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Geology
Acid rain pollution comes in various forms. Whether it’s toxic waste, CFC’s, or sewage, they are all hazardous to the earth. These can deplete the earth and it’s inhabitants of resources, causing a harmful change. A product of pollution is acid rain. We shall see that acidification is harmful to all forms of life. Acid rain is any form of precipitation that is polluted by sulphur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOX). This acid precipitation can be in the form of rain, snow, sleet, fog, or cloud vapors. The acidity of substances dissolved in water are measured by their pH levels. Normal precipitation pH levels fall between 5.0-5.6.2 When levels fall below these numbers, then the precipitation is said to be acidic. There are two ways in which acid deposition can form. The first way occurs when nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide land on the Earth’s surface, and interact with frost or dew. The second way takes place due to the oxidation of nitrogen oxides or sulphur dioxide gases that are released into the air.3 Since it may take up to several days for the gases to be altered into their acid counter-parts, the pollutants can travel miles away from their original source. Emissions of (SO2) are responsible for the majority of the acid deposition, which falls to Earth. When we burn coal, we are releasing (SO2), into the air, since coal is slight made up of sulphur. Volcanic eruptions can add a great deal of sulphur into the atmosphere. Everyday organic decay adds sulphur into the air as well. (SO2) can hit the Earth’s surface in dry forms or wet forms, by undergoing the following reactions: (SO2 + H20 *** H2SO3) (SO2 + ½O2 *** SO3 + H2SO4)2. Human activity is the major cause for nitrogen oxides’ presence in our...
pages: 5 (words: 1301)
comments: 0
added: 04/30/2011
Geology, study of the planet earth, its rocky exterior, its history, and the processes that act upon it. Geology is also referred to as earth science and geoscience. The word geology comes from the Greek geo, "earth," and logia, "the study of." Geologists seek to understand how the earth formed and evolved into what it is today, as well as what made the earth capable of supporting life. Geologists study the changes that the earth has undergone as its physical, chemical, and biological systems have interacted during its 4.5 billion year history. Geology is an important way of understanding the world around us, and it enables scientists to predict how our planet will behave. Scientists and others use geology to understand how geological events and earth's geological history affect people, for example, in terms of living with natural disasters and using the earth's natural resources. As the human population grows, more and more people live in areas exposed to natural geologic hazards, such as floods, earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes, and landslides. Some geologists use their knowledge to try to understand these natural hazards and forecast potential geologic events, such as volcanic eruptions or earthquakes. They study the history of these events as recorded in rocks and try to determine when the next eruption or earthquake will occur. They also study the geologic record of climate change in order to help predict future changes. As human population grows, geologists' ability to locate fossil and mineral resources, such as oil, coal, iron, and aluminum, becomes more important. Finding and maintaining a clean water supply, and disposing safely of waste products, requires understanding the earth's systems through which they cycle. The field of geology includes subfields that examine all of the earth's systems, from the deep interior core to the outer atmosphere, including the hydrosphere (the...
pages: 2 (words: 433)
comments: 0
added: 01/10/2012
The prevalence of violent crime in North America, including Canada, can be attributed to a deadly combination of cultural values, economic conditions, and biological and environmental factors. These factors are part of Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory, which explains how the interaction of different parts of an individual's life can shape and form who they are and how they act (text p7). Violent crime, specifically homicide, suicide and accidental death by a gun, are more prevalent among young men between the ages of 15 and 35, than by older men or women of any age (text p. 483-484). The combination of Bronfenbrenner's micro system (family, peer group, etc.), exosystem (community, education, etc.) and perhaps most of all the macro system (cultural values, economics, etc.) can explain why young men are more susceptible to commit and be a victim of violent crime (text p. 483). Young men are usually brought up in a North American home believing they have to prove themselves as a "man'. The cultural idea of what a "man" should be includes strong, dependable, a protector for the family, etc. This pressure leads many young men to think they need to use their aggressiveness to prove they are a "man". This could include drive by shootings on rival gangs, fist fights with another young man who resembles an "enemy" to prove their worthiness of the title. These pressures inhibit young men from developing self-restraint, self-respect, and respect for others' opinions and beliefs (text p. 486). This pressure of the macro system on the micro system explains the never-ending cycle. One man raised by parents influenced by cultural norms, to raise their son to fit the socially constructed form of a man. Then the boy grows up to raise his son(s) in the same socially constructed way, creating violent young men in...
pages: 3 (words: 614)
comments: 0
added: 01/08/2012
The topic that I chose to do my geology extra credit paper on is coastal erosion. There are many different types of coastal erosion and are all very important. There has been a lot of research done on coastal erosion and all have been very helpful in understanding it clearly. The first attempts to stop coastal erosion were to build sea defenses, and this has been going on for many decades now. Researchers first thought the attempts were successful, but after several years it was understood that the power of the sea was too powerful for any kind of human defense. Huge costs were involved, but the only thing that produced was protection. Many methods around the British Isles have taken place in the last fifty years only to occur in many different failures. It is very rare to find a coastline with a decrease in the rate of erosion after many years after defenses have been put into place. The fact that the erosion process actually speeds up in the different places that these defenses have been set up comes from different research. Coastal erosion is the natural process of erosion, transportation, and deposition. Interfering with these natural processes could be the blame for the rise in erosion on the coasts of some areas. One way that has been helpful in the management of coastal erosion is the building of groins. Groins have been built out to sea in many areas of the British coastline. The reason for doing this is to trap material and thus slow down the rate of longshore drift. The downside to these groins is that they have been blamed for the rise in erosion rates further down the coast. People are complaining that the erosion occurs more rapidly after these groins have been made. One...
pages: 8 (words: 2032)
comments: 0
added: 09/10/2011
In recent years one of the biggest threats the world as a whole faces is the destruction of our environment. The destruction of the Brazilian rainforest is probably the most important issue that should be taken into consideration because it is the cause of other major ecological problems we are facing such as: global warming, the depletion of our ozone layer, and noticeable climate changes around the world. Brazil's deforestation problem has turned into earth's deforestation problem. Experts say that not too long ago 14 % of the earth was covered with rainforests. Today only 6% remains and everybody focuses their attention on Brazil because 30% of the remaining rainforests are found in that country (Rain-tree). Deforestation is so dangerous because much of the carbon dioxide that all countries produce is turned into oxygen in the rainforest through the process of photosynthesis. Experts say that 20% of the earth's oxygen is produced in the Brazilian rainforest. It is estimated that 90% of all animal and plant species live in the Brazilian rainforest so extinction is another major issue (Rain-tree). The money that deforestation brings to the Brazilian government is a huge motivator since it is a developing country. There are several ways and reasons for which rainforests are destroyed. The major cause of deforestation is logging. The forest is most valuable for its timber so its preservation would cost a lot of money. Commercial loggers destroy huge parts of the forest to reach the trees they want. Trees are brought down and along with them their vines and lianas, which are connected to other trees. When these come down, along come large canopies of green formed above the ground by these vines and lianas. The removal of the trunks cause extra damage since they are carelessly pulled out of the rainforest, destroying...
pages: 10 (words: 2680)
comments: 0
added: 12/12/2011
Formation of acid rain. Acid deposition, more commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) react in the atmosphere with water, oxygen, and oxidants to form acidic compounds. This mixture forms a mild solution of sulfuric and nitric acid which then falls to the earth in either wet (rain, snow, sleet or fog) or dry (gas and particles) form. Approximately one-half of the atmosphere's acidity falls back to earth through dry deposition in the form of particles and gases, and are then spread hundreds of miles by winds where they settle on surfaces of buildings, cars, homes, and trees. When acid rain falls, the dry deposited gases and particles are sometimes washed from buildings, trees and other surfaces making the runoff water combine with the acid rain more acidic than the falling acid rain alone. This new combination is referred to as acid deposition. The runoff water is then transported by strong prevailing winds and public sewer systems into lakes and streams. Although some natural sources such as volcanic eruptions, fire and lightening contribute to the emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere, more than 90% is the result of human activities such as coal burning, smelting of metals such as zinc, nickel and copper, and the burning of oil, coal and gas in power plants and automobiles. When does rain become acidic? Scientists determine whether rain or lake water is acidic by measuring its pH (the measure of acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a scale of 0 to 14). A value of 7 is considered neutral, whereas values less than 7 are acidic and values over 7 are alkaline or basic. A change of one unit on the pH scale represents a factor of ten in acidity; for example,...
pages: 6 (words: 1595)
comments: 0
added: 12/28/2011
Glass The history of glass is an old, mysterious story. Natural glass has existed since the beginning of time. Obsidian is a natural black volcanic glass that was used by primitive people for tools, knives, arrowheads, and decoration. It is uncertain when and where man discovered combining enough heat with the right materials could make glass. Archeologists have dated the oldest man-made glass to about 7000 B.C. Glass's natural properties are what create its sparkling brightness and often-translucent form. Glass's history has many uncertainties. The New Book of Knowledge states that according to the Roman natural historian Pliny (A.D. 23-79) glass was discovered along the coast of Syria. According to this account, some seamen stumbled upon glass when cooking there dinner. Since they could not find big enough rocks to place their cooking pots on, they used blocks of niter, a form of soda. After their fires died down, they found that the niter had fused the sand underneath into a glassy substance ("Glass"). After this discovery the craft was born. Early glass articles consisted mainly of small beads and charms. Glass was considered as a gem, valued equally as a precious stone. Not until the discovery of the blowpipe was glass changed from a luxury product into something that lower class people could afford and enjoy ("Glass"). Glass is one of a few products that can be made from inexpensive raw materials. According to The New Book of Knowledge glass has a base of pure silica sand, which is composed of the mineral quartz, a compound of elements silicon and oxygen ("Glass"). In order to allow the sand (former) to melt more readily at a lower temperature of about 2600 degrees Fahrenheit, fluxing agents need to be added, like Soda ash, potash, and lithium carbonate. Fluxes however, make the glass chemically unstable,...
pages: 7 (words: 1850)
comments: 0
added: 02/11/2012
Global warming is a "heated" topic in modern society. It is a constant struggle to stop the unstoppable. Climate change has always happened, is happening, and will persist to happen until the end of the earth. The constant flux is due to the earth's irregular motion around the sun. Fortunately for the rest of you, I have devised the plan of action that we have all been waiting for. That's right, a plan to stop global warming. The amount of greenhouse gases going into the atmosphere is astounding. The US and China are among the largest producers of these gases. All we must do to stop the creation of these environmental poisons is stop all industry. This includes the production of electricity, petroleum gasoline, automobiles, and processing of food. These steps sound easy enough. We must retreat to our golden days as cavemen. No electricity, no gas, no cars, no "real" food. Another phenomenon commonly associated with global warming is the depletion of the "ozone layer." This is simple enough to fix. Ozone (O3) a colorless and scentless gas is just a bit poisonous. Why don't we just pump this into the atmosphere instead of greenhouse gases? Who cares if we throw off the earth's equilibrium with a slight side effect of killing a few insects, fish, birds, or humans? It is a sacrifice for future generations of humankind. But why stop there, while we are living in caves and pumping ozone into the air we might as well experiment with nuclear technology. Each nuclear power plant produces about 500 pounds of radioactive plutonium per year. Who cares that this is enough to kill every human on earth 50 times? We need renewable resources for our great-great-great-great-great-great-grandchildren. Fossil fuels, the name itself makes them sound out-of-date, we must rid them from our presence. And...
pages: 2 (words: 340)
comments: 0
added: 11/24/2011
1.1) Immediate: The immediate issue in this case study is whether or nor Erica Mann who is the coordinator for the western division of the Federal Wildlife Agency and the chairperson for the International Herpetological Society should endorse an artificial habitat proposed for the relocation of the endangered Sonoran Desert Snake. The reason that snake would have to be relocated is because a proposal to build a damn that would ruin the snake's habitat is being considered. The dam is needed to support Arizona's agriculture and mining industries. This dam would flood the snakes habitat and eventually force it into extinction. At the same time Erica is aware of the fact that the new environment proposed for the snakes would not necessarily guarantee their survival. In fact the report by the IHS contradicted the report from the FWA and stated that the new habitat would be sufficient for the snake's survival. Erica is aware of the fact that this report only exists because of political pressures and that it is not entirely accurate or truthful. In fact, Erica herself is being pressured to back the report which she knows is inaccurate. She must decide whether or not she should give in to the political pressure or instead do what she feels is right and save the snake. 1.2) Basic: Can you justify destroying a particular species of animal in the interest of human progress or advancement? Personal Experience 2.1) Personal Narrative: My personal narrative has less to do with the issue of Endangered Species than it does with situation that faces Erica. There is a line in the case study where Erica's superior encourages her to fight the battles she can win. This is what my personal narrative has to do with. As I have grown up and matured towards adulthood these last eight...
pages: 7 (words: 1807)
comments: 0
added: 01/31/2012
Problem The El Nino and La Nina storms bring up very serious and harmful effects of the planet. What happens is that there are major temperature changes in the East Pacific Ocean. Once the temperature starts to change rapidly, there is more warm water than cold water increasing water levels in areas of the world. It causes an un-normal amount of water in certain places in the pacific. During El Nino a mass of water lands on western South America, Mexico, and Western United States. This extra amount of water kills animal's habitats, loss of crops for local farmers, loss of fish, mud slides, and flooding. All these are dangerous to humans and animals alike. Hypothesis During El Nino, there is an un-normal amount of water pushing on to land. This also creates large amounts of rain. Using my data chart of info on precipitation levels in North-West California through 1969-1979 I will be guessing which years have had El Nino years. My guesses are; December 1969, Late January 1975, and December 1978. I took my three highest points of the graph and looked down to the month and year then guessed that time period. Methods During this project I was looking for either California or South American precipitation levels for about 10 or 20 years. I searched for some data in those areas and from 1970-1980. I found that data and graphed it using a computer program. I ran into some difficulties entering in the dates because it was not the right type of method. I had to redo it using their methods of charting Month and Year. After that I read searched info on wikipedia.com, an online encyclopedia; I found some great info about La Nina and El Nino. Data The info that I found in the raw data was very similar in most years...
pages: 2 (words: 514)
comments: 0
added: 09/03/2011
Earth Day is something you should know more about and be more involved in because of its intriguing history, its wonderful purpose, and the many things you can do to help. It is simply nothing short of amazing that earth day is still making an impact on the United States today. I feel that Earth Day was a wonderful thing to start and I think that it has helped the USA stay a cleaner place on this earth. It is amazing that a day for cleaning our country that originated thirty years ago with hippies and it is still around today. Earth Day has a very interesting history that everyone should know about. Senator Gaylord Nelson was the founder of earth day. Earth Day's main idea was conceived over seven years starting in 1962. President Kennedy tried to stop the anti-Vietnam War "teach-ins" and use some hippie power to a good cause by starting Earth Day. The President went around the country talking of how to keep our nation clean while congress accepted the idea of an "earth day". The plan was now starting to work; now people had a new subject to talk about and now it was cleaner rivers and air, not Vietnam. The first Earth Day was celebrated on March 21st 1970. The very interesting history of Earth Day is something that everyone should know about. The purpose of Earth Day is to help to keep our grass green and our skies blue with more trees and less pollution. Earth Day was made for another reason, to focus the nation on its ecological problems and not its ones with Vietnam. Earth Day has lost its first reason of Vietnam and now it is out there so that people are more aware of what they are actually doing when they...
pages: 3 (words: 716)
comments: 0
added: 08/19/2012
Coral Reefs are one of the world's most beautiful habitats. They are often called the "rainforests of the ocean," because they support such a diversity of life. They are massive underwater structures formed by the limestone skeletons of tiny invertebrate animals. These beautiful underwater structures are the largest and most diverse biological structures on earth, take thousands to years to form, yet they are being destroyed at an alarming rate. Coral Reefs are built by accumulated skeletons of tiny animals which are mostly corals and plants. These plants are mostly coralline algae. They are built near the surface in tropical seas. When sunlight reaches the appropriate area, corals will start to grow. Over the years coral builds a reef that fringes the shoreline. This is called a fringing reef. Fringing reefs are separated from the land only by shallow water. If a reef grows farther from land, it is a barrier reef. These reefs are separated from the land by a larger lagoon. The Great Barrier Reef is the largest biological structure on earth covering over 2000 kilometers on the east coast of Australia. Atolls, on the other hand, are formed far offshore and they make a ring-shaped reef that close a circular lagoon. Occasionally a coral reef is lifted from the water making it a coral island. The corals are made up of tiny organisms called polyps that grow together to produce the skeletons. Polyps are made up of two cell layers, the epidermis and the gastrodermis. They contain mesentery filaments to capture food, a pharynx and the columella which is found below the mouth. It is surrounded by a ring of tentacles which it uses to catch food floating in the water. Corals also get their food from single-celled plants called symbiotic algae which makes food from sunlight. The skeletal...
pages: 4 (words: 971)
comments: 0
added: 12/04/2011