can be found here are pine, birch, aspen and fir. As for the wildlife goes, there are mainly deer and elk. Although, several animals are protected bu laws such as the beaver, red deer, and willow grouse because they are endangered of becoming extinct. Estonia's natural resources are shale oil, peat, phosphorite, amber, cambrian blue clay, limestone, and dolomite. These resources are very rich and produce a lot of income every year. Estonia usually has cool summers and cold winters. Temperatures barely go up to 18 degrees celcius in the summer time. In the winter it usually stays...
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Saudi Arabia Geographical Information Saudi Arabia, monarchy in southwestern Asia, occupying most of the Arabian Peninsula. Saudi Arabia is bounded on the north by Jordan, Iraq, and Kuwait; on the east by the Persian Gulf and Qatar; on the southeast by the United Arab Emirates and Oman; on the south by the Republic of Yemen; and on the west by the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba. The country's border with the United Arab Emirates is not precisely defined. Saudi Arabia has an area of about 2,240,000 sq km (about 864,900 sq mi). The capital and largest city is Riyadh. Land and Resources Considerably more than half the area of Saudi Arabia is desert. Rub' al Khali, known in English as the Great Sandy Desert and as the Empty Quarter, extends over much of the southeast and beyond the southern frontier. Partially unexplored, Rub' al Khali has an estimated area of about 650,000 sq km (about 250,000 sq mi). An extension of the Syrian Desert projects into northern Saudi Arabia, and extending southeast from this region is An Nafûd, an upland desert of red sand covering an area of about 57,000 sq km (about 22,000 sq mi). Ad Dhanâ', a narrow extension of this desert, links An Nafûd and Rub' al Khali. A central plateau region, broken in the east by a series of uplifts, extends south from An Nafûd. Several wadis (watercourses), dry except in the rainy season, traverse the plateau region. Its western limits are delineated by a mountain range extending generally northwest and southeast along the eastern edge of the regions of Al Ḩijâz (Hejaz) and 'Asîr. The highest point in Saudi Arabia, Jabal Sawdâ' (3,207 m/10,522 ft), is located in the southwestern portion of the country. Between the range, which has an average elevation of about 1,200 m...
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Global Warming Long ago the earth was conceived in a fiery blast of volcanoes and molten lava. The earth cooled and life was spawned. From the first bacterium that swam in a new ocean thru just before the industrial revolution climate, lacking any external factors, has steadily changed. But since the industrialization of civilization, the climate of the earth has faced an ever growing foreign factor. This factor is the emissions of the so called "greenhouse gases" that have caused the rapid increase in world temperatures. This phenomena has been given the title global warming, and has sparked a new debate in local, state, national, and world policy. Since the end of WWII the United States has played the role of international policeman. As one of the strongest economic, political, and economic powers in the world the United Nations Special committee on Global warming research has also made us the leading emissions releaser in the world, with approximately one fifth of all global emissions coming from our country. As of March 13, 2001 President Bush has refused to honor the Kyoto Protocol which promised to reduce emissions by 5% in ten years. He labeled the agreement to be overly ambiguous and not not plausible because it would cause, "serious harm to the US economy", "the incomplete state of scientific knowledge" on global warning and "the lack of commercially available technologies" as his biased reasoning for rejecting the Kyoto Protocol. On all Accounts President bush is wrong. To begin with there is no serious harm to our economy. The heavy majority of America's industrial complex is owned by less the six large corporations. The cost to further filter the the industrial outpouring of these toxins is averaging less than 3% of the average yearly profit of these large corporations. It would have a very...
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Korea Death, destruction, loved ones lost, and separation are all phrases commonly heard in North and South Korea for over the last fifty years. The division of this Asian peninsula into the independent nations of North Korea and South Korea brought terror and torment to the people living there. But now in a new era, words like hope, peace, and reunification can be heard from these same people. Reunification seems to be the most logical course of action to heal the rift at the 38th parallel. The healing process will take time, but it has begun. However knowing the process of how it may be resolved will do no good without knowing how it all went wrong. Japan's interest in Korea led them to attack the Russians at Port Arthur on February 8th, 1904. This was the start of the Russo-Japanese War. Russia lost the war in 1905. Japans victory over Russia proved to the world that Japan was a world power and allowed them to gain control of Korea in 1910 (www.russojapan.com). The Japanese "began exploiting its resources, while also attempting to eliminate the Korean language, names and national identity" (www.cnn.com). The treatment of the Koreans by the Japanese was comparable to the treatment of African Americans during the pre-Civil War era. In 1919 Japan's abuse of the Koreans led to the "March First Movement", a demonstration that ended with the death of thousands of innocent Koreans. During World War II, Koreans were forced into labor by their Japanese oppressors. Japan's downfall in WWII allowed the United States of America and the U.S.S.R. to occupy Korea (www.cnn.com). The US located troops in the south and U.S.S.R. did so in the north. The cold war split the peninsula of Korea in two, with the U.S.S.R. establishing a communist government in the north,...
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INDIA IS A LAND of ancient civilization, with cities and villages, cultivated fields, and great works of art dating back 4,000 years. India's high population density and variety of social, economic, and cultural configurations are the products of a long process of regional expansion. In the last decade of the twentieth century, such expansion has led to the rapid erosion of India's forest and wilderness areas in the face of ever-increasing demands for resources and gigantic population pressures--India's population is projected to exceed 1 billion by the 21st century. The country's past serves as a reminder that India today, with its overcrowding and scramble for material gain, its poverty and outstanding intellectual accomplishments, is a society in constant change. Human beings, mostly humble folk, have within a period of 200 generations turned the wilderness into one of the most complicated societies in the world. The process began in the northwest in the third millennium B.C., with the Indus Valley, or Harappan, civilization, when an agricultural economy gave rise to extensive urbanization and long-distance trade. The second stage occurred during the first millennium B.C., when the Ganga-Yamuna river basin and several southern river deltas experienced extensive agricultural expansion and population growth, leading to the rebirth of cities, trade, and a sophisticated urban culture. By the seventh century A.D., a dozen core regions based on access to irrigation-supported kingdoms became tied to a pan-Indian cultural tradition and participated in increasing cross-cultural ties with other parts of Asia and the Middle East. India's inclusion within a global trading economy after the thirteenth century culminated in the arrival of Portuguese explorers, traders, and missionaries, beginning in 1498. By the twentieth century, most such tribal groups, although constituting a substantial minority within India, lived in restricted areas under severe pressure from the caste-based agricultural and trading societies pressing...
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GDP GROWTH Ireland - the Celtic Tiger (This is my section) I'll obviously focus on Ireland. The Celtic Tiger, Ireland has benefited incredibly from its membership in the European Union, both through financial aid and through inward investment by companies opening factories in the country to gain access to European markets and take advantage of the country's low rate of corporation tax. As you can see, Ireland has been growing a remarkable rate, due mainly to a pro- business stance, low corporate taxes and its ability to woo foreign investors by securing union agreement to wage restraint in exchange for tax cuts. INFLATION Ireland - once a problem, now steady As you can see from the graph, Ireland, much like the other coutries, dealt with increased inflation in the mid 1970s and early 1980s. However, Ireland experienced a sharp inflationary increase due mainly to rapidly increasing unemployment rates coupled with globally stagnant economic development. However, with the turnaround of Ireland in the mid 1980s, the country has been enjoying relatively low inflation rates. Recently, however, analysts feel Ireland's EU membership could damage its low inflationary trend because of future plans on the part of the Economic Policy Committee of the European Union. INTEREST RATES Ireland - hand-in-hand with economic development While moving relatively in sync with the other countries, Ireland most notably shows a significant difference from the countries' trend around 1997 when Ireland really began to come into its own as an economic power within the European Union. However, it's important to note that the European Central Bank (ECB) sets Ireland's interest rate. Germany's sluggish growth limits the extent to which the ECB can hike rates. This creates a bizarre situation whereby Ireland's monetary policy is more closely linked closer to the anemic Germany than to its own booming economy. Irish growth has fed off the structural...
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"If all of this seems long ago and far away, it is worth remembering that the past is never past." (Faulkner cited in Ellison, P.274) Many different groups today are seeking the sovereignty of Hawaii. The reason being that these mostly Native Hawaiian groups feel that they suffered a severe injustice when they were annexed into the United States against their own free will. They feel that since they were treated like objects rather than human beings with rights and emotions, they now deserve reparations. The intentions of the different groups vary. Some only want reparations in the form of money and acknowledgements of the inhuman acts that were committed against them and others want it in the form of independence for the island. However, restoring sovereignty to Hawaii would cause great injustices toward the non-natives living on the island today. So these groups should not be granted the sovereignty they are seeking. "When we have pleaded for understanding our character has been distorted, when we have asked for simple caring, we have been handed empty inspirational appellations, then stuck in the farthest corner."(Walker, p. 698). When the United States managed to annex Hawaii in 1898, they did break the law and the human code of conduct. A joint resolution of Congress produced the annexation rather than a two-thirds majority vote, which is required under the United States Constitution. (MacKenzie, p.24) Also, the Native Hawaiians were vastly opposed to the annexation because it violated a treaty the U.S. had with Hawaii stating that they would not interfere with Hawaii's right to self-government. (Castanha, p.2) So when the U.S. held a vote on whether or not Hawaii should become a state, many Hawaiians did not vote because their only choices were statehood or staying a territory of the U.S. and they did not...
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Mexican history boasts of long and advanced civilizations that make most European civilizations seem primitive. The first inhabitants were said to have arrived at about 2000B.C. With the Mayan Empire being constructed in about the 12th century. However within the last two centuries Mexico has had relatively little success, consistent victims of imperialist powers the culture has suffered a great deal. The largest blow occurring when America annexed California by force. This last act of aggression would affect the Mexican economy and social structure for years, if not forever. The population of Mexico has been increasing at a rate of 1.5% to 101, 879,171 as of July 2001. Of this number 33% are between the ages of 0-14, 62% are between 15- 64, and the rest are over 65. The average life expectancy is 71 years. The current birth rate is 22.7 births per 1000 people, while the death rate is 5 deaths per 1000 people. The infant mortality rate is 25.36 deaths per 1000 births. Most women have 2.5 kids during their life. The Mexican population is for the most part homogenous with 60% being Meztizo, 30% Indian, 9% white, and 1 percent other. This lack of diversity and multiculturalism makes political socialization easier because there are not many factions to rebel against the majority. In addition to the homogenous ethnic make up, there are also not a myriad of religions with 89% of the country adhering to Catholicism. Mexico has a free market economy with a mixture of modern and outmoded industry and agriculture, increasingly dominated by the private sector. The number of state-owned enterprises in Mexico has fallen from more than 1,000 in 1982 to fewer than 200 in 2000. This happened during the Zedillo administration when they privatized and expanded competition in seaports, railroads, telecommunications, electricity, natural gas distribution,...
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Overall History of Norway The Kingdom of Norway is located on the west part of the Scandinavian peninsula. Geographically, it extends northward from the North Sea over 1,000 miles along the Norwegian Sea into the Arctic Circle, farther north than any other European land. Sweden, Finland, and the U.S.S.R. all share borders with Norway on the east and the northeast. With an area of over 125,000 square miles, Norway is slightly larger than New Mexico. The Kingdom of Norway is located on the west part of the Scandinavian peninsula. Over 70% of Norway has very little vegetation, is covered by mountains, glaciers, and rivers, and is uninhabitable. Its numerous and deep fjords give Norway over 12,000 miles of oceanfront and tens of thousands of islands off the cost from a sheltered coastal shipping channel. Norway also has sovereignty over five islands, the largest being Spitsbergen in the Arctic Ocean. Norway north of Bodo experiences the midnight sun for a few weeks on either side of the summer solstice (June 21). Norse Vikings raided the northwestern coast of Europe repeatedly from the 8th to the 11th century. More than just pillagers, the Vikings explored Iceland, Greenland, and the New World extensively. This time period and its myths are chronicled in the Icelandic Sagas. There are various open-air and Viking museums throughout Scandinavia to see how people used to live in this rugged land. In 872 the first ruler of a united Norway, Harold the Fairhaired, came to power. Norway was part of the Danish kingdom for almost 500 years until Sweden won control in 1814. The country became officially independent in 1905 with a Danish prince on the Norwegian throne (King Olav V). Norway was committed to neutrality in World War I. The country was occupied by the Germans for five years...
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In my report, I will discuss how the pyramids were built, what purpose they served, the three pyramids at Giza, some messages found on the stones that were used to build pyramids, and what a mastabas is. Pyramids are tombs built for Egypt's pharaohs. Pyramids are large structures with four sides that are the shape of a triangle, that meet at the top to form a point. The ancient Egyptians used the pyramids as tombs for the pharaohs and temples for their gods. The pyramids have one or two little temples attached to them, which holds their relatives and servants. A few pyramids still stand today, and are great attractions for tourists. The pyramids were built by taking blocks of granite to the workshop, measuring the blocks down to size, shaping the blocks, and placing the blocks into the body of the pyramid. The core of the structure is now completed. Then, you place the limestone blocks on the top of the structure (they started putting the blocks on top and then worked their way down). They left two empty rooms to place the pharaoh and his belongings in. They sealed the pyramids so well, it took four hundred years for two robbers to figure out how to get in. The pyramids were built by free citizens, drafted for public work, not by slaves of any sort. The pyramids were built by four thousand expert stone sculptors all year round. An extra work group of about ninety-five thousand men worked on the pyramids during the four month period of the inundation (the time of enforced idleness for farmers, since the field were covered with the Nile water flood ). The pyramids were built between the year 1600 B.C. and the year 2700. Many scholars believe that the reason why the...
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Introduction. The Arctic is located in the uppermost region of the northern hemisphere. The region consists of of the area around Greenland, USSR, Canada and Alaska (refer to appendices Fig.1). The Arctic is mostly covered by frozen ice all year long. This region also surrounds the Arctic Ocean. So far the Artic is a naive environment, humans have not yet fully explored the region. But as people search for the resource, more and more people will move into to the area to take what they can, this can tip the balance of the environment, resulting in pollution and destruction of this once perfect environment if the proper management steps are not in place ahead of the rush. Physical Geography The Arctic region is located across seven countries and covers an area of 10.4 million square miles, in which Siberia covers eight million square miles, which is bigger than Canada and the United States combined. One third of Canada is within the Arctic, among it over 1.2 million square miles are taiga and tundra, and 0.7 million of it is the Yukon and the Northwest Territories. Greenland covers 0.8 million square miles. Alaska covers 0.6 million square miles. Sapmi is the region where the indigenous people in Scandinavia lives, it occupies the smallest area with approximately 0.3 million square miles. Polar climate describes the Arctic, which means much of this area has a freezing cold climate and covered with ice all year. Harsh winters, low temperatures, and little snow or rainfall characterizes the arctic climate. In winter the days are shorter because the North Pole faces away from the sun, the sun does not set till midsummer and it is only strong enough to warm the top layer of the earth. Three feet below the surface the ground stays frozen. Frozen ground, called permafrost,...
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