Statuette of a Youth Ancient Greek art set the bar for artists around the world for thousands of years and still does today. Its sophistication peaked during the Classical Period which has been called the "Golden Age" of Greek art. The idea of being able to make the world and people around oneself seem flawless was captured through their art. From the usage of geometric shapes to the idea of symmetry helped to give way to the idea of equilibrium, a balance, to which the Greeks held as one idea of perfection. Many sculptures in Greek art took qualities of a person and made them bigger, stronger, and more beautiful. They took nature broke it down and rebuilt it to make it perfect in the eye of the artist. Apollo, the Greek god of the sun, was always pictured as the perfection of a youthful man. He was strong, handsome, and intelligent. The Statuette of a Youth was a cast bronze sculpture supposedly of the god Apollo. It is from the Early Classical Greek period, made around 470 B.C. The statue depicts the young Greek man reaching out towards something. The Statuette of a Youth is a typical Greek sculpture; he has one foot forward, one arm down by his side, and a solemn look on his face. This pose is much like that of an archaic sculpture but, there is much more detail and realistic qualities to his form which makes him from the Early Classical period in Greek art. It is similar to the archaic Kouras from Attica in the sense that this pose puts off the impression of strength and of an athlete and he has thick ankles which support and stabilize the statue. Since, this sculpture is supposedly of the god Apollo who was used throughout ancient Greek...
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(1) Mandalas, 2-D interpretations of Buddhist sutras have been part of Japanese tradition for thousands of years. In 1061 Phoenix Hall in Uji, Byodoin, Japan was consecrated as a veneration of “The Visualization Sutra” Buddha Amitabha. This 3-D offering, an architectural piece was financed by Fujiwara no Yorimichi, a politically influential aristocrat and lover of the arts who has been credited with the unique idea and design. It was known to have been compared to Sukhdvati (the pure land of Amitabha) by guests. Scholars have compared it to traditional temples Earlier temples were much simpler, square with pyramidal roof or rectangular with a hip-and-gable roof. Phoenix Hall has a bird-like appearance, hence the name, because the main hall can be seen as the body and the two symmetrical long galleries at either side as the bird’s wings. Added is the sensation of five roofs that seem ready to float up into the sky. The Temple was situated in an artificial lake in wetlands and on the bank of the Uji River. The lake surface perfectly reflects the temple. The sutra being “visual and visionary” mirrors the temple which is visually beautiful, symmetrical and constructed in a new, perhaps even visionary way. Some of the balance comes from design structures that have no other purpose but to provide harmony in the interior space (such as a partial upper story). Privacy and inaccessibility to strangers is provided by the grounds of the compound as well as the layers of hallways and galleries which the family knew well. Structural innovations have been studied thoroughly. Replicating other temples was not common yet two others men did so. Some speculate that it was a type of power play or grudging respect by an enemy. (2) The copies were built intentionally by an emperor and a warlord. Ms Yiengpruksawan has...
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Patrick Collins' landscapes directly connect to his childhood, in that he often spent his early days venturing into the Irish countryside. Such adventures allowed his affinity for nature and keen observational sense to thrive. Throughout his painting career, Collins pulled many of his subjects from boyhood memory. Rather than relying directly on the land itself, he focused on his remembrances of the land, enabling each painting to stand independent, with an internal logic and unique meaning (Ruane, 59). Furthermore, such depictions of memory liken to poetry, as Collins' paintings delve deep into the world of imagination, evoking emotion of the past and present. Although this sense of mystical autonomy encompasses the whole of Collins' works his themes and techniques, however, vary over the course of his painting. Color, brushstroke, use of light, and composition mature from his first pieces to his last. Thus Collins demonstrates a progression of understanding not only in his artistic views, but also in the means which he presents these views in his artwork. St. Anne's Park, Raheny (c. 1946) demonstrates Collins' early style in painting. The thick, layered application of paint shows his abstract detachment from the specific scene. The dark, brooding colors contrast with the highlights of light, adding further to the fairy tale aspect of the piece. Collins' thick, almost busy composition, however, is short-lived as he progresses to a less cluttered canvas. In Barking Dog (1955) a house, tree, and dog are the only subjects to occupy the piece. Empty space becomes apparent as swirling blues and grays fill up the void, pulling the work together. The dark boarder further contains the painting, while the short depth of field allows the illuminated inner rectangle to pop out from the surface, as it hovers under a mist of dry paint. Such a technique adds...
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Commanders Versus Warriors The art work left by the ancient Egyptians during the Predynastic and Old Kingdom periods were very similar. The Predynastic period preceded the Old kingdom roughly in the years of twenty five hundred B.C. The art work during these time periods followed a set of rules, called the Canon, regarding proportions and the human figure. The same rules were followed during both period, but it is evident that the artists of the New Kingdom where changing and fiddling with the Canon ever so slightly. "The Palette of King Narmer," from the Predynastic period, and the "Painting relief of Ti watching a hippopotamus hunt," from the New Kingdom, are excellent examples of a shift in the way powerful people were displayed in art work, yet were still very similar. Powerful people, such as kings, priests and officials, were displayed disconnected from others much more during the New Kingdom than the Predynastic period. The "Palette of King Narmer" is a phenomenal representation of the Predynastic period, as it came from Hierakonpolis, Egypt during the years three thousand to twenty nine twenty B.C.. It shows the power of King Narmer during a war between upper and lower Egypt. King Narmer is shown victorious in battle as he kills an enemy on one side of the Palette. Above, his name is written in hieroglyphics, and a bird watches over king Narmer. Behind him, a much smaller figure, most like a servant, stands. On the backside of the palette large serpents are intertwined in the center. The painting is divided horizontally into sections. The serpents lie in the middle section. On the top section King Narmer's army is shown victorious. The "Painted relief of Ti watching over a hippopotamus hunt" is painted on limestone, and lies in the mastaba of King Ti, which dates back...
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The role of portraiture in art has developed over time, no longer is it only a means of recording daily occurrences, it has become an indicator of the changing world. Many mediums such as sculpture, photography and paint and styles for example surrealism, realism, and impressionism have been used to create portraits, from the beginning of prehistoric times when portraiture was used to record happenings in day to day life. Through out ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome it was used to show people of importance as well as cultural and religious icons. During the middle ages when it was used mainly to show religious icons an scenes of battle and through the 17th, 18th, 19th, 20th and 21st centuries it developed into something not just created for the gods and societies elite, but a medium used to both capture images and express feelings brought about by poverty, war, and the lives and appearances of people in all classes and cultures anywhere in the world. The Athenian sculptor Phidias, born in Athens in 490b.c, who directed the building of the Parthenon is perhaps best know for his statues of Zeus the king of the gods and Athena goddess of wisdom, which not only represent highly important figures in Greek mythology but also represent art and architecture in Greece during Phidias' life as well as his role in society. Which was to provide the people of Greece with religious icons to dedicate and worship. The statue of the Athena goddess of wisdom, protector of Athens and daughter of Zeus, which Phidias made for the Parthenon, was completed in approximately 438 BC. The original work, which no longer exists, was made of gold and ivory and measured about 12m in height. The goddess stood upright, wearing a tunic, aegis, and helmet and holding a Nike (goddess...
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De Venette, Jean, " The Chronicle of Jean de Venette ", The Global Experience. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2002. Ibn al- Wardi. " An Essay of the Report of the Pestilence ", The Global Experience. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2002. Jean De Venette, a monk, writes about his accounts of the Black Death of 1348 A.D. in France. The plague killed everyone it touched, it was a quick death, people died so fast they ran out of places to bury the dead. Many of the people believed that the plague came from unbelievers. Some believed it came from God so they awaited death. People believed that the Jews caused the plague by poisoning the wells and started to kill off the Jews. Jean believed that the plague was Gods will. After the plague the population grew rapidly because there were so many multiple births, but the plague left a defect on the new generation, they were missing teeth. The world came out of the plague more hostile to each other. In Germany, a group of men got together and marched around Europe, the French did not like what they stood for. Ibn al- Wardi writes of his accounts of the Black Death of 1348. He says that he is a servant to God and how he will protect him from the plague. The plague scared and killed many people. It started in China but was unable to be contained there. The plague reached Jerusalem and killed many there. Many fled to the Dome of the Rock begging for mercy. People started to believe that the plague should not be feared but to just let it pass and rebuild again. They asked God to keep them safe from the plague, who else was to keep them from the plague. The plague was named...
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The Earth formed when the sun and its forming of planets formed when a cloud of dust and gas condensed 4.6 billion years ago. In large areas, iron sinks to the center forming the core. The Mantle is made up from primarily of the minerals olivine and pyroxene. It takes up 80% of the planet. The oceanic crust typically differ from continental crust because Earth's surfaces cooled below 100 degrees C. Water rained out of the atmosphere. Continental Crust is very thicker then the oceanic crust. The oldest rock that was found on Earth was the Acasta Gneiss from the Canadian Shield. Quartz pebble formed 3 billion years ago but the zicron crystals are 4.276 billion years old. It undergoes uplift, erosion, and growth. The age of the earth was being solved in many different ways. In the 1700's they believed on the age by parts written in the bible, to getting seashells and fossils. In the 1800's for using studies of rocks to estimated earth's age. 1900's looking at meteorites and rocks by using new technologies. Ice Core are 3 meters in lengths to form a core that penetrated through the entire 3022 meter thick Greenland Ice Sheet. Left core sample depth is 2708 meters in 88,670 B.C. Middle core sample depth is 1689 meters in 10,075 B.C. The right core depth is 1325.5 meters in 5,671 B.C. Solar radiation warms the Earths surface. Some of the hear radiated back to the atmosphere. It is trapped by greenhouse gases, without it, the Earth's average temperature would be below freezing. With it planet is warm to support life. Earth's temperature is changed because of the rotation of the planet and the rotation of the storms which can follow the planet and the areas of different climates. That climate changed effect through...
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Wal-Mart - A Case Study in Managing Technical Transitions WAL-MART - A Case Study in Managing Technical Transitions Managing Technical Transitions Prof. Michael Lawless February 24, 2001 Prepared by: Andrew Bender Ann Howell Amy Lavin David Torgerson Founded in 1962 by Sam Walton, Wal-Mart followed an amazing pattern of success and growth, eclipsing all other U.S. department store retailers by the early 1990's. In early spring 2001, Wal-Mart enjoyed a huge market capitalization of over $230B, which was down from highs of nearly $300B in early 2000. Over the last year, however, Wal-Mart had suffered a number of failures in its Internet-based operations, as it tried feverishly, along with many other traditionally "bricks-and-mortar" companies, to make a transition to the Internet. As much of the commotion in the markets relative to the Internet subsided due to a slowing economy and a number of high-profile "dot-com" failures, Wal-Mart continued to experiment with it's Internet presence and corporate strategy. In this paper, we discuss Wal-Mart and its technical transition to the Internet. First, we examine the company from a value chain and core competency perspective, to gain insight on what value the company brings to the table, both in its traditional and Internet operations. We give a synopsis of Wal-Mart's recent and current online philosophies, and then turn to Wal-Mart's strategy as it relates to the transition. Finally, we provide an analysis of Wal-Mart's prospects and recommendations for the future. Sources of Value Wal-Mart had always invested heavily in infrastructure. They were among the first to use point-of-sale Uniform Product Codes (UPC) scanning, and intra-store radio frequency (RF) transmission of product UPC and pricing information between central store inventory systems and personnel with scanners on the store shelves. However, their most valuable infrastructure investments were made at a significantly higher level. A satellite system...
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Basic History Overview Wal-Mart's history is one of innovation, leadership and success. It started with a single store in Rogers, Arkansas in 1962 and has grown to what is now the world's largest - and arguably, the most emulated - retailer. Some researchers refer to Wal-Mart as the industry trendsetter. Today, this retailing pioneer has annual revenues of over $100 billion, 3,000 stores and more than 750,000 employees worldwide. Wal-Mart operates each store, from the products it stocks, to the front-end equipment that helps speed checkout, with the same philosophy: provide everyday low prices and superior customer service. Lower prices also eliminate the expense of frequent sales promotions and sales are more predictable. Wal-Mart has invested heavily in its unique cross-docking inventory system. Cross docking has enabled Wal-Mart to achieve economies of scale which reduce its costs of sales. With this system, goods are continuously delivered to stores within 48 hours and often without having to inventory them. This allows Wal-Mart to replenish the shelves 4 times faster than its competition. Wal-Mart's ability to replenish theirs shelves four times faster than its competition is just another advantage they have over competition. Wal-Mart leverages its buying power through purchasing in bulks and distributing the goods on it's own. Wal-Mart guarantees everyday low prices and considers them the one stop shop. Case Overview The case study starts off with quotes from Wal-Mart executives with their thoughts of how employees/consumers should feel about the arguably most innovative retailer. "Wal-Mart employees who do not think globally are working for the wrong company." "Wal-Mart must think and act as if it's a global company. Otherwise, it cannot grow enough in the United States to maintain its stock price. It needs to be in South America. It needs to be in Asia. It needs to be in Europe." Wal-Mart has...
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The Battle of Britain was a battle between the German air force, the Luftwaffe, and the British air force, the Royal Air Force (RAF). This battle took place over the skies of the United Kingdom in the summer and autumn of 1940. In order for Hitler to execute "Operation Sealion", a planned invasion, successfully, he had to get rid of the British air force fearing that they will stop the operation if he tried to execute it. The first attack occurred in the August of 1940. Hitler decided to bomb the British airfields and then eventually cities. The British cities were bombed to bring out the RAF so the Luftwaffe could take them down. But Hitler underestimated the RAF, because the British had RADAR technology. The British were able to decode the German's radio transmissions that warned them when the German's were about to attack. The Luftwaffe suffered more losses than the RAF. Comparing losses in August, the Luftwaffe lost 669 units while the RAF lost 366 units. On September 17, 1940, Hitler cancelled the planned invasion, thereby accepting defeat in the Battle of Britain but continued bombing. This was an important event because it changed the course of World War II, weakening Germany's air force and changing Hitler's mind of invading Britain. The Battle of Britain changed the course of the twentieth because of the advanced technology used in that battle by Britain. First off, the Battle of Britain changed the course of World War II because it weakened the German air force, the Luftwaffe, which stunted Germany's hopes of a swift victory. Germany underestimated the RAF and lost many of their fighters. But if Germany didn't try to weaken the RAF, then there was a chance that the RAF might have attacked Germany. And if they did attack, Germany...
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