Alexander Stirling "Sandy" Calder was one of the most innovative and original American artists of the twentieth century. Calder was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. His mother, Nanette Lederer, was a painter and his father, Alexander "Stirling" Calder, and grandfather, Alexander Milne Calder, were noted sculptors. Young Alexander seemed to break the family tradition of studying art by enrolling at the Stephens Institute of Technology in New Jersey to major in engineering. But after graduating from college and holding a succession of jobs, Calder eventually returned to New York to study art (Nelson 2001). Calder attended classed at the Art Students League in New York from 1923 to 1926, supporting himself by working as an illustrator. Between 1926 and 1930, Calder went to Paris to develop his intricately assembled Cirque Calder, a work of performance art employing small-scale circus figures he sculpted from wire, wood, clothe, and other materials. Calder's circus helped to establish him in avant-garde circles. At the same time, Calder sculpted three-dimensional figurative works using continuous lengths of wire, which he described as "line drawings in space"(Marter 1991). His wire sculptures became another outlet for the artist's explorations in space. One of his earliest wire sculptures was a portrait of Josephine Baker, the first of five he ultimately made of the dance (Marter 1991). Many of these wire sculptures, such as his initial portrait of Baker, were affixed to bases. A number of later wire portraits, such as Aztec Josephine Baker, were made to hang from string or wire, so that their elements could dangle and move at the mercy of the wind. Indeed, such works would seem to be conceptual prototypes of Calder's later mobiles. In the early 1930's, Calder's work took a radical turn. Association with Mondrain and other innovative artists working at the time influenced Calder to...
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Born in London in 1969, leaving school at 16, Alexander McQueen stepped into the world of fashion. Creating and manipulating his unique designs with his talented skills, McQueen mastered 6 methods of pattern cutting from the 16th century and tailoring skills which today have given his McQueen signature. Also dubbed 'enfant terrible' by the fashion press Receiving British Designer of the Year in 2001, 1996 and 1997 and also the recipient of many more awards, Alexander McQueen is recognised as one of the most successful talents in the fashion industry and is known world-wide. McQueen and His Collection Unique designs, stunning effects, powerful collections and a revolutionary designer. Put it together and you have Alexander McQueen! Varied views are shared among us from newspapers, fashion press to the internet fashion sites. Not always are the views good but a view is always present when it comes to Alexander McQueen. Some might say he was like Marmite, " You either love it, or hate it." Styles the 'Enfant terrible' have brought to us are varied every season but just as exhilarating as his last flair. As we see here is an outfit from the Spring/Summer 2003 collection which is a mixture of flimsy frills and tough leather or P.V.C. To me i would regard this as a typical McQueen signature because of the powerful colours like chocolate browns and calm creams which i think produces a nature on the model. This glitzy vest and skirt is also another Spring/Summer 2003 style, unlike the first outfit, this one would be more likely to be seen on the streets because of it's Summer explosion and brighter colours and lighter fabrics. The sexy outfit lights up a dark street and leaves its statement of energy. * * Along side is an A/W 1997-1998, titled "It's A Jungle Out There" focused on...
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# # Alfred Alexander Gockel was born in 1952 in Ludinghausen, North-Rine Westphalia, Germany. In 1973, he started his studies in the specialist field of design, with emphases on typography and graphic design. Gockel worked in the advertising industry for many years also. Gockel was not only a designer and an artist, but during his free time, he often lectured in his alma mater, Munster Polytechnic, in his specialized fields: typography and graphic. He was fascinated by the magic of the color on paper, and his enthusiasm lead to the publication of his first artwork when he was only eight years old. After his decision to dedicate all his time to art, he has produced a wide variety of artwork from unique types of etchings to serigraphy. Gockel's compositions are marked by the bright colors and graceful motion of his characters and are trimmed with powerful black figures and accents, which fade together to create an individual image for each viewer. This is a perfect reflection of his appearance and inner-self. His hyperactivity is the basis for the large number of different projects he has fulfilled, and his striving for perfection results in the highest quality for each and every one. With expressive use of rich, primary colors, Gockel has created an exceptional style that is undeniably unique. He has is own style of painting which brings out the characteristics in him also. His fluid strokes on large white canvas backgrounds done in the manner of "action painting" have a tremendous universal appeal. The competitive nature of his character has let him to an accomplished career, and after 22 years, he still gets inspired by society. His creations keep improving, stimulated by a large number of fans, and that also keeps increasing. Alfred Gockel's art collection is subdivided into two major categories: unique art...
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Alexander Hamilton Stephens His Defense for Secession and His vice Presidency during the Civil War Alexander Hamilton Stephens was born on February 12, 1812 near Crawfordville, Georgia. He helped organize the Whig Party in Georgia and in 1843 was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in which he served until 1859. In early 1861 just before the outbreak of the Civil War, serious economic and ideological differences among the states' rights and slavery divided the people of the nation, and the country geographically. Nineteen states, including the industrialized northern states, prohibited slavery. While 15 southern states whose economies depended on agriculture, permitted the ownership of slaves. 11 of the southern states withdrew from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America. Stephens opposed the immediate secession movement in Georgia in 1860-1861, he cautioned that revolutions once begun were hard to control and that slavery was safer inside the Union, but after the state had voted to secede he supported it's action, like so many other southerners, he had no thought other than that of following his state once secession had been determined. Part of this decision-making could have been the development of his "southernism concept", which was long before the civil war. It was a southern idea in which they referred not to state and nation but to section, as the focal point of admiration of their allegiances. Stephens quote "The south is my home – my fatherland. There sleep the ashes of my sire and grandsires, there are my hopes and prospects; with her my fortunes are cast; her fate is my fate and her destiny my destiny"(unquote). The formation of the Confederacy began in Montgomery, Alabama on February 4, 1861. It was formed to express state's rights and expand a centralized nation. Montgomery had to justify the legal right of secession....
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One must wonder where would America be today financially and economically without the aide of Alexander Hamilton. Sometimes credited as Father of the Treasury, had a profound effect on the American economy. Born illegitimate on the West Indies island of Nevis, left orphaned and penniless at the age of 13, educated by a local clergyman, and in spite of his ruthless beginnings became our countries first Secretary of the Treasury ("Who Is That Guy on the $10 Bill). His contributions include the establishment of credit of our young country, formation of a national bank, the Bank of the United States, and the proposition of tariffs that provided revenue and encouraged manufacturing. When Alexander Hamilton was appointed Secretary of the Treasury in September of 1789, he was faced with many dilemmas. The first dilemma was the national debt. By December 1789, the total public debt was up to $74,500,00 (Kraus 276). $12,000,000 of the debt was due to foreign countries for loans to finance the war, $22,500,000 of the debt was state debts, and $40,000,000 of the debt was the nation owed for other federal obligations (domestic debts) (Kraus 277). The nation was a crucial point in its existence and needed a solution to its financial problems. Hamilton sent the first part of his plan for the nations economic success, the Report on the Public Credit, to Congress in January 1790 (Sylla). He proposed that all the nations debts be paid off by par, meaning completely paid. Hamilton argued that the debts had to be completely paid off to establish good federal credit, and Congress agreed (Sylla). The government's responsibility of the states debt was subject to debate for Congress. Most of the southern states had fulfilled paying off most of their debts and didn't want to assume the debts of the...
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I enjoyed a night of dinner, drinks, and heated discussion with two of America's founding fathers. I sat and listened to Alexander Hamilton argue his plan for a manufacturing society fueled by a strong national government. On the other hand, Thomas Jefferson defended states' rights and the preservation of agrarian life. Both men spoke passionately and proved in the end they were more alike than different. Government was our first topic of the night. Hamilton took center stage with a moving plea for a strong federal government. Hamilton expressed a government ran by the elite, since they were not as easily swayed. He spoke of a government that would not be weak to invasion or internal conflicts. A nation without power leads to anarchy. The government should make laws with penalties(consequences) enforced by the military or courts. One Government, One Power! He went on to say, when several states come together, like in the Articles of Confederation, the struggle for ultimate power becomes a major problem. He strongly believed that this problem would lead to failure. Before I could say Amen and Hallelujah, Jefferson had started his rebuttal. He didn't believe in emulating the British like Hamilton, especially after the Revolutionary War. Each state should have its own power. He disagreed with leaving the elites in power even though he, himself, was an elite. Jefferson felt that the nation's interest would not be first priority compared to the interest of the elite's. Since, Jefferson was a strict constructionist, he believed the government could only enforce the Constitution, nothing more and nothing less. It was clear to me. It would not be easy choosing a side. The Economy was next on my list of questions. Alexander Hamilton wanted to turn America into an industrialized society from an agricultural one. A society that would rival...
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Who in your opinion was the most important individual in the 20th Century? Throughout the 20th Century there have been a number of significant personalities who with their attributes have changed the course of history for the benefit or destruction of humankind. Prominent individuals have significantly contributed to society through many fields, ranging from science and technology to politics and human rights. Alexander Fleming was one of the most important scientists in the medical world whose actions changed the course of history through his scientific breakthrough. Through years of sacrificial work, Fleming discovered Penicillin - the first antibiotic in medical history that has saved millions of lives worldwide. Alexander Fleming's extraordinary medical voyage commenced in 1901, when his uncle died leaving him an inheritance of £250. This inheritance enabled him to receive medical education and training at St Mary's hospital. Great interest had not led him to the medical field but rather his brother's persuasion to become a doctor as well as an opportunity to leave his tedious job "...he had no burning enthusiasm for medicine but it offered an escape..."1. In 1906, after graduating from St Mary's hospital he was greatly influenced by John Freeman to continue and work as an bacteriological research assistant. Initially, Fleming intended to succeed as a surgeon qualifying in 1909, however he was extremely committed to research and therefore pursued a career in bacteriology. The experience of WWI compelled Fleming's continued dedication and pursuit of a miracle drug that would prove essential, in the combat of infectious diseases. He served in France as a Captain in the Army Medical Corps, primarily treating wounded soldiers. Fleming's battlefront experience had proven to him that simple infections were deadly, and soon he realised that there had to be an antibacterial substance that would kill harmful bacteria without harming human tissues....
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Alexander Graham Bell's invention of the telephone grew out of his research into ways to improve the telegraph. His soul purpose was to help the deaf hear again. Alexander Graham Bell was not trying to invent the telephone, he was just trying to help out people in need. Young Alexander Graham Bell, Aleck as his family knew him, took to reading and writing at a precociously young age. Bell family lore told of his insistence upon mailing a letter to a family friend well before he had grasped any understanding of the alphabet. As he matured, Aleck displayed what came to be known as a Bell family trademark--an expressive, flexible, and resonant speaking voice. Born in Edinburgh, Scotland, the inventor spent one year at a private school, two years at Edinburgh's Royal High School (from which he graduated at 14), and attended a few lectures at Edinburgh University and at University College in London, but he was largely family-trained and self-taught. He moved to the United States, settling in Boston, before beginning his career as an inventor. With each passing year, Alexander Graham Bell's intellectual horizons broadened. By the time he was 16, he was teaching music and elocution at a boy's boarding school. He and his brothers, Melville and Edward, traveled throughout Scotland impressing audiences with demonstrations of their father's Visible Speech techniques. Visible Speech was invented by their father but he didn't have much luck with it. It is a technique were ever sound that comes out of a persons mouth can be represented with a visual character. In 1871, Bell began giving instruction in Visible Speech at the Boston School for Deaf Mutes. Attempting to teach deaf children to speak was considered revolutionary. Bell's work with his deaf students in Boston would prove to be a watershed event in his...
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Reference Material Alexander Graham Bell was born in 1847. As a child He took after his grandfather who was an actor who entertained people with his voice. Alexanders mother, who was deaf, would have people talk to her through her ear tube, which amplifies speech by talking through a object that looked like a horn. Alexander choose to talk to his mother by speaking in low tones very close to her forehead. Alexander thought that his mother would be able to "hear" him by the vibrations his voice put on her forehead. Alexander at about the age of 14 and his brother, Melville, created a contraption that had a fake mouth, tongue, and lungs that you could force air out of. This contraption could make human-like sounds. After this Alexander manipulated his dogs vocal cords and mouth to change growls to words. By the time Alexander was sixteen he was teaching music at a boys boarding school.The invention of the telephone was a great success. It took the world by a storm. It took a lot of work and Tammy Fairchild helped out but no one gave her the credit. Even though Alexander Graham Bell had the idea to make the telephone. Some of her idea's was put into making the telephone.The invention of the telephone was a great success. It took the world by a storm. It took a lot of work and Tammy Fairchild helped out but no one gave her the credit. Even though Alexander Graham Bell had the idea to make the telephone. Some of her idea's was put into making the telephone. Alexander Graham Bell was born on March 3, 1847 in Edinbuigh, Scotland. He spent a year in private school and then he went to Edinburgh's Royal High, which he graduated at the age of fourteen....
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Alexander Graham Bell is a name of great significance in American history today. A skillful inventor and generous philanthropist, he astounded the world with his intuitive ideas that proved to be both innovative and extremely practical in the latter half of the 19th century. Most notable, of course, are Bell's work in developing the telephone and his venerable life-long endeavor to educate the deaf. Originally, his only wish was to help deaf people overcome their difficulty in learning verbal communication, and later was pushed into researching the possibility of a device that could transmit the human voice electronically over a distance. After building his first working telephone model, Bell's fame spread quickly as people in America and around the world began to realize the awesome potential this wonderfully fascinating new device held in store for society (Brinkley 481). His telephone an instant success and already a burgeoning industry, A. G. Bell decided to turn his attention back to assisting the deaf and following other creative ideas including the development of a metal detector, an electric probe which was used by many surgeons before the X ray was invented, a device having the same purpose as today's iron lung, and also a method of locating icebergs by detecting echoes from them. With his many inventions (especially the insanely popular and universally applied telephone), his efforts to educate the deaf, and the founding and financing of the American Association to Promote the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf (now called the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf), Alexander Graham Bell has become a very important historical figure indeed (Berstein 9). Perhaps a key factor in Bell's successful life was his invigorating background. His family and his education definitely had a deep influence on his career. Born in Scotland, his mother was a painter and an accomplished musician, his father a teacher of the deaf and speech textbook writer. His father invented "Visible Speech," a code of symbols which indicated the...
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