Of all the scientists to emerge from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries there is one whose name is known by almost all living people. While most of these do not understand this mans work, everyone knows that his impact on the world is astonishing. Yes, many people have heard of Albert Einsteins General Theory of Relativity, but few people know about the intriguing life that led this scientist to discover what some have called The Greatest Single achievement of human thought! JB: So here with us today is Alert Einstein, So Albert... do you mind me asking you to tell us a little about your childhood? Einstein: No not at all, lets see here... I was born in Ulm, Germany on March 14th of 1874. I was raised mostly in Munich, Germany. One very odd thing that my mother told me was that I didn't speak until I was three years old. My father owned a small electrochemical shop, once it failed in 1890 then my dad moved us to Million, Italy. JB: I understand that in you're attempt to attend Princeton you failed the entrance exam, then once you studied you attended anther school instead. what was that all about? Can you tell us? Einstein: Um. O.K. Yes, as a matter of fact I did fail the Mathematical Portion of the exam. I found anther college near by, I attempted to attend I was accepted. This new place was named the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. This new college was located in Zurich, Italy. In 1896 I started my freshman year of college. Even though I commonly missed classes due to me testing theories, and such. I passed all my examinations with the reviewing of my friends' notes; thus I graduated in 1900 JB: According to my sources you...
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Relativity and the Cosmos In November of 1919, at the age of 40, Albert Einstein became an overnight celebrity, thanks to a solar eclipse. An experiment had confirmed that light rays from distant stars were deflected by the gravity of the sun in just the amount he had predicted in his theory of gravity, General Relativity. General Relativity was the first major new theory of gravity since Isaac Newton's, more than two hundred and fifty years earlier. Einstein became a hero, and the myth building began. Headlines appeared in newspapers all over the world. On November 8, 1919, for example, the London Times had an article headlined: "The Revolution In Science/Einstein Versus Newton." Two days later, The New York Times' headlines read: "Lights All Askew In The Heavens/Men Of Science More Or Less Agog Over Results Of Eclipse Observations/Einstein Theory Triumphs." The planet was exhausted with World War I, eager for some sign of humankind's nobility, and suddenly here was a modest scientific genius, seemingly interested only in pure intellectual pursuits. What was General Relativity? Einstein's earlier theory of time and space, Special Relativity, proposed that distance and time are not absolute. The ticking rate of a clock depends on the motion of the observer of that clock; likewise for the length of a "yard stick." Published in 1915, General Relativity proposed that gravity, as well as motion, can affect the intervals of time and of space. The key idea of General Relativity, called the Equivalence Principle, is that gravity pulling in one direction is completely equivalent to an acceleration in the opposite direction. (A car accelerating forwards feels just like sideways gravity pushing you back against your seat. An elevator accelerating upwards feels just like gravity pushing you into the floor. If gravity is equivalent to acceleration, and if...
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The life of Heinrich Schliemann embodies the era of scientific discovery in the late eighteen hundreds. His is a tale of success, and that of man turned to myth. From a meager upbringing, he achieved success in business, and went on to make some of the most impacting archeological discoveries in the nineteenth century. Though copious amounts have been written on Schliemann, the accounts differ greatly, varying from hero to charlatan. From Schliemann's biographers, it remains difficult to glean an accurate perception of him; in many cases, legend is incorporated as fact, thus the man envisioned as Schliemann is the fusion of myth and reality. Regardless of whether one defines Schliemann as a genius after intellectual pursuits or a mere gold-digger, he remains a man that intrigues or induces curiosity. His story is "inextricably bound up with the beginnings of archaeology as a science" (Wood, 50) It is widely believed that from Schliemann's youth, he was inspired by the writing of Homer, and determined to find and excavate Troy in order to prove the truth of its existence. Accounts vary on this theme, but commonly, this is considered true. Schliemann based his business ventures and wealth on his lifelong scholarly pursuits. Deviants to this notion, however, believe that Schliemann concocted the accounts of a lifelong obsession for the epic poems and all things Greek late in life in order to cover up the fact that he was merely in search of fame and fortune. As Wood writes in In Search of the Trojan War, "today it is customary to deride Schliemann's archaeological technique as well as his character" (Wood, 51). Schilemann is considered by some as a brilliant, self-taught man who climbed the ranks to achieve success, whose quick mind, wit and excitability lent themselves to create a most fascinating...
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Chemist Linus Pauling; born in Portland, Ore. After taking his Ph.D. at the California Institute of Technology (1925) and then two years of study abroad, he returned to that institution for most of his professional career (1927--63). Details of those years are as follows: At the California Institute of Technology his advisor was Roscoe Dickinson, whose area of expertise was X-ray crystallography. At this time Dickinson was investigating the crystal structure of various minerals. In his work with Dickinson, Pauling displayed what was to become his standard method of attacking a problem. According to Dr. Edward Hughes, "He would guess what the structure might be like, and then he would arrange it to fit into the other data. . . he could then calculate the intensities he would get from that structure and then compare it with the observed ones." For the rest of his career Pauling was criticized for using too large an amount of intuition in his work and not always having complete data to back up what he wrote. As well as doing his research work, Pauling was taking courses and serving as a teaching assistant in the freshman chemistry course. He received his Ph. D. in chemistry with high honors in the June of 1925. His dissertation comprised the various papers he had already published on the crystal structure of different minerals. A year later, when he was 25, he received a Guggenheim fellowship to study at the University of Munich under Arnold Sommerfeld, a theoretical physicist. Here he began work with quantum mechanics. In January of 1927 he published "The Theoretical Prediction of the Physical Properties of Many Electron Atoms and Ions; Mole Refraction, Diamagnetic Susceptibility, and Extension in Space" in which he applied the concept of quantum mechanics to chemical bonding. In 1928 he...
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The Life of Charles Darwin Charles Darwin was born on Feb. 12. His full name is Charles Robert Darwin. He died on April 19,1882.Darwin was an English naturalist known for his theory of evolution and for its operation, known as Darwinism. His evolutionary theories, mostly in two works: On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) and The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex (1871)-have had an important influence on scientific thought. Charles was the son of Robert Darwin, who had one of the largest medical practices outside of London, and the grandson of the physician Erasmus Darwin, and of the artisan-entrepreneur Josiah Wedgwood. Darwin enjoyed a secure position in the upper middle class that provided him with social and professional advantages. Darwin's mother died when he was eight years old. He enjoyed a fairly good childhood with his sisters and an older brother. During school he was interested in specimen collecting and chemical investigations. Though while at the Shrewsbury school, where he was an uninspired student, Dr. Samuel Butler, publicly criticized Darwin for wasting his time with chemical experiments. At age 16 he was sent to study medicine at the University of Edinburgh, where he was disgusted by surgery performed without anesthetics. During his two years in Scotland, Darwin benefited from a friendship with the zoologist Robert Grant, who introduced him to the study of marine animals.<Tab/> Disappointed by Darwin's lack of interest for medicine, his father sent him to the University of Cambridge in 1827 to study divinity. At the time Darwin remained true to the standard beliefs of the Church of England. He enjoyed hunting, shooting, riding, and sporting friends. Guided by his older cousin William Darwin Fox, Darwin met the circle of Cambridge scientists led by the botanist John Stevens...
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Ernst Haeckel was born in Potsdam, Germany on February 16th, 1834. Haeckel began his study at Wurzburg, Berlin and Vienna. He excelled in medicine and science under the instruction of Johannes Muller, R. Virchow and R.A. Kolliker. Haeckel graduated in 1857 with a MD and M Ch at Berlin. Haeckel then began to practice as a doctor in Berlin. Haeckel did not have many patients in his practice, but was much more comfortable with the low amount of patients. Haeckel then moved on to study under Carl Gegenbauer in Jena for three years before becoming a professor of anatomy in 1862. Between 1859 and 1866 he worked on sponges and segmented worms. Haeckel named about 150 new species of sponges during a trip to the Mediterranean. These new discoverys and his work on development lead to his "law of recapitulation". Haeckel was a "free-thinker". He also studied anthropology, psychology, and cosmology. Haeckel's fudging of data led to his tarnished credentials. On the other hand, the Nazi party justified racism, nationalism and "social darwinism" by Haeckel's quote "politics is applied biology". For this reason Haeckel was a hero in the eyes of his German countrymen. Haeckel was extremely influenced by the works of Darwin. After he read Origin of Species, Haeckel became a supporter of evolution, but did not like the theory of natural selection. Haeckel believed evolution occurred from the species interaction with their environment. He believed that the environment acted directly on organisms producing new races. This was called the "law of recapitulation" and was later discredited. Haeckel was discredited in the begging of the 20th century when biologists began to show that there is no one-to-one correspondence between phylogeny and ontogeny. Although recapitulation is not correct, many biologists are exploring the connection between races and their environment....
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Scientist Biographical Essay, Galileo Galileo, Italian physicist and astronomer, was born at Pisa February 15, 1564 and died at Arcetri, near Florence, January 8, 1642. In 1581 he entered the University of Pisa to study medicine and the Aristotelian philosophy, but soon abandoned medicine for mathematics and physical science. In 1585 he left the university and went to Florence to study under Otilio Ricci. He was professor of mathematics at Pisa 1589-91, and at Padua 1592-1610, lecturing there to crowds of enthusiastic pupils from all over Europe. In 1610 Cosmo II, grand duke of Tuscany, appointed him philosopher and mathematician at the Florentine court, thus relieving him of all academic routine and enabling him to devote himself entirely to his scientific investigations. Galileo's opposition to the Ptolemaic cosmology first brought him under the suspicion of the Inquisition in 1611, though he continued his investigations and publicly defended the Copernican system. In a letter to Ms friend Father Castelli, dated Dec. 21, 1613, he maintained that the theologian, instead of trying to restrict scientific investigation on Biblical grounds, should make it his business to reconcile the phraseology of the Bible with the results of science. In 1615 a copy of this letter was produced before the Inquisition, with the result that the following year Galileo was warned by the pope to desist from his heretical teachings on the pain of imprisonment. In 1632 he again drew the attention of the Inquisition by publishing a defense of the Copernican system. After a long and wearisome trial he was condemned on June 22, 1633, solemnly to abjure his scientific creed on bended knees. This he did under threats of torture; but whether he was actually put to the torture is still a mooted question. He was also sentenced to indeterminate imprisonment, but this...
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This late breaking news has just come in. Galileo Galilei has been named one of the smartest men alive. Certain theories he has made has been a great success to our society. He has now invented what he has called a thermometer. This thermometer is used to check temperature. He has also invented what is also called a compass, which is used to locate directions to a certain point. He has made many other great accomplishments. Now we give his life story and how it all began. Galileo Galilei was born February 15, 1564. He was born near Pisa, Italy and died in Florence, Italy. Galileo was an Italian astronomer. He studied in the field of astronomy. He was also a mathematician. He would give private tutoring lessons from 1885-1889. Plus in 1592 he obtained the chair of mathematics at the University of Puda in the Venetian Republic where he remained until 1610. Galileo had three children by a lady named Marina Gamba. He had two daughters and one son. He sent both of his daughters to a convent because he could not provide a good education for his young daughters. He later managed to have his only son get a good education. In 1609 Galileo detected with his self made telescope four satellites and a moon around Jupiter. In that year he was appointed Chief mathematician of the university and the Philosopher to the Duke of Tuscany. Then in 1621 Galileo was elected Council of the Academe Fiorentino. Galileo invented several things. He invented a hydrostatic balance in 1608. In 1593 he invented the horse driven water pump. He also made a geometric and military compass in 1597. And in 1606 invented the thermometer. His last invention was the pengelium clocks or grandfather clocks in 1641. Galileo had five...
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George Berkeley was a strong believer in the idea that individuals can only directly know sensations and ideas of objects, not abstractions such as "matter." He was an Irish Philosopher whose was recognized most for his idea or immaterialism or subject idealism. The University Of Berkeley and the city surrounding it are named after him and his great works and Yale University also bears his name. Berkeley grew up in Dysart Castle. He was William Berkeley's eldest son. He was educated at Kilkenny College. He then went on to Trinity College and remained there after completion of his degree as a tutor and Greek lecturer. In 1713 George Berkley's third book Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous, made known his system of philosophy, the leading principle of which is that the world as represented to our senses depends for its existence, as such, on being perceived. One of his main objects was to combat the prevailing materialism of the time which was largely recognized as wrong and was ridiculed. Between 1714 and 1720, he began to travel around Europe to take a break from his academic problems. In 1721, he took Holy Orders, earning his doctorate in divinity, and once again chose to remain at Trinity College. In 1724 he was made Dean of Derry (a city in Northern Ireland). During the year 1725 he founded a college in Bermuda. He then went to Newport, Rhode Island where Berkeley then proceeded to buy a plantation know as "whitehall". Then George Berkeley bought multiple slaves to help him on the plantation. On June 11, 1731 Berkeley Baptized three of his black slaves. In Berkeley's sermons explained to colonists why Christianity supported slavery, and hence slaves should become baptized Christians. Berkeley said, "It would be of advantage to their slave masters' to have...
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[Henry Ford: A Man of the Century The 2006 Porsche 911 that I would love to own would not even be in existence were it not for the fortitude and ingenuity of men like Henry Ford who lead the way in the automotive industry. The Ford Motor Company and Henry Ford with his engineer's mind and spirit of inventiveness changed American history. Henry Ford was a man with an interesting private life as well being a man who pushed to make his dreams come true and did not take "no" for an answer which is what a great inventor and business man needs. Henry Ford was responsible for the assembly line way of manufacturing. In the plant that was built in Highland Park, Michigan to produce the Model T the first assembly line was built. All of the equipment was installed beginning in 1908 and the plant went into production in 1910 the idea was that one person could become very good at doing one thing by doing it over and over and be proud of their work. The assembly line change was what headed the Ford Motor Company to huge sales and profits over the next several years. Charles Sorensen, and Clarence Avery could possibly have been responsible for the idea of the assembly line way of manufacturing, but with Henry Ford's engineering background he was definitely involved in some way along with these top men of his. Many credit him with the idea alone so it isn't known if it was collaboration or not. Ford didn't promote this first car by announcing that he would provide a public demonstration of the capabilities of the car like Charles B. King did who was the first man to drive a car through Detroit. Ford called the car the "quadricycle" and...
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University of Pristina Faculty of Electronics and Computing Department of: Computing and Telecommunication Besim A. Ismaili Everything comes from nothing "What choice did God have in creating the Universe?â€ - ALBERT EINSTEIN Abstract This will be a resume of space-time existence, starting from the time of creation to the daytime. On this paper, our basic interest will be the old questions about the Universe and the new answers about them. All the project will be separated on the domain of time in three sequences: Pre-Big Bang, Big Bang and The Universe. A big part of this paper will be dedicated for the question: â€˜what is happen before Big Bang?â€™, which is a very good calculated project where the result is still before us. This belong to the first sequence of our separation. It will be described by new theories and concepts, where more important are: The theory of Active Points (Similar to Singularity Theory), The theory of Accumulation Points, The concept of the Universe centre, The concept of space evolution dimensions, etc. The second part is a short enormous process that needs just a physical review. The conditions about the Big Bang were described on the first part and they are familiar for the most scientists, it is not interesting to repeat that on this section. The third part, which is the longer part of our paper, is talking about the Universe at generally. Based on theoretical ideas, we found exact way to compare the atom and the Universe, its equilibrium and the energetic systems. Therefore, a big part of our theory is based on analogy. On this part, we will discuss about General Cosmic Plan (GCP), which is the fundament of our theory. Introduction This will be an odyssey for the Universe history. It will touch the main point...
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Louis Pasteur Biographical Essay Louis Pasteur was born on December 27, 1822, in Dôle, a small town in France. He grew in a humble family and his father was a tanner. He graduated in 1840 from the College of Arts at Besancon and entered the prestigious Ecole Namale Supervieure, Paris, to work for his doctorate degree. He chose for his studies the then obscure science of crystallography, which was to have a great influence on his career. Pasteur entered the scientific world as a professor of physics at the Lycee of Tournon and started his research on the optical properties of crystals of tartaric acid salts. He found the two forms of this acid which could rotate the plane of polarization of light, one to the right and the other to the left. This was his first important discovery in crystallography, the phenomenon of optical isomers. Paradoxically it incited him to abandon the field. But it won the acclaim of the French Academy and Britain's Royal Society. Thus Pasteur became famous at the age of 26. Pasteur soon began researching the complexities of bacteriology. The prevalent theory of life at the time was spontaneous generation which states that certain forms of life such as flies, worms, and mice can develop from non-living matter such as mud and decaying fish. Pasteur disproved this theory with a simple experiment. He showed that microorganisms would grow in sterilized broth only if the broth was first exposed to air containing spores, or reproductive cells. His findings led to the development of the cell theory of the origin of living matter which states that all life originates from preexisting living material. In 1849, Pasteur became professor of chemistry at the University of Strasbourg, where he began studying fermentation, a type of chemical breakdown of substances...
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Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (April 23, 1858 in Kiel, Germany – October 4, 1947 in Göttingen, Germany) was a German physicist. He is considered to be the founder of quantum theory, and therefore one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century. Contents [hide] 1 Life and work 1.1 Education 1.2 Academic career 1.3 Family 1.4 Professor at Berlin University 1.5 Black-body radiation 1.6 Einstein and the theory of relativity 1.7 World War and Weimar Republic 1.8 Quantum mechanics 1.9 Nazi dictatorship and Second World War 2 Religious view 3 Honours and medals 4 See also 5 Notes 6 Publications 7 Bibliography 8 External links 8.1 Biographies 8.2 Articles  Life and work Planck came from a traditional, intellectual family. His paternal great-grandfather and grandfather were both theology professors in Göttingen, his father was a law professor in Kiel and Munich, and his paternal uncle was a judge. Planck was born in Kiel to Johann Julius Wilhelm Planck and his second wife, Emma Patzig. He was the sixth child in the family, though two of his siblings were from his father's first marriage. Among his earliest memories was the marching of Prussian and Austrian troops into Kiel during the Danish-Prussian war 1864. In 1867 the family moved to Munich, and Planck enrolled in the Maximilians gymnasium, where he came under the tutelage of Hermann Müller, a mathematician who took an interest in the youth, and taught him astronomy and mechanics as well as mathematics. It was from Müller that Planck first learned the principle of conservation of energy. Planck graduated early, at age 16. This is how Planck first came in contact with the field of physics.  Education Planck was extremely gifted when it came to music: he took singing lessons and played the piano, organ and...
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Galileo Galilei was born near Pisa in February 15' 1564. As he grew up he was taught by Monks and entered into the University of Pisa. In the University of Pisa he studied Mathematics and he got a very high degree. After he graduated, around 1609 when the first telescope was invented he made a telescope of his own which magnified 20 times. Galileo was one of the first people to point his telescope to the stars. By looking in the sky he discovered one of Jupiter's 4 moons, the composition of the Milky Way, and the suns rotation. In 1613 his discoveries led him to reinforce the Copernican theory, which angered the Catholic Church. Copernicus was a polish astronomer who also believed that the Earth was not the center of the universe but that the Earth revolved around the sun. Later on in 1632 Galileo made the church even more furious after he wrote his book (Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems). This book supported Copernicus' thoughts on the Earth revolving around the sun, which of course made the church even more furious. Even though this book was known to be a masterpiece by today's scientists, the church refused his thoughts and was warned by the church about excommunication but he didn't mind he was so successful and so into his work that he would not leave what he had done not even if he was threatened with capital punishment. In 1633 Galileo was out on trial and the cause was threatening the church with contradicting ideas. He was trialed to be imprisoned in his own home for the rest of his life. But even though Galileo was imprisoned he still worked and wrote another book called Discourses on the two New Sciences this book was based on...
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Obscure Achiever In our nations great history there has always been those who have achieved greatness but are not recognized. One such person is the scientist and planter William Dunbar. Not much is known about William, what is known is as follows. During the year of 1749 William Dunbar was born in and lived near Elgin, Scotland.William Dunbar was the youngest son of Sir Archibald Dunbar of Morayshire, Scotland. He was educated at Glasgow, and later studied mathematics and astronomy at London. The call of America reached to him so that in 1771 he traveled to America.He moved to West Florida in 1773, and built a plantation near Natchez, MI. In 1798 he was appointed by Gayosa, then Governor of Louisiana, to act as astronomer on behalf of Spain in running the line of demarcation. A correspondent of Thomas Jefferson, Dunbar found himself invited to become a member of the Philosophical Society, with the President of the United States as his sponsor. He was later commissioned by the president to investigate the Ouachita and Red River areas. While fulfilling his commission he wrote the first scientific account of the mineral wells at Hot Springs, Ark. Dunbar imported instruments from Europe which he used to set up his own astronomy lab. It was there that he took his first meteorological observations. These observations were the first in the Southwest. William Dunbar also studied the rise and fall of the Mississippi. During his studies of it he explored its delta. Later he would publish his findings on these subjects and on the plants, animals, and Native Americans of the region. The findings were published in the "Transactions of the American Philosophical Society". Source "http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/.html." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. © 1994, 2000-2005, on Infoplease. © 2000–2005 Pearson Education, publishing as Infoplease. 03 Jun....
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Sigmund Freud Biography Sigmund Freud was born on May 6, 1856, in Freiberg, Moravia, which is now Pribor, in Czech Republic, the son of Jacob Freud and his third wife Amalia. Sigmund was followed by seven younger brothers and sisters. His family constellation was unusual because Freud's two half-brothers, Emmanuel and Philip, were almost the same age as his mother. Freud was younger than his nephew John, Emmanuel's son. This odd situation may have triggered Freud's interest on family dynamics, leading to his ulterior formulations on the Oedipus Complex. Freud's father, a Jewish wool merchant of modest means, moved the family to Leipzig, Germany in 1859, and then settled in Vienna, where Freud remained until 1938. When Freud was eight years old, he was reading Shakespeare, and, during his adolescence, the hearing of a lecture about Goethe's essay on nature impressed him very much. Having considered studying law previously, he decided instead on a career in medical research, beginning his studies at Vienna University in 1873. As a student, Freud began research work on the central nervous system, guided by Ernst von Brock, and qualified as doctor of medicine in 1881. He worked at the Theodor Meynert's Psychiatric Clinic for a year, and later studied with Charcot, at the Salpetriure, in Paris. From 1884 to 1887 Freud published several articles on cocaine. He married Martha Bernays in 1886. The couple had six children (Mathilde, 1887; Jean-Martin, 1889; Olivier, 1891; Ernst, 1892; Sophie, 1893; Anna, 1895). He established a private practice, specializing in nervous disorders. His interest in hysteria was stimulated by Breuer's and Charcot's use of hypnotherapy. Freud moved to a flat in Berggasse, which turned into The Freud Museum Vienna eighty years later, in 1971. Freud and Breuer published their findings in Studies on Hysteria in 1895; in the...
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Stephen Hawking: A Life in Science depicts the life and accomplishments of Stephen Hawking, a unique and towering figure in modern physics, perhaps the most famous scientist since Einstein. He has achieved far more than the vast majority of able-bodied people would ever have dreamt of accomplishing. He has made fundamental breakthroughs in cosmology and, perhaps more than anyone else alive, he has pushed forward our understanding of the universe we live in. His brilliant work on black holes, the big bang, and quantum cosmology has already guaranteed his reputation among physicists and gives hope to those who might not otherwise have any with his success in his field despite his disabilities. Stephen William Hawking came from a family of intellects. He was born on January 8, 1942, in Oxford, England. Both of his parents, Frank and Isobel Hawking, had previously attended Oxford. When it came time for Stephen to attend school, his parents could not afford the tuition to Westminster, one of the best schools in the country. However, Stephen could attend on his own academic merit which would be tested by an entrance examination. The day he was to take the exam he fell ill and consequently never obtained a place at the Westminster Academy. Although disappointed, Stephen's parents knew this small setback would not stop him. Despite his failure, Stephen was still able to attend a local private school which was well-known as an academically excellent institute. He was eccentric and awkward, skinny and puny. His school uniform was always worn messily and he had inherited a slight lisp from his father. He was only a little above average in his class, but had come to be regarded by his teachers as a bright student. Growing up he was always "a bit of a self-educator". He was...
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When one takes a look at the world in which he currently lives, he sees it as being normal since it is so slow in changing. When an historian looks at the present, he sees the effects of many events and many wise people. Benjamin Franklin is one of these people. His participation in so many different fields changed the world immensely. He was a noted politician as well as respected scholar. He was an important inventor and scientist. Particularly interesting is the impact on the scientific world. Benjamin Franklin was a modest man who had had many jobs in his lifetime. This may help explain his large array of inventions and new methods of working various jobs. He did everything from making cabbage-growing more efficient to making political decisions to being the first person to study and chart the Gulf Stream movement in the Atlantic Ocean. Franklin was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on January 17, 1706. He was the fifteenth child in a family of seventeen kids. His parents, Josiah and Abiah Franklin, were hard working devout Puritan/Calvinist people. Josiah Franklin made candles for a living. Since the Franklin's were so poor, little Benjamin couldn't afford to go to school for longer than two years. In those two years, however, Franklin learned to read which opened the door to further education for him. Since he was only a fair writer and had very poor mathematical skills, he worked to tutor himself at home. Benjamin Franklin was a determined young man. As a boy, he taught himself to be a very good writer. He also learned basic algebra and geometry, navigation, grammar, logic, and natural and physical science. He partially mastered French, German, Italian, Spanish, and Latin. He was soon to be named the best educated man in the country....
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Possibly an inadequate title, the Founder of Computer Science, is what Alan Mathison Turing is called by the technological community. Born in a nursing home in Paddington, London with the strong desire to learn, Turing would soon grow to be one of the most ingenious mathematical logicians ever to grace his field. Turing was a man who accomplished his successes without outside motivation to do so. His family, being an upper-middle-class group with no scientific knowledge or interests, left Turing to develop his interests for mathematics and science on his own. This interest is believed to have been sparked by a book he read at around the age of fourteen entitled, "Natural Wonders Every Child Should Know"(Hodges 22). Through reading books of this type and in honor of a deceased intellectual companion named Christopher Morcom, Turing gained the drive to make strives in the world of technology. Turing's received his first public recognition in the field of mathematics directly after graduating from King's College, when he won a Smith's prize for his work on probability theory in 1936 (Kowalik 2). It was around this time when Turing became intrigued by the mathematical question of decidability, otherwise known as the Entscheidungsproblem. This problem asked the question, "could there exist, at least in principle, any definite method or process by which all mathematical questions could be decided?" With his amazing mathematical ingenuity, Turing was able to supply a precise method to solve this almost impossible problem. The method that Turing constructed became the foundation of modern computation, and was later called the Turing Machine. It was a machine that Turing claimed could equal or exceed the logic of a person working on a set of logical instructions. The function of the machine was to accept algorithms, as we call them today, and...
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