Between 1783 and 1800 the new government of the United States faced the same political, economic, and social issues that trouble the British government's relation with the colonies prior to the revolution.”History
History has a tendency to repeat itself. America from 1783 to 1800 had faced political, economic, and social problems that Great Britain had faced prior to the American Revolution with their relations with the colonies. After the Revolutionary War, Americans and British governments suffered economically from faced huge national debts that were also added by French and Indian War which later leads to collecting of taxes and uprising of the National Bank to help bring in this lost revenue. Even after America won her freedom from Britain, foreign nations seemed to ignore and abuse the new nation. Some of these countries that caused problems in the Western frontier were Spain, Britain, and France. In both countries, there was also a rise in different sects socially that led to many controversial problems. Britain dealt with similar issues America did after the Revolutionary War while the country was trying to glue pieces to together to make an ideal government. American and Britain suffered from debt from the French and Indian War and Revolutionary War which hurt both countries hard economically. At the Philadelphia Conference, Alexander Hamilton addressed the problem of debt and shared his plans that could help the country relieve some of it. Hamilton, a Federalist, felt that debt was sinking the confederation and this Nationalist leader viewed it as an opportunity to enlarge national power. Since the Confederation had gone bankrupt it had poor credit among the foreign investors and needed a way to earn this money back. So he decided that he must first pay back foreign creditors but only paying a small amount each year which lead them to pass the duty tax on Whiskey. In 1791 Washington passed the Whiskey tax which the westerns found to be unfair but this was all part of the great plan to...
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The Art is in the History: A review of Our Country's Good Aboriginal Australians look at their lives as the re-enactment of the journeys and quests taken by ancestor heroes in the Tjukurapa, the Dreamtime, the time before which the earth did not exist. And yet it took less than 75 years of colonization to wipe out most of the people who had occupied the Australian continent for over 40,000 years. The hardships faced by their ancestors could not have prepared them for the boatloads of disease and destruction that landed at Botany Bay in 1788. In the twenty-eighth year of the reign of King George III (1787), the British Government sent a fleet to colonize Australia. Eleven ships, carrying supplies and almost 1,500 officers, seamen, marines, and convicts, traveled for eight months before reaching New South Wales. Few of the convicts on board were dangerous criminals. Contrary to popular belief, of the 736 convicts shipped out in 1787, not one was convicted of murder or rape, although more than a hundred had been convicted of thefts in which violence or threat had played some part. Also no woman on the First Fleet had been transported for prostitution, as it was not a transportable offense in this day. Over half the women were domestic servants by trade. The vast majority had been convicted of a minor theft. The penalties were severe - generally death by public hanging. Most of the First Fleet convicts had been found guilty of stealing, been sentenced to hang, and then had their sentence commuted to seven years transportation, with the understanding that this was essentially exile for life. Our Country's Good, by Timberlake Wertenbaker, is based on the novel The Playmaker by Thomas Keneally (also the author of Schindler's List), which uses as it's source the letters and journals...
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Globalisation Report – Westfield Holdings Westfield Holdings Limited is an Australian publicly listed company that continues to experience extraordinary growth in the international marketplace. This report will incorporate the company's reasons for expansion onto the international stage, its methods of expansion and its strategies used to manage its operations that envelop 87 shopping centers in four countries. Reasons for Expansion In critically examining Westfield's global strategies, it is important to reflect on the broader reasons why many Australian businesses are increasingly pursuing a global strategy. The reasons for their expanding overseas include: ü To find new markets and increase sales ü To achieve economies of scale from a larger operation ü To cushion the effects of fluctuations in the domestic economic cycle ü To take advantage of regulatory differences, or ü To minimise tax Although not all of the above reasons are significant in Westfield's strategies to expand globally, some certainly can be considered significant. For example, Australia's comparatively small market (with a population of less than 20 million) represents limited opportunities for Westfield to expand its shopping centre creation or management domestically. By limiting itself to Australia, Westfield would have missed the opportunities to take advantage of changing demand in new and emerging markets and thereby increase its sales that would flow from successful entry into overseas markets. Westfield's global expansion strategy also expands their income generating potential. For example, with each additional development, Westfield commands development fees of 3% of total development cost, leasing fees of 10% of the first year's income of each specialty store and property management fees of 5% of gross income. Expanding was also essential to Westfield in order to remain competitive. By operating solely in Australia, it would be unable to achieve the economies of scale that are typically enjoyed by oversea competitors. The nature of many businesses means that the bigger their scale...
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Jonathan Swift, author of the satirical Gulliver's Travels, employs different characters and situations to represent the aspects of people and societies that he chooses to criticize. The bickering between the Big- and Little-Endians, the Lilliputian method of selecting public officers, the behavior of the Yahoos, the characteristics of the Houyhnhnms, and the experiments of the Grand Academy of Lagado are all vehicles to convey Swift's opinions of man and society. The disagreement between the Big-Endians and the Little-Endians is a ridiculous one. Their opinions differ about the correct way to break an egg, a petty argument that leads to the formation of two separate empires (Swift 59). In this situation, Swift is mirroring the circumstances surrounding a religious war; specifically, the needless bickering between the Catholics and the Protestants. The author effectively demonstrates that disagreeing about the "correct" way to worship God is equally as absurd and senseless as the disagreement between the Big- and Little-Endians. The customs of the kingdom of Lilliput reflect corrupt aspects of British society. In order to be chosen for public office, candidates must perform a dance on a tight rope (Swift 46-47). The performer that the emperor likes best receives the most prestigious position, with the rest of the dancers obtaining positions according to how well their performances ranked with the emperor. This represents the corruption that ran rampantly through the British government during Swift's time. Although tight rope walking was not required of candidates in Britain, bribery was not uncommon. Political hopefuls would offer large amounts of money to influential figures within the government in order to achieve positions of great power. Later in the book, the Yahoos are introduced (Swift 239). In the country in which these creatures live, horses called Houyhnhnms are superior to the human-like Yahoos. These lowly, ignorant creatures represent the baseness...
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Gulliver's Travels Coursework - From your study of Gulliver's Travels. Show how Swift Uses Language for Satiric Purpose, to 'lash the vice' he Finds in the World. Gulliver's Travels may have been seen as an adventure story by a few misguided individuals, but it is a satirical novel. Swift wrote the book in order to allow people to understand the overall tribulations that were in the British government and British society at the time and to comment on the blemishes of the human race in general. These ranged from hypocrisy to down right pettiness and stupidity. Swift achieved these things through the wonderful use of satire. The novel is a compilation of four books, where in each book, Gulliver lands on a different island with a different or otherwise similar race of creatures or people. This landing on different islands allows Gulliver's perspective to be changed continuously from book to book. Through his perspective changing, Swift uses satire where his objections to the British government and / or the overall human kind come into view. What emphasizes the satirical points is the fairly emotionless language that is used in each book. The reason it emphasizes the points, is because of the style in which it is written, forces us as readers to realize or comprehend problems with the statement, opinion or description that Gulliver makes or otherwise made by someone else. In Part I, where Gulliver arrives on Lilliput by shipwreck, he is taken prisoner on the beach by a civilization of six inch tall people who believe themselves to be the most powerful nation in the world. Gulliver comes to see these people of course, as petty and stupid. What Swift is satirizing in this part of book is the pettiness of the Britain its officials and its patrons. Swift is...
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Revolutionary War: Dates: April 1775 – October 1781 Countries involved: 13 colonies vs. Great Britain Causes of war: § Parliament still maintained its right to legislate for the colonies § American insisted that they should not have to pay taxes levied by Parliament § Boston Tea Party: with Parliament controlling the tea trading, Americans thought they could arrange for other monopolies for other products. Parliament thought that they had a right to tax colonies-this led to preventing the sale of tea and Bostonians threw the tea into the harbor which made the British government upset. They thought there needed to be swift and severe punishment, hence, the Revolutionary War began. War of 1812: Dates: June 1812-1814 Countries involved: America vs. Great Britain Causes of war: § Americans hungered for more land (Westerners wanted Canada and Southerners wanted Spanish Florida) § Americans became angry over British seizure of American sailors and ships § Republican majority in Congress said we must accept risks of war so that we are not pushed around by Great Britain, hence, the start of the War of 1812. The wars in the United states are very important in history. They brought about much change in our society, whether for the good or bad. Social and economic issues are affected. The wars in the United states are very important in history. They brought about much change in our society, whether for the good or bad. Social and economic issues are affected. The wars in the United states are very important in history. They brought about much change in our society, whether for the good or bad. Social and economic issues are affected....
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The term appeasement is used to describe the response of Western European governments to the expansionist activities of Germany and Italy under Hitler and Mussolini in the 1930s. Their attitude was to prevent war at all cost by giving the aggressive countries what they wanted provided there were not too unreasonable. Britain adopted the policy of appeasement, by just tying to appease Hitler, but in fact it made him to be more aggressive. There were two distinct faces of appeasement. From mid 1920until 1937 there was vague feeling that war should be avoided at all cost. This made Britain and France to accept the various acts of aggression and breeches of Versailles (Manchuria, Abyssinia, German re-armament and the reoccupation of the Rhineland). When Chamberlein became the British prime minister in may 1937, he gave appeasement new drive, he believed in taking initiatives he would be able to find what Hitler wanted and reasonable claims would be met by negotiation rather than force. Appeasement had so few critics and aroused no massive public hostility because as a policy it was well in tune with the public mood of the thirties. British government seemed to be supported by strongly pacifist public opinion. In February 1933 the oxford union voted that it would not fight and this made Baldwin and his National government won a huge election victory in November 1935 after he declared: ' I give you my word of honor that there will be no great armaments. The horrors of the First World War were much written about and were still a bitter personal memory for many civilians. The civil war in Spain revealed the future horrors of aerial bombardment of civilian targets, for it was not just Baldwin who believed the bomber would always get through. In any case the burdens of...
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Britain went to war in 1914 to defend the integrity of 'gallant little Belgium' Britain's decision to go to war in 1914 was not simply to defend the integrity of France's small neighbouring country. A variety of political, social and economical reasons contributed to the decision, almost all of which can be disputed by different historians. Britain's obligations to Belgium went back nearly a hundred years into history. After France invaded Belgium in 1815 Belgium became part of the Netherlands under the Treaty of Vienna. During the 1830s Belgium was made independent. This was largely brought about by Britain who, in 1939, signed the London Treaty. This was an international guarantee of Belgium's independence and neutrality. During the Franco-Prussian war in the 1870s both sides held up this agreement. Since 1815 Belgium had never been involved in any international disputes, was never aggressive toward any other country, and was an incredibly peaceful nation. Britain might claim that this was one of the reasons why they did decide to go to war, to protect the rights of this peaceful country. Lord Asquith stated in a letter to Venetia Stanley that 'We have obligations to Belgium to prevent her being utilised and absorbed by Germany.' However, many historians would disagree with this. Hayes for example is very sceptical about Britain's motives for joining the war, insisting that she joined for own personal interests rather than 'to protect freedom…and the rights of small nations.' He points out that these 'small nations' were paid little regard in the post-war settlement. Instead he believes that 'Britain became involved because it was the consensus of opinion that her interests and the balance of power were threatened by Germany.' Indeed, many historians agree with Hayes that Britain's main reason for going to war was self-preservation. Britain had formed the Triple...
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India had always been a major attraction to merchants and invaders before it acquired its independence in 1947. It was due to its fertile land and other resources that have always been relatively cheaper than other countries of the world. What Europeans and other invaders found the most attractive were the various spices and tea produced in India. British East India Company was chartered in 1600 AD and it soon started trading with India. It did not have much influence over Indian policies in the beginning. However, the company soon evolved to the British Empire. This brought a lot of major changes in all aspects of Indian people's lives. The British rule was both harmful and beneficial to India and it's people in many different ways. It is evidential from works of various historians that the British brought some major economic reforms while also deprived Indian people of many of their natural rights India had been ruled by a number of different emperors before the British Empire was formed in India. The Moguls were the last people that ruled India before the Europeans came. Portuguese were the first European invaders, then Dutch, and finally the British. The British were the most active in gaining excessive territorial control. The original motive of other European invaders was just to trade and they were not interested in acquiring any territories. During the first half of seventeenth century, the British only traded like preceding invaders had done. However, in the later half, they became aggressively interested in acquiring territorial control. The East India Company became increasingly involved in the political affairs of India because it had at least as much financial resources and strong armies as the emperors had. As a consequence, by the end of eighteenth century, the company had acquired Madras, Bombay, and...
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Centenarians in today's world: Longevity and world science Introduction: Centenarians in today's world: Longevity and world science Chapter 1 Society and Early life of Iris Scantlebury in Barbados at the turn of the 20th Century 1897- 1905 Chapter 2 Childhood and teenage life in Barbados 1905- 1918 Chapter 3 Iris Scantlebury as a young adult worker and Homemaker 1918-1937 Chapter 4 Social and political changes in Barbados 1937- 1966 Chapter 5 Family life changes 1966-2000 Chapter 6 A Centenarian's Religion Chapter 7 The secret of long-life, health and diet systems Chapter 8 The role of sport and recreation in a Centenarian's life Chapter 9 Travel and Education Chapter 10 Economic, Social and Health Conditions Of Iris Scantlebury Summary Introduction: Centenarians in today's world: Longevity and world science It is suggested that old age results in withdrawal from the labour force, loss of earnings and therefore decreased income, poverty and economic deprivation on the elderly. On the other hand there is evidence, which supports the alternative view that old age does not necessarily mean economic deprivation. It is argued that there are a non-taxable benefits, social security payments, health insurance, reduced travel cost, family support and so on, which might serve to mediate the economic impact of old age. As the 21st Century came Barbadians were seeing an increase in the number of females and males centenarians born on the island. At present the oldest centenarian is 109 years old. The majority of today's centenarians still live at home with their families while a small number resides in District Hospitals or private homes in Barbados. When it comes to revealing the secrets of longevity most centenarians summons it up to hard work, a good supply of ground food and the grace of Jesus Christ. Centenarians over the passed years have contributed earnestly to our society socially, economically, religiously and politically. These outstanding individuals have also worked on our sugar plantations cutting canes, weeding, spraying, dropping manure, haling-canes and...
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