B.F. Skinner was one of the most influential theorists in modern psychology. His work was very important and has been studied by many for years. Skinner was a very straightforward man and a very educated man. His theories have helped mankind in many ways. He has studied the behavior patterns of many living organisms. Skinner was a well-published writer. His work has been published in many journals. He also has written many books on behaviorism. His most important work was the study of behaviorism. First began by John B. Watson, behaviorism is one of the most widely studied theories today. B.F. Skinner and His Influence in Psychology B.F. Skinner was one of the most famous of the American psychologists. He was born in Pennsylvania in 1904. Skinner was the father of modern behaviorism. Skinner did not get into psychology until he was in graduate school at Harvard. He was driven to Psychology after reading about the experiments of Watson and Pavlov. He received his doctoral degree in three years and taught at the University of Minnesota and the University of Indiana and finally returned to his alma mater at Harvard. Skinner contributed to psychological behaviorism by performing experiments that linked behaviors with terms commonly used to describe mental states. Skinner was responsible for some famous experiments such as the "Skinner box". Skinner also wrote some very famous books. One of them was "The Behavior of Organisms". This book describes the basic points of his system. Another was Walden Two. This book describes a utopian society that functions on positive reinforcement. Skinner was a very productive person until his death in 1990 at the age of 86. Behaviorism is a school of thought in psychology that is interested in observable behavior. Skinner said, "Behaviorism is not the science of human behavior;...
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What Is Rhetoric & What Is Its Power? Reading Gorgias was rather like participating in a wrestling match, an internal one. The match, rather than focusing on the physical prowess of combatants, focused on the question, "What is rhetoric, and what is its power?" and the true combatants were not people but the arguments stemming and surrounding this question. It would often seem that whenever one statement had been pinned down, a counterstatement by Socrates or one of his opponents would mess things up, and so the argument would continue. I would also add that Gorgias seemed like a very long wrestling match. However, before I describe the match concluded in my mind, let me explain exactly how I have structured this essay. The essay makes an honest attempt to answer the two-part question, "What is rhetoric, and what is its power?" I have divided the essay into three parts. First, I am going to present how the different arguments played out in my head, or more simply how I reach my definition of rhetoric. Second, I am going to explain and defend my definition of rhetoric in greater detail. Third, I am going to explain what the power of rhetoric is and what that means today. I have also taken the of doing something slightly unconventional for this essay: in response to the two-part question, I have a two-part thesis, but I have not placed either at the beginning, but rather where I think they will most logically fit. As I read Gorgias, there were three forces at work in my mind, wrestling out a definition of rhetoric: Socrates, his opponents, and myself. Although the first two have a monopoly (bipoly?) on the text, my own interactions in the drama and my own biases are just as important going into this kind...
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“Art’s inception occurred the instant man was able to think for himself." This fact, uttered by its anonymous speaker, holds true because artistic expression is what allows a person’s thoughts, feelings, and points of view to be represented. Art knows no limits, and has no boundaries. For example, humans today are able to decipher and understand relics of art from million-year-old societies, even though we no longer know their language or customs. Presently, a favorite genre of art to study by art enthusiasts is Chinese painting and sculpture. This is because although hundreds of years separate them, ancient and modern Chinese works of art share many similar characteristics. An example of this parallel can be found in the early painting known as The Great Wave and the contemporary piece known as Untitled, more commonly referred to as Ahead. The Great Wave, painted by Katsushika Hokusai, is one of the most famous pieces of art found in Chinese culture. It’s origin dates back to around 1831, during the Edo Period. The painting is part of a series of masterpieces entitled Thirty-Six Views of Fuji. The painting is mostly dominated by three main colors: white, blue, and brown. Hokusai most likely chose these colors because of their association with the harmony of nature; brown for earth, white for air, and blue for water. The painting itself depicts a torrent seascape with Mt. Fuji looming in the background. In this work, he depicted the darkened curves of the foam of the waves as claws that seem to reach for the fishermen. The forthcoming smash of water delivers tension and suspense to the scene. On an interesting compositional note, the largest wave is said to form a massive ‘yin’ to complement the ‘yang’ of void space below. In the foreground, a small peaked upsurge forms...
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Georgia O'Keefe is a renowned artist with her intelligent use of color and her interesting subject matter. Though she painted many things, her main focus seemed to be flowers in detail. I had the exciting experience of getting to view a special exhibition of her works at the California Palace of the Legion of Honor. One of my favorite things about Georgia's works is her use of color in all of them. In Oriental Poppies (1928) she uses brilliant reds and oranges that make the poppies pop out to the viewer. In another painting called Fish hook from Hawaii No. 1(1937), she uses pastel colors. These make the viewer feel the serene tropical setting in which the fish hook has been placed. Georgia's goal was to show people what they do not have a chance to observe at first glance. She painted the details that people had to look very closely to see by enlarging the item to a viewer. As a part of her exhibit they had photographs by her famous husband Stieglitz. He took numerous pictures of Georgia and of her hands. They also had other pphotographers that seemed to have taken pictures of the same things that Georgia painted. I especially like the grandiose of Ansel Adam's Granite Slabs, High sierra(1935) and the detail in weston's Cabbage Leaf(1931). Seeing this exhibit was very educational and interesting. Seeing the work in person struck me much stronger than otherwise and I know many other people thought so too - it was very crowded. : )...
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If the impulse to create art is a defining sign of humanity, the body may well have been the first canvas. Alongside paintings on cave walls visited by early people over 30,000 years ago, we find handprints, ochre deposits, and ornaments. And because the dead were often buried with valuable possessions and provisions for the afterlife, ancient burials reveal that people have been tattooing, piercing, painting, and shaping their bodies for millennia. All of the major forms of body art known today appear in the ancient world, and there is no evidence indicating a single place of origin for particular techniques. Like people today, ancient peoples used body art to express identification with certain people and distinction from others. Through body art, members of a group could define the ideal person and highlight differences between individuals and groups. In the past, as today, body art may have been a way of communicating ideas about the afterlife and about the place of the individual in the universe. A variety of objects demonstrate the use of body art in ancient times including an Egyptian fish-shaped make-up palette from 3650 BC to 3300 BC; a painted Greek vase from the fifth century BC depicting tattooed Thracian women; a ceramic spout bottle depicting the pierced face of a Moche warrior of Peru from AD 100-700; and ceramics of painted Nayarit women from 300 BC to 300 AD. As people from one culture encounter people from another, the diversity of body art can be a source of inspiration, admiration, and imitation. Yet since body art can so clearly signal cultural differences, it can also be a way for people from one culture to ostracize others. Body art links the individual to a social group as an insider, by asserting a shared body art language. Or it distinguishes outsiders, by...
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On April 7, 2002, I visited the Menil Collection, the Cy Twombly Gallery, and Richmond Hall. I arrived at the Menil Collection at around 2:00pm and stayed until approximately 4:45pm visiting the three collections. As I drove to the museums, I was challenged with normal Houston traffic clutters, but nothing out of the ordinary. The weather was musty, full of humidity in the air with light sprinkling rain, and it seemed that it was about to start pouring outside but never did during my visit to the museum district. I was accompanied to the museum by a friend by the name of Jennifer, and I parked in the designated area for the Menil Collection behind the Menil Bookstore. The best part about the visit to the museums was that it gave me a chance to unwind. With a full time job and the tasks of a full time student on my back, it was enjoyable to be pulled away just to admire the beauty of the artworks free from everyday problems. I chose a piece entitled "L'onde" or otherwise known as "The Wave" by Gustave Dore. Gustave Dore was a French painter who lived from 1832 to 1883. The date of the oil on canvas painting was unknown. "The Wave" is a permanent part of the Menil Collection painted on a rectangular canvas 58 1/4 in. by 46 1/8 in. in height. I chose this piece because it was one of the pieces that stayed on my mind through the entire visit throughout the museums even after seeing all of the other pieces at the other museums. I really enjoyed the way the piece responded to my emotional side and I really liked the piece's aesthetic representation of the ocean. I love the ocean and this piece really seemed to sooth...
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Art Theory leading into the 18th Century The argument of color verses design originated in the Baroque, but extended much further into the eighteenth century in terms of theory. Roger de Piles was the father of this argument based on coloris versus disegno and the Poussinists versus the Rubenists and so on. He joined the Academy in 1699, right on the verge of the Rococo and basically formed the argument for color, rather than classical design in his Cours de Peinture par Principes in 1708. Up until Rubens artwork, the classical style of painting was preferred with a focus mainly on "straight lines, right angles, triangular arrangement of forms, balance, symmetry, and so on" (Minor 367). De Piles believed that color appealed more to human's emotions and that was what truly great art was meant to do. He therefore obviously chose Ruben's work as superior to Poussin's. This was known as the Quarrel between the Ancients and the Moderns, with the Moderns prevailing in the eighteenth century . Ruben's work was monumental in shaping the painting style during the next century. His paintings inspired artist's styles such as Watteau, Gainsborough, and Boucher. Through de Piles arguments within the academy and Ruben's rejection of the classical style the eighteenth century painting theory was born. This essay will attempt to follow this movement from the classical style that dominated the baroque with Poussin to the shift towards Rubens at the end of the century and end with its influence on art theory in the eighteenth century. Throughout most of the Baroque the classical was preferred in painting. Poussin's paintings are usually used as perfect examples of baroque classicism, but the idea of painting in the classic mode goes much further than this. "Literary theory on ideas of painting went back at least to Alberti"...
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Response Essay "Art, Culture, & Cuisine" Although another tough piece to digest, "Art, Culture, & Cuisine," by Phyllis Pray Bober; emitted intermittent flashbacks of Professor McAndrew - as she revealed to us her reasoning to base this class upon food. It had not occurred to me that there is an infinite number ways to use and observe food, in relation to art and literature. Personally I have continued to overlook the fact that a particular … banana, sandwich, pot-roast, etc. may be used by a writer or artist, for a specific - intended purpose. Moreover, the human necessity to require food has caused this relationship to transcend cultures. We all need food to survive, and it is intriguing how we humans have created thousands of flavors of food from differing ethnic areas. These tastes can be influenced by religion, environment, and many other factors that develop within a community. No where more aparent of this, Bober explores the contrast between the cultures of East and West. In particular she talks of Chinese and French cuisine in relation to art. Sometimes the value of a particular edible item may be profound within one population, however another group may lack knowledge of the very same item. For example; rice, a staple of Asian countries, might be more likely to be found on a Chinese painters canvas versus an artist from France who might use another form of strach that has become common in their area. She gives another example of the contrast by discussing the differences between the menus of these very same cultures; siting the French menu to have a "sense of structure, of classical order, in the presentation of a formal French meal. Whereas "a Chinese menu ... unlfold(s) melodically with an ebb and flow like landscape painting on a horizontal scroll."(p. 6)...
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Precisionists have been classified as a group of artist who began to depict the use of machinery using styles and techniques of the previous movements before them such as abstraction, cubism and abstract expressionism. This movement came around shortly after World War 1, when the use of machines began to boom within the United States. The precisionist movement was originally started in nineteen hundred and fifteen when a group of artists got together and decided to look forward to the art of the future. The movement was built around the idea of artists using the precision of their instruments to display these ideas of machinery throughout America. (Precisionism in America . . . 12-13). Construction and machinery were the two main influences of the precisionism movement which became big in the nineteen twenties around the time World War one was ending. With streamlining though mechanization becoming an ideal everyday thing for Americans, and things such as skylines going up in New York, anywhere from fifty to seventy story buildings in cities such as Cleveland and cities like Memphis and Syracuse were beginning to install twenty story buildings. Precisionism became an art movement more as a response to society and the production of new products like motion picture films, antifreeze and cigarette lighters (Lucic. . .16). Cubism, abstraction and abstract expressionism are the common art movements that come to mind when asked about artists. However, these movements all led up to and strongly influenced the movement of the precisionist artists. Precisionism is roughly a combination of these three movements together, using geometrical shapes and using them in abstract forms. These two ways are influenced by cubism and abstraction, while abstract expressionism comes from the expression of the artists' mind and feelings of the subject matter (Doezema, 74-75). American Artists always find it important to...
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The classical Greek period of art is between 480 – 323 B.C. This era is believed to be the most influential time in the history of western art. It was during this period that artists sculpted statues of perfectly proportioned and flawless bodies. The faces on these figures displayed a sense of serenity and human dignity. The meticulous attention to detail of the human anatomy set the standard for flawless beauty. In addition to sculpture, the Classic Greek artists were master painters. The majority of paintings told a story and was displayed on black and red figure vases. Painted murals adorned the walls of some buildings during this time and, like the painted vases, they too illustrated a story. Another influential period in art is that of the first half of the twentieth century. Many new styles of art emerged during this time, the ever-changing moral and social climate allowed sculptors and painters to abandon traditional artistic concepts for more unconventional methods. Art movements such as the surrealist, cubist, and Harlem renaissance produced works that were considered disturbing, expressive, and thought provoking. Although these two eras of art are separated by style, technique, and two thousand years, the study of art would be incomplete without emphasizing the importance of sculpture and painting produced in the periods of classical Greek and early twentieth century. The brief period of time between the close of the Archaic period and the height of Classical period brought a remarkable transformation of style and tone known as the Severe Style. Facial features that represented the dignity, self-control, and moral ideals of the time characterize sculpture created during this era. Unlike the pointed features of the Archaic period, the severe style is constructed with a broad nose, wide open eyes, full lips, and a rounded firm jaw and...
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