What is buying behaviour? This is the question that needs to be answered if a marketing professional is hoping to understand the behaviour of their market. Buyer behaviour is the decision processes and acts of people involved in buying and using products. Marketing professionals need to understand why customers make the decisions they make, What factors influence consumer purchase? And the changing factors in our society. Every consumer can be categorized into one of four groups of consumer buying behaviour. Routine Response/Programmed Behavior- are purchases of products and services frequently used often these are low cost items. They need very little search and decision effort; purchased almost automatically. Examples include soft drinks, snack foods, milk etc. Limited Decision-Making- is buying product occasionally. Requires a moderate amount of time for information gathering. Examples include Clothes--know product class but not the brand. Extensive Decision Making/Complex high involvement-is the purchase of products, which the consumers are unfamiliar with these products or services are often expensive and are infrequently bought products. A High degree of risk is associated with many of these products. Examples include cars, homes, computers, and education. A lot of time is spent seeking information and deciding upon the purchase of the product. Impulse buying- is where consumers purchase products or services unplanned, they are buying because it is either attractively presented or conveniently located products. The purchase of the same product does not always elicit the same Buying Behavior. Product can shift from one category to the next. For example: Going out for a night on the town for one person may be extensive decision making (for someone that does not go out often at all), but limited decision making for someone else. The reason for going out, whether it is a birthday party, or a meal with a couple of friends will also determine the...
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Introduction: This assignment deals with an investigation into the buyer behaviour and buying patterns of consumers with respect to ice-creams. The fundamental issues that we start off by addressing are those of why people buy ice-creams and what they look for in an ice-cream. The realization of what needs of a consumer are addressed by an ice-cream will be crucial in not only tailoring our product to those needs but also in demarcating the various segments. Several attributes of ice-creams needed by buyers were listed but it was unclear as to what the relative importance of each of these was. With an eye on determining this relative importance, a survey was conducted wherein the attributes were ranked by the respondents and given a total overall rank each. The survey also aimed at exploring various other facets of buyer behaviour through pointed questions and a mix of multiple-choice and open-ended answers. The various issues the survey looked to throw some light upon are: · Brand-consciousness levels among the consumers · Favourite flavours · Price-sensitivity · Other factors such as place of consumption, ethos of consumption etc. Survey Analysis: The survey was conducted among students belonging to the 23-26 years age group. The attributes ranked by the respondents are goodness of taste, flavour used, colour, type/variety (such as sticks, cones etc.), price, brand and dealer. The results of the survey are tabulated below. Respondent no. 1 2 3 4 5 average Taste 1 3 1 2 1 1.6 Flavour 2 1 2 1 2 1.6 Colour 5 7 6 6 7 6.2 Type (form) 3 4 4 6 5 4.4 Price 7 6 5 3 4 5 Brand 4 2 3 4 3 3.2 Dealers 6 5 7 6 6 6 Clearly, the taste and the flavour of the ice-cream are its most important attributes. They have a mean ranking of 1.6 each on a scale of 7. The brand...
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Point 2. Problem: A major problem in groups is members' viewpoints and discussion items are not heard. The member is not considered part of the group so they don't offer any items of contribution. Solution: To overcome these problems the group needs to look at the following points. 1. All members within the group are on the same playing field. The chairperson is only for conducting the meeting and not the leader for the other members to report too. 2. Don't allow other members to become over bearing on others. 3. Allow every member the opportunity to speak. Problem: The perception of problems might be different for different members. Within new groups you don't know what all the strengths and weaknesses of all the members might be as seen in Tuckman's forming stage Tuckman (1966). Solution: To overcome these problems the group needs to look at the following points. 1. Thru further discussions the problem might be easily solved by another members ability. 2. The group needs to meet socially to find out how the other members operate, think and operate. The earlier we all have the information the easier to coordination, communication and understanding becomes. Problem: A major problem will be overcoming the difficulty of everyone's work commitments. Together with the range of job roles, the production of the assignments could be a problem. There will be work-related travel for most members so the importance on completing aspects of the assignment is paramount. Solution: To overcome these problems the group needs to look at the following points. 1. A very structured timeline will need to be adhered too for the assignments, learning outcomes and more important to achieve high grades. 2. Open communications between members of what their movements might possibly include. Placing these details on the timeline will show everyone the time available for the meeting, analysis and construction of assignments. 3....
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1. Introduction Consumers make many buying decisions every day. Most large companies research consumer buying decisions in depth to answer questions about what, where, when, why, how, and how much consumers buy. Marketers can study actual consumer purchases to find out what they buy, where and how much. But learning about the whys of consumer buying behaviour is not so easy; the answers are often locked deep within the consumer's head. The central question for marketers is: How do consumers respond to various marketing efforts the company might use? The starting point is the stimulus-response model of buyer behaviour (Figure 1). It shows that marketing and other stimuli enter the consumer's "black box" and produce certain responses. Marketing stimuli consist of four Ps: product, price, place and promotion. Other stimuli include major forces and events in the buyer's environment: economic, technological, political and cultural. All these inputs enter the buyer's black box, where they are turned into a set of observable buyer responses: product choice, brand choice, dealer choice, purchase timing, and purchase amount. The marketer wants to understand how the stimuli are changed into responses inside the consumer's black box, which has two parts. First, the buyer's characteristics influence how he or she perceives and reacts to the stimuli. Second, the buyer's decision process itself affects the buyer's behaviour. We look at buyer characteristics as they affect buying behaviour and then at the buyer decision process. (Kotler & Armstrong (2000), Marketing – An Introduction, 5th Edition, Prentice-Hall Inc, USA) Figure 1 2. Characteristics Affecting Consumers Behaviour The key factors affecting consumer behaviour are culture, social, personal and psychological. The sub-factors are defined under each of the following factors: 2.1. Cultural Factors These may influence marketing strategy planning in terms of implementing your product on an international scale and having to localise the product and its benefits to...
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The dawn of new millennium has pushed the world into the age of an unprecedented velocity where loads of information travel at supersonic speeds over great distances which has left no sphere of human activity untouched. The cyberspace has also changed the way of doing business where consumer reigns supreme. Today no business, irrespective of its size, can remain indifferent to changing consumer demands. It was in this backdrop a seminar tiltled 'the impact of consumer behaviour and marketing dev ... This paper is the property of findfreeessays.com Copyright © 2002-2003 Integrated marketing agency with offices in seven Unite States cities focuses on consumer behavior. Provides direct marketing, advertising, and interactive services. [ Looksmart, Looksmart-Directory ] http://rd.business.com/index.asp?bdcu=http://www.ffwdgroup.com/of [Sponsored Source Listing]... At last there seems to be a publication considering the really key area of purchase drivers - the Journal of Consumer Behaviour is likely to become required ... [ Google ] http://www.henrystewart.com/journals/conbList of related Internet resources for this field selected and described by David Campbell from Humboldt State University. [ Looksmart-Directory ] http://www.humboldt.edu/~campbell/iolinks.htm - Full service agency with experience in consumer and b2b markets. Specialists in researching customer behaviour and buying procedures. Outlines the services offered. [ Open-Directory ] http://www.infoseekmarketresearch.co.ukThe monetary constraints and consumer behaviour in New Zealand low income households... [ Teoma ] http://www.geocities.com/ubinz/IR/pov99/199909WaldegraveExecSum.h 14. Consumer Psychology - Gale Ency. of Psychology - Learn more about this branch of psychology that studies the behavior of consumers, their buying patterns and reactions to advertising. [ Looksmart-Directory ] http://www.findarticles.com/cf_dls/g2699/0004/2699000426/p1/artic 15. SuperSurvey: Consumer Behavior - Offers professional Web-based survey creation, hosting, and analysis tools with no software download required. [ Looksmart ] http://rd.business.com/index.asp?bdcu=http://www.supersurvey.com/ [Sponsored Source Listing] Search Results 1-15 of 76 for consumer behaviour Future initiatives for knowledge and innovation National Council for Agricultural Research P.O. Box 20401 2500 EK The Hague The Netherlands tel.: 0031 70 378 56 53 internet: ... [...
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Introduction In order to understand the basic functioning of a system, you must first come to understand what each individual part contributes to the whole. Getting to what makes Learning Team A (LTA) is no different. The question then becomes, "How best to gain insight into the individuals on the team?" This week the creation of the final paper fell to me, we also concluded that we needed to approach this paper differently from our previous assignments. Each person in the team would complete the assignment on their own and then I would meld all four of the papers into one. This presented me with an opportunity that I could not resist. We have learned that perception has a significant influence on the way people will interact with each other. It follows then that we should be able to learn about the way LTA functions by examining the perceptions of how the team works, as written by each of the team members. This paper will present the readers with a view of LTA from the inside. Eric Eric has a fine eye for detail, is very personable and has an aura of dependability about him. I get the feeling that he is very much in tune with his value system. Here is his view of how the team operates. In the game of basketball you have different positions that each player fills based on his abilities and strengths. You have a "point guard", who is the person who sees how things should play out. The "center" is always underneath the basket to slam it in. The "power forward" has great ability to push it in but doesn't have the height or muscle that a center does. The small forward is a flexible player with the ability to shift from a guard position playing on the perimeter...
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1. Introduction We are going to examine numerous case studies, the theories of Maslow, Herzberg, Vroom & Adam's and other supporting evidence, in relation to job satisfaction. We will look at why the study of job satisfaction is important for managers, what factors influence job satisfaction in organisations and what is the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity. There is no direct theory regarding job satisfaction, however there are endless case studies and articles on this topic. The theories referred to all have their academic critics as well as avid supporters. Job satisfaction has been one of the most extensively discussed and studied concepts in organisational and personnel management, accounting for thousands of published works. The information generated by research into this area has practical implications for individuals and organisations alike, as employees strive for the best quality of life possible and managers are faced with the ever- increasing challenge of operating efficient, effective organisations using the human and technological resources available to them. Understanding job satisfaction and what it means is not only a desirable, but also a critical aspect of life for both organisations and individuals. 2. What is Job Satisfaction & Why is the study of it important? Job satisfaction is about how individuals feel about their jobs i.e. their attitude. It is an outcome of their perception of their jobs and the degree to which there is a good fit between them and the organisation. Numerous aspects of the job impact job satisfaction, including pay, promotional opportunities, supervisors & co-workers as well as factors of the work environment, such as policies & procedures, working conditions and fringe benefits. (Ivancevich et al. 1999: 91) A major reason why the study of job satisfaction is so important is to provide managers with ways to improve employee attitudes. The levels of employee job satisfaction are...
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Introduction Our client Imasco Minerals Inc has hired us to conduct an analysis of their company and to suggest recommendations that will improve their profitability and long-term success. This review covers the following chapters from Schermerhorn's Organizational Behavior text: • Motivation and Reinforcement (Chapter 6) • Human Resource Management Systems (Chapter 7) • Information and Communication (Chapter 16) • Conflict (Chapter 18) Methodology Questionnaires (Appendices 1-12) Imasco Minerals' product binder Corporate web site www.imascominerals.com Imasco's company policies (Appendices 13-17) Imasco's performance appraisal form (Appendix 18) A question and answer period where Natisha Mathews, who works for Imasco Minerals, answered group questions regarding Imasco Minerals Inc. Organizational Overview Imasco Minerals Inc. is a privately owned Canadian company, which has existed for almost 40 years. As a mining and stucco company they manufacture various calcium carbonate products and dolomites. Assets include 2 manufacturing plants and a network of mineral deposits which supply calcium carbonate, quartzite, and granite. They have mining locations in Creston and Benson Lake and plant locations in Creston and Surrey. Imasco Minerals' head office is in Port Kells, Surrey with an engineering office in Vancouver. They have over 60 employees including: 2 Vice Presidents, 3 Plant Managers, an Accounting Manager, and a Marketing Manager. Independent sales reps service BC, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Winnipeg, and Washington state. Imasco produces and sells building materials to dealers and stucco contractors including: aggregates, stucco sands, premix stucco, and acrylic stucco. They also sell fine sands, specialty sands, medium to fine grind flours, soil conditioners, and animal feeds to various industrial and agriculture companies. Imasco Minerals has a functional departmentalization with some divisional departmentalization in the sales department. (Appendix 19) They have a fairly even staff to line position ration with 15 line positions and 13 staff. (Appendix 20) Information and Communication To achieve maximum interpersonal communication between the source and the receiver and to reduce noise Imasco must follow specific...
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In my life I have encountered many problems and situations. There are a few situations, which were relatively difficult to deal with, and these situations have affected me in the preset. In the essay below, I mention three of these situations. I will give an analysis (the examination and identification of my thoughts, feelings and behaviours) of these situations, and will attempt to solve these problems using the many useful theories and methods that I have learned in the Human Resources and Organizational Behaviour class. SITUATION 1: PERCEPTION & DIVERSITY During the summer of August 2000, I was fortunate enough to find a part time job for one of the most well respected companies in Canada, CIBC. My job title is Sales and Service Specialist. My duties at CIBC include helping serve clients with their everyday banking needs via telephone and through the Internet, and also providing information and sales of the many products that we provide for example deposit accounts and investments. Ever since I began working here, I have kept pace with the level of work my colleagues perform and I feel that I am just as productive as they are. I have noticed my supervisor, Mike, always pressures me to work harder than everyone else. Recently, this pressure has been hard to deal with and it is making my normal job duties difficult and stressful to perform. This pressure from Mike makes me not want to come to work sometimes. ANALYSIS 1 Upon talking to my colleagues at work, they mentioned that they too noticed that Mike was pressuring me to work harder and also giving me an excessive workload. These colleagues who I discussed the issue with have worked for CIBC a lot longer than I have, and are also older in age than I am. The colleagues I talked...
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Whistle blowing as a valid method to control unethical behaviour & establish a level of social responsibilityBusiness
Introduction Political philosopher, Edmund Burke (1729-97) once said, "All that is needed for evil to prosper is for people of good will to do nothing." This statement rings true in the case of whistleblowing and its validity in controlling unethical behaviour and establishing social responsibility, as this section of the essay will explain. Firstly, let us turn our attention to the terminology. Corporate social responsibility is "the obligation of an organization to act in ways that serve the interests of the stakeholders" (Schermerhorn et al, 2004, p.158). Schermerhorn also defines the term Stakeholders, as being "the individuals, groups and institutions directly affected by an organizations performance." (Schermerhorn et al. 2004, p.38). Workers within an organization may act in ways to serve their own self-interest rather than in the interests of the stakeholders and perform unethical practices, for example embezzlement. This is when whistleblowing becomes a valid method of controlling an unethical practice, as often, internal wrongdoings go unnoticed by those outside the organization, whereas an employee may witness or hear something that can be reported to the appropriate authority figures. According to an article by Martin Keith titled 'Weighing up the risks of whistleblowing' The whistleblower usually acts in the public interest rather than self-interest. (The Advertiser, 3 Mar. 2001, p.69) Thus, Whistleblowing has been described as "ethical informing" and is a valid method to control unethical behaviour because it exposes alleged corrupt practices of others or some scandalous activity that may otherwise go unnoticed. According to Pierce (1989) Every organization member carries the values, norms, and mores of society into the organization and has responsibility for for his or her personal conduct. Thus, the responsibility for moral reasoning and ethical conduct falls on each member. With this knowledge, more and more organizations are encouraging their members to report unethical behaviour- i.e. Whistleblow. According to...
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