Metallica have easily been arguably the best, most influential and most respected Heavy Metal band of the 80's and the 90's. Instead of drifting off in their own success, they brought the music back down to Earth, back to the street, where it belongs. The band formed after a series of events in 1981: Lars Ulrich, a Danish born drummer living in the Bay Area of San Francisco, was looking for someone to 'jam' with. He put an add in the local Trading Post, 'The Recycler,' stating that he was interested in playing drums for a band. To answer his add was James Hetfield, a 19-year-old guitarist, also living in the Bay Area of San Francisco. The two started playing together their favorite Heavy Metal songs, such as those by such bands as Diamond Head, and Black Sabbath. Hetfield later asked roommate (and part-time bassist), Ron McGovney to join the band, and McGovney accepted the offer. The trio then recruited lead guitarist Dave Mustaine, and the band was complete, or was it.... With Hetfield doubling up on vocals, the band recorded their first demos in mid-1981. The demos entitled "No Life 'Till Leather," became the product of bootleggers, and the band became popular among the Underground Heavy Metal community. Later, when Hetfield and Ulrich attended the concert of a fellow Bay Area band called Trauma, they were stunned by the 'volcanic' ability of Trauma's bassist: Cliff Burton. Subsequently, McGovney was kicked out of the band by Hetfield and Ulrich, and the very impressive Burton was asked to join Metallica. After some strenuous decision making, Burton decided to join. Metallica then started to play concerts, mainly as a warm-up band for established Metal acts such as Saxon, and Metallica's popularity grew, while they hadn't even released their first album yet. Mustaine, the band's lead guitarist...
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Music has always been an important factor in the lives of Jamaicans and other West Indians. As rock music's popularity spread around the world, virtually every nation had its own rock performers. Jamaica produced reggae music. By the 1950s Jamaican youth were more interested in listening to American music, widely heard by radio stations in the US south, and sound systems. Reggae rhythms are tremendously complex, the music features songs about poverty, politics, and Rastafarianism, the Jamaica based religious cult. It is a combination of traditional African rhythms, American rhythm and blues and Jamaican folk. The style is strictly Jamaican and includes offbeat rhythms, up-stroke guitar strums, chanted vocal patterns and lyrics. Reggae's direct forefather is Ska. Relying on skittering guitar and syncopated rhythms, Ska was their interpretation of R&B and it was quite popular in the early '60s. However, during one very hot summer, it was too hot to either play or dance to Ska, so the beat was slowed down and reggae was born. Bob Marley and his group, the Wailers, were largely responsible for the widespread popularity of reggae. The film The Harder They Come (1973) brought the style to the United States. Reggae influenced a generation of white musicians notably Paul Simon and Eric Clapton and reggae modes can often be detected in today's rock and rap music. After the death of Bob Marley, the style lost much of its international energy, with the exception of a few bands such as Black Uhuru and Steel Pulse, and singer Linton Kwesi Johnson, a Jamaican poet living in England. The merging of rap and reggae into a style called dub or toasting, as well as the appearance of younger performers such as Ziggy Marley (Bob's son), revitalized reggae in the late 1980s and 1990s. While only few Jamaican recordings have crossed over to...
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The first all-electronic compute, based on vacuum tubes, was developed in 1946 by J. Presper Eckert and John W. Mauchly of the University of Pennsylvania. Atahis computer could make calculation a thousand times faster than earlier devices." The Macintosh must be running system software version 7.5 or higher and be equipped with a drive that supports Apple PC Exchange. 1 Save your Windows file to a 3.5-inch floppy disk or a CD-ROM. 2 Insert the floppy disk in the Macintosh floppy disk drive. 3 Copy the files directly to the Macintosh. Note You can easily move files between Windows and the Macintosh if you have access to a Windows NT server that is set up with Services for the Macintosh. For more information, see your NT documentation. Although, the microcomputer is a very recent development, computers have been around for a long time. A major step in computer technology was the development in the early 1800's of Machine that could be programmed. "Joseph Jacquard developed a loon for weaving cloth whose operation was controlled by means of card with holes punched in them. In 1886, Hollerith improved on Jacquard's punched card by developing a card that could be used by electrical rather than mechanical equipment. The Hollerith (or IBM) card is still very mush In use." In 1944 engineers from IBM and Howard Aiken of Harvard University developed a machine called the Mark.1 This 50 foot-long and 8-foot high machine was able to add, subtract, multiply, divide, and refer to data tables using punched cards. Computers Amazing Facts Technology Has ComA Long Way...
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History of film has been dominated by the discovery and testing of the paradoxes inherent in the medium itself. Film uses machines to record images of life; it combines still photographs to give the illusion of continuous motion; it seems to present life itself, but it also offers impossible unrealities approached only in dreams. The motion picture was developed in the 1890s from the union of still PHOTOGRAPHY, which records physical reality, with the persistence-of-vision toy, which made drawn figures appear to move. Four major film traditions have developed since then: fictional narrative film, which tells stories about people with whom an audience can identify because their world looks familiar; nonfictional documentary film, which focuses on the real world either to instruct or to reveal some sort of truth about it; animated film, which makes drawn or sculpted figures look as if they are moving and speaking; and experimental film, which exploits film's ability to create a purely abstract, nonrealistic world unlike any previously seen. Film is considered the youngest art form and has inherited much from the older and more traditional arts. Like the novel, it can tell stories; like the drama, it can portray conflict between live characters; like painting, it composes in space with light, color, shade, shape, and texture; like music, it moves in time according to principles of rhythm and tone; like dance, it presents the movement of figures in space and is often underscored by music; and like photography, it presents a two-dimensional rendering of what appears to be three-dimensional reality, using perspective, depth, and shading. Film, however, is one of the few arts that is both spatial and temporal, intentionally manipulating both space and time. This synthesis has given rise to two conflicting theories about film and its historical development. Some theorists, such as S. M....
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This was war! Since its inception seven years earlier, the upstart American Football League (AFL) had fought the National Football League (NFL) for players, fans, television revenues, and respect. The successful new league had won everything except, respect. On January 15, 1967 the first World Championship game against the AFL and the NFL took place. The powerhouse NFL champions the Green Bay Packers against the AFL champion the Kansas City Chiefs. What ended in a 35 to 10 loss to the NFL, the AFL earned its long sought after respect. But the winner that day was not the AFL or even the NFL; it was professional football. January 15, 1967 was the first ever Super Bowl. A few seasons later it was the Super Bowl who merged the two leagues into what we all know it as today, The National Football League. Thirty-four years later the Super Bowl has become Americas most watched sporting event. It is often the most watched television program each year, and nine out of the top 15 shows in history are NFL championship games according to Nielsen Media. The popularity of the Super Bowl has seen television networks like NBC, CBS, ABC, and FOX fight it out each year for the contract rights to broadcast, this much anticipated event. Many factors contribute to the broadcasting networks' struggle to obtain the rights to air the Super Bowl, mainly advertising dollars and television ratings, but it's not always worth the fight. A Brief History of Sports on Television (2) In 1960 the AFL sold its rights to ABC. The NFL and CBS agreed to broadcast rights in 1961. But also in 1961, Congress passed the Sports Broadcasting Act, which permitted leagues to act as cartels in the negotiation and sale of their broadcast rights. This led the...
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What is this civilized thing called writing? Modern linguists define writing as a system of human communication by means of conventional, agreed-upon signals that represent language. The signs must be capable of being sent and received, mutually understood, and they must correspond to spoken words. Each written means began with simple pictures and plain strokes or dots - adequate for recording objects and numbers. Of all the creation of man, writing is our most exquisite intellectual accomplishment. Contrary to a popular belief ,writing was invented not once but possibly as many as six separate times, in very distant places. Man approached writing by lengthy stages: the development of speech; the invention of pictures; the need to reinforce memory by storing information; the realization that pictures could be used for purpose; and finally, the difficult trial and error process of adapting pictures so that they represented the sounds of speech. The Origin of writing is seen through the development of civilizations over certain periods of historical times and places. Though writing developed not much more than 5000 years ago-----only yesterday in the long calendar of man's emergence------its roots, like those of so many other inventions, lie further back in the past. (Clairborne, p.11) Writing was invented in order to record business activities. Certain people needed to be able to keep track and records of various things. It was impossible to rely on a man's memory for every detail, a new method was needed to keep reliable records. As cities grew more complex, so did writing. Over 500 years of evolution the outward appearance and internal structure of writing changed. The social conditions that gave rise to writing are described as a phenomenon called the urban revolution. (Clairborne, p 20). Like speech, of which it is an extension, writing requires the capacity to make mental...
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If the impulse to create art is a defining sign of humanity, the body may well have been the first canvas. Alongside paintings on cave walls visited by early people over 30,000 years ago, we find handprints, ochre deposits, and ornaments. And because the dead were often buried with valuable possessions and provisions for the afterlife, ancient burials reveal that people have been tattooing, piercing, painting, and shaping their bodies for millennia. All of the major forms of body art known today appear in the ancient world, and there is no evidence indicating a single place of origin for particular techniques. Like people today, ancient peoples used body art to express identification with certain people and distinction from others. Through body art, members of a group could define the ideal person and highlight differences between individuals and groups. In the past, as today, body art may have been a way of communicating ideas about the afterlife and about the place of the individual in the universe. A variety of objects demonstrate the use of body art in ancient times including an Egyptian fish-shaped make-up palette from 3650 BC to 3300 BC; a painted Greek vase from the fifth century BC depicting tattooed Thracian women; a ceramic spout bottle depicting the pierced face of a Moche warrior of Peru from AD 100-700; and ceramics of painted Nayarit women from 300 BC to 300 AD. As people from one culture encounter people from another, the diversity of body art can be a source of inspiration, admiration, and imitation. Yet since body art can so clearly signal cultural differences, it can also be a way for people from one culture to ostracize others. Body art links the individual to a social group as an insider, by asserting a shared body art language. Or it distinguishes outsiders, by...
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In our society, if we don't respect the freedom of others we, most of the time, go to jail. But, in the late 1700's ,in Europe, people were not respected and were fed-up to live in a society where only one person was responsible of the destiny of 27 million people. As you can guess I will, in the following text ,explain the reasons and the results of the French Revolution. In the 1760's the American revolution began. The population was asking for a new constitution and a bill of rights. They wanted to be independent, and not governed by the Great Britain anymore. The French ,eternal enemies of the British Kingdom, gave ,generously, weapons and money to the American rebels ;French officers, also helped the Washington's army. France was maybe too generous and didn't have any money to satisfied their own needs anymore. However, the French society sank in a big depression the peasants were paying more and more taxes , a bread (the main food) shortage began and the wages decrease. The population was very close to revolt… Meanwhile, since the middle age the French society was devised, unequally, into three estates. The first estate ,was formed of the clergy, they owned 10 percent of the land and numbered about 130,000 people. They weren't paying any taxes, however they agreed to pay, every five years a contribution to the state. The second estate constituted of 35,000 aristocrats ,and "noblesse de robe ".They owned 30 percent of the land and had the biggest positions in the army, the church and the government. The third estates was formed of 80 percent of the population divided in three different groups, 2.3 million of them were part of the bourgeoisie (merchants, capitalist, doctor etc.…)they owned 2o percent of the land ,21 million of them...
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A Histroy of the Troubles in Northern Ireland "The only way to beat the British Monarch is to refuse its existence and believe that the Irish Republic is real and alive. Now, if I die, who will take my place?" These powerful words were said by an Irish martyr, Michael Collins, who's unyielding determination as a Nationalist and a Catholic served as inspiration to continue in the struggle that the province of Northern Ireland is still engaged in today. But, from where did this all originate, what steps have been taken towards peace and why is Northern Ireland so reluctant to be ruled by England? The history of the troubles that haunt Northern Ireland are not due to any one particular incident but rather a series of incidents beginning back when the island of Ireland was conquered by the Anglo-Normans troops in the late 12th century. English rulers then tried to colonize the island by any means possible, making enemies out of the Irish. Throughout history England has ruled Ireland. A drastic change took place in 1921, when the country was divided. Northern Ireland remained part of the UK, while the remainder of the country became the Republic of Ireland. The English progressed into Ulster Country with hopes of colonizing it. However, a clash of cultures erupted due to the animosity that Ireland, as a whole wanted to be the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Republic Army fought in hopes of driving the Protestant British out of Catholic Ireland and they only secured 26 out of 32 counties. The desire to drive the British out inspired rebellion on the behalf of the Irish Catholics. They were the domination of Ireland, and now being discriminated against on their own land. They were punished and taxed due to their behavior. They wanted to keep their...
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In the 1960s after the assassinations of President John F. Kenedy, Dr. Martin Luther King, and Senator Robert F. Kenedy, gun control became a major subject of public passion and controversy. To some people gun control is a crime issue, to others it is a rights issue. Gun control is a safety issue, an education issue, a racial issue, and a political issue, among others. Within each of these issues there are those who want more gun control legislation and those who want less. On both sides of this issue opinions range from moderate to extreme. Guns are not for everyone. Certain individuals cannot handle a firearm safely, and some individuals choose to use firearms inappropriately. Our society has passed laws regulating the ownership and use of firearms, and more legislation is being considered. Most of this legislation restricts, to some degree, the rights of individuals to possess or use firearms. Some restrictions may be necessary, but some recent legislation has gone too far. Society benefits from firearms in the hands of responsible citizens. Attempts to keep firearms away from these citizens do more harm than good. The Second Amendment to the United States Constitution states: "A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed." The Founding Fathers included this in our bill of Rights because they feared the Federal Government might oppress the population if the people did not have the means to defend themselves as a nation and as individuals (Halbrook 65-84). This idea was not new. The Founding Fathers' thoughts on the right to keep and bear arms were influenced by Aristotle, Cicero, John Locke, and Algernon Sidney (Halbrook 7). The militia referred to cannot be construed as meaning the Army...
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